Tag Archives: Constraints

Field Experience of Agricultural Communication Methods and Attitudes toward the New Trends in Extension in Syria (Published)

The role of agricultural extension has always been a hot topic and under debate for all agricultural specialists, simply because of its vital role in implementing the agricultural policies and rural development, because it is the linkage between the rural community and the organizations involved in rural development and agricultural sector in both farming and non-farming perspectives.

This research is divided to two basic sections; each is divided to two sub-categories as follows:

  • The first part is dedicated to communication methods
  • The second part is dedicated to new trends in global economy in terms of its influence on agriculture and rural development.

The main findings of this research are: Extension staff lacks to sufficient training qualitatively and quantitatively with social and economic constraints, which makes a reform of the current system is a must to overcome insufficiencies in different areas.

 

Keywords: Communication Methods, Constraints, Decentralization, Globalization, ICTs, Pluralism, Privatization, Reform, extension

Constraints to Multimedia Applications in Business Education Programme of Public Universities In South-Eastnigeria (Published)

The main purpose of this study was to determine the constraints to multimedia applications in teaching business education courses in universities in south-East Nigeria. The study was guided by two research questions and two null hypotheses. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population was 53 business education lecturers in the public Universities in South-East Nigeria. No sampling was carried out due to the manageable size of the population. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated by three experts and the reliability was determined using Cronbach Alpha which yielded 0.85. Out of 53 copies of the questionnaire distributed 51were returned representing 96.23 percent return rate. Mean with standard deviation was used to answer the research questions and t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. Some of the findings include: poor provision of multimedia, employment of unqualified staff and poor knowledge of available multimedia facilities.  Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others things that lecturers should be retrained to equip them with the knowledge and skills of multimedia applications and government should provide fund to the public universities to enable them improve on staff and physical infrastructural development.

Keywords: Business Education, Constraints, Multimedia applications

Constraints to Multimedia Applications in Business Education Programme of Public Universities in South-East Nigeria (Published)

The main purpose of this study was to determine the constraints to multimedia applications in teaching business education courses in universities in south-East Nigeria. The study was guided by two research questions and two null hypotheses. A descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The population was 53 business education lecturers in the public Universities in South-East Nigeria. No sampling was carried out due to the manageable size of the population. A structured questionnaire was used for data collection. The questionnaire was validated by three experts and the reliability was determined using Cronbach Alpha which yielded 0.85. Out of 53 copies of the questionnaire distributed 51were returned representing 96.23 percent return rate. Mean with standard deviation was used to answer the research questions and t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. Some of the findings include: poor provision of multimedia, employment of unqualified staff and poor knowledge of available multimedia facilities.  Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others things that lecturers should be retrained to equip them with the knowledge and skills of multimedia applications and government should provide fund to the public universities to enable them improve on staff and physical infrastructural development.

Keywords: Business Education, Constraints, Multimedia applications

Comparative Analysis of the Training Needs and Job Performance Constraints among Block Extension Supervisors in Abia and Akwaibom States, Nigeria (Published)

Comparative analysis of the training needs and job performance constraints among block extension supervisors in Abia and Akwa Ibom states was studied. Primary and secondary data  were collected with structured questionnaire  from 28 BESs drawn from Abia and Akwa Ibom states. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and t-test were employed in data analysis. Result shows that BESs in Abia and Akwa Ibom states had highest need for training in control of ecto-parasite (X= 3.93) and endo-parasite (X= 4.29) respectively. In fishery practices, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had greatest need for training in fish pond construction (X = 3.71) and site selection for pond. In extension message delivery, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest training needs in reporting farming/field problems, identification of new farmers (X=4.93) for each practice and coordination of farmers meeting (X=4.64) among others. In soil science, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest training needs in fertilizer application methods (X= 4.93) and (X= 4.57). In Agroforestry, the BESs in Abia and Akwa Ibom states had highest need for training in establishment of snail farm (X= 4.21)  and (X= 3.93). In agronomic practices, Abia and Akwa Ibom states BESs had highest need for training in site selection for crops land preparation, planting technique and fertilizer application (X= 4.79) and (X= 4.64). The major problems facing the BESs were poor input backup, lack of tangible facility for movement on the field, irregular supply of OFAR and SPAT inputs e.tc for Abia and Akwa Ibom states. Recruitment of more EAs and constant in-service training were recommended among others. 

Keywords: Abia and Akwa Ibom States, Constraints, Job Performance, Nigeria, Training needs, extension agents

Constraints to Internet Use for Public Relations Functions by Selected Kenyan Organizations (Published)

Public Relations has gained increasing organizational importance in recent times, as it has been emphasized in various platforms. A review of current literature shows that the use of the Internet for PR in organizations has been empirically investigated mainly in other contexts – especially in Europe and America – but not in Africa. However, most of these investigations focused on specific components of Internet and not the holistic use of the Internet for PR. The study examined the constraints to the use of Internet as a PR platform in organizations. It adopted a relativist-interpretivist research paradigm and a qualitative approach utilizing the multiple case study method. A total of 45 participants was sampled comprising nine respondents each from a financial, telecommunications, insurance, PR Agency and online shopping business. In each category of business, one person in management, two PR and communications experts (or customer care services marketing and advertising in some organizations), one ICT expert and five key stakeholders (key publics-internal/external customers) was selected. The PR organizations involved in the study were sampled purposively. In-depth interviews, observation and document analysis were used to generate data. Data analysis was done thematically. Among the constraints of Internet as a PR platform in organizations were security and trust concerns, content mismanagement, lack of tools of monitoring and evaluation, ineffective utilization of the platforms, lack of expert knowledge, experience and poor role specification. Evidently, numerous constraints impair the utilization of Internet for PR functions in most organizations. As such, it was recommended that PR practitioners should develop internet plans to bolster interactivity and utilize social media services fully to produce effective messages to strengthen organisation-public relationships.

Keywords: Constraints, Internet Use, Kenya, Organizations, Public Relations Functions

Factors That Impede or Enhance the Use of Simulations by Nurse Educators in Public and Private Institutions of Training in Cameroon (Published)

Simulations are a means by which the education and training of nurses and other health personnel are enhanced. Simulations precede any form of touching humans as learning apparatus for health care students undergoing education and training. Simulations have been found to provide a good learning opportunity to health care provision learning prior to exposing them to real humans (patients). With simulations, the learners gain some confidence before getting to touch a real patient. Simulations are therefore very important and necessary in the training of health care personnel. The aim/objective of this study was to identify enhancing and impeding factors to the use of simulations and assess constraints in its use among nurse educators in the study area. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used  and data was collected using a structured questionnaire. A total of 89 nurse educators were sourced and took part in the study. The sourcing was by stratified sampling with regards to the school –whether private or public and by the category of the nurse educator. Data was analysed using Epi Data version 3.1, and SPSS version 21.0. Some leading factors influencing the use of simulation were: Recent changes in nursing education to becoming more practice oriented (90.7%; 95% CI: 83.6-95.7%), technological advancements (90.7%; 95% CI: 83.6-95.7%), inadequate training (82.6%; 95% CI: 74.2-89.9%) and cost (81.4%; 95% CI: 71.7-88.1%) of simulators. While some constraints noticed were: difficulties reproducing all aspect of care using simulators (79.1%; 95% CI: 69.2-86.2%), and difficulties constructing and maintaining the simulated scene due to lack of expertise (73.3%; 95% CI: 63.1-81.5%). It is hoped that these results assist health institutions eliminate some of the constraints and change habits that pose as impeding or hindering factors.

Keywords: Constraints, Factors Enhancing Or Impeding, Nursing Education, Simulations

Constraints to Use of Soil Quality Maintaining Strategies in a Climate Change Stricken Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed constraints to use of soil quality maintaining strategies among crop farmers in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected using interview schedule and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Results show that 65.00% of the respondents were females. Majority (60.00%) were married, with 54.16% having household sizes of not less than 6 persons. Most serious constraints were inadequate finance and capital intensiveness of some strategies. Significant relationships existed between age (r2 = 0.152, p < 0.05), sex (c2 = 5.21, p < 0.05), household size (r2 < -0.212, p < 0.05) and constraints to use of soil quality maintaining strategies. There was significant difference in the extent of constraints to use of the strategies between male and female respondents (t = -1.12, p < 0.05). It is recommended that individuals should save funds for soil quality maintenance. Moreover, programmes aimed at reducing constraints to use of the strategies should be patterned according to severity of the constraints between male and female farmers.

Keywords: Constraints, Information, Maintaining Strategies, Perception, Soil Quality

Analysis of Processing Cassava Tubers into Garri in Isoko North Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria. (Published)

Inadequate capital and lack of improved technology for cassava processing have become major challenges in the development of the agricultural sector of the Nigerian economy. This had prompted this study on the analysis of processing of cassava tubers into garri in Isoko north local government area of Delta state, Nigeria. Cross sectional data were collected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques with the aid of well-structured questionnaire for the 2012 processing season. Purposive sampling technique was used to select six towns from the study area based on their involvements in cassava processing activities. Thereafter ten (10) respondents were randomly selected from each of the towns making a total sample size of sixty (60) respondents. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency distribution, percentages and inferential statistics including gross margin and regression analysis. The results showed that 95% of the respondents were females. the highest proportion (38%) of the respondents were within the age group of 50>60 years and 33% had secondary school leaving certificates, 75% of the respondents were married and 58% had household size within the range of 5>8 persons, 66% of them were into cassava processing on part-time basis, while 33% had 11 > 15 years of processing experience and 67% of them used family labour. The estimated annual total revenue was N610,000, total variable costs was N370,000 and the gross margin was N240,000 per annum per respondent which represented 64.86% of the total variable cost of production. The implication was that for every one naira invested in the processing of cassava, the farmer gained 65 kobo. The result of the regression analysis revealed that 57% of the variability of the estimated revenue per annum (Y) was being accounted for by the independent variables in the specified model. Inadequate capital and fund, lack of improved technology, inadequate processing and storage facilities, small sized enterprises with low earnings, poor markets characterized by low pricing of products were the major constraints encountered by the processors in the industry. It was therefore recommended that credit facilities should be channeled to processors through the current micro-credit scheme of the Delta State Government, Government policies should be modified to include the provision of training programme to disseminate scientific knowledge to cassava processors, the Research-Extension Farmer linkage should be strengthened to furnish the processors with modern labour saving processing techniques, Processors should form co-operative association to establish garri- added- value- centres for improved weighing and packaging methods; Government and non-governmental organizations/agencies should assist in educating the cassava processing farmers through effective extension system on improved cassava processing technology, to bring about improved production, marketing and profitability; and in doing so, improves livelihood, income and food security of the people.

Keywords: Cassava Processors, Constraints, Delta State, Gross margin, Nigeria, Regression Analysis

Comparative Analysis of Constraints to Cassava Production by Cassava Farmer Loan Beneficiaries and Loan Non-Beneficiaries in South-South Nigeria (Published)

This study was carried out to analyse and compare the constraints to cassava production among cassava farmer loan beneficiaries (CFLB) and cassava farmer loan non-beneficiaries (CFLNB) in South-south Nigeria. Purposive, multi-stage random sampling techniques were used to select a total of five hundred (500) respondents which comprised of two hundred and fifty (250) CFLB and another 250 CFLNB. Primary data were sourced through three sets of well – structured questionnaires to the two categories of farmers and the third to the banks officials. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in data analysis. The result of data analysis showed that the mean age of CFLB was 43 years with 26% within 36 and 45 years active working population while the mean age of CFLNB was 41 years with about 31% within 36 and 45 years. Majority, about 60% of CFLB and about 74% of CFLNB were males while about 40% of CFLB and about 25% of CFLNB were females. The mean household size for both CFLB and CFLNB was 5 persons. However, the mean number of years spent in schools by CFLB was 12 years, while the CFLNB spent 10 years. The mean farming experience by CFLB was 5 years while the CFLNB was 6 years. The mean annual farm income of CFLB was N188,602.00 whereas the mean annual farm income of CFLNB was N100,000.00. The major constraints limiting cassava production among CFLB and CFLNB were scarcity and high cost of fertilizer (87.97%) and (77.46%), high cost of agrochemicals (87.55%) and (77.05%), unavailability of research results to cassava farmers at the appropriate time (79.25%) and inadequate extension services (77.59%). The least problems were drought (43.98%), soil water pollution (36.93%) and stream/river pollution (35.68%). It was concluded that increasing cassava farmers’ access to loan would enhance their productivity through improved well-being and living standard. Recommendations such as timely disbursement of loans, improved supervision by bank officials, regular visit by the extension staff, adequate training of successful loan applicants, design and implementation of cassava- friendly loan package as well as small-loan mechanisms to favour cassava farmers were made among others.

Keywords: CFLB, CFLNB, Cassava production, Comparative Analysis, Constraints, South-south Nigeria.

CONSTRAINTS TO ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INVESTMENT DECISIONS AMONG AGRIBUSINESS INVESTORS IN SOUTHEAST, NIGERIA (Published)

Despite the role entrepreneurs play in the development of any economy, there seems to exist a dearth of empirical knowledge on what constrains entrepreneurs in taking effective entrepreneurial and investment decisions in Southeast Nigeria. A combination of purposive and multistage sampling techniques was employed in the selection of 360 agribusiness investors in the study area. Data were collected primarily using structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of the analysis showed that lack of start-up capital, lack of market information, crime, theft and social disorder, corruption and bad legal system, poor infrastructural facilities, multiple taxation, tedious registration and licensing procedure, and poor access to formal credit facilities were the main constraints to entrepreneurship and investment decisions by agribusiness entrepreneurs in South-East, Nigeria. The result further showed that starting enterprises without proper feasibility, high taxation, inadequate supply of power, inconsistency in government policy, inability to withstand competition, management inexperience, poor knowledge in the line of business, and joint ownership of enterprises were the major causes of enterprise failure in Southeast Nigeria. However, despite the varying constraints to entrepreneurship and investment decision in the area, agribusiness ventures in the area performed at levels acceptable to the entrepreneurs. Based on these findings, formulation and implementation of policies targeted at removal of the identified constraints were recommended. Such policies should include improvement on access to credit for agribusiness entrepreneurs, even when they may not possess prime assets that are currently being accepted by financial institutions as collateral, and making agribusiness investors to always carryout a thorough market research and feasibility to ensure that there is adequate demand for the products or services being offered

Keywords: Constraints, Entrepreneurship, Investment Decision, Investors, agribusiness

Analysis of Labour Productivity and Constraints of Rubber Latex Exploitation among Smallholder Rubber Farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (Published)

The objective of the study was conducted to analyze labour productivity and constraints of small holder rubber farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 300 rubber farmer using purposive and random sampling techniques. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale and labour productivity model. Result of the analysis revealed that wage tapping and share arrangement accounted for 43.33 percent and 36.33 percent respectively. Labour productivity analysis revealed a yield of 826,434.31 kg dry rubber per year and gross income of N81, 949,226.18 per year while the output per man day was 22.58 kg. Wage / man day was N377.78, while an average plantation owner reaps N1,860.56 after adjustments were made to wages and other costs of operation. The major constraints of rubber farmers included shortage and high cost of labour ranked the first major problem, inadequate credit as the second most important and significant constraint of rubber farmers while poor rubber prices and storage facilities problem were the third and the fourth most important significant problems faced by respondents. The study however recommended that rubber farmers should form cooperative societies and associations to enable them access production credit from commercial and Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) for rubber production.

Keywords: Constraints, Exploitation, Likert scale, Niger-Delta, Productivity, Smallholder, latex

The Constraints Faced by Staff in Effective Communication in Kenyan Public Universities (Published)

This study was conducted at Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology.It was designed to investigate the constraints faced by Staff ineffective Communication in Kenyan public universities.The study specifically investigated the constraints faced by staff in effective communication in theKenyan Public Universities.Literature was reviewed in relation to the above stated objective. The study sample was drawn from MMUST and involved both academic and administrative staff. The sample size was one hundred and fifty two (152) which represents 77.6% of the target population. Stratified random sampling techniques based on the respondents job descriptions were used. The instruments for data collection involved use of questionnaires and information from secondary data materials for instance the University Act of 2007 and the employee survey findings of 2006. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The major findings revealed that MMUST staff had experienced constraints in effectively communicating to other members of staff. The study identified the constraints faced by the MMUST staff in conveying messages citing lack of adequate working equipment and office space. The study therefore, recommended that MMSUT develops appropriate communication policies to curb the communication based problems affecting the university.

Keywords: Barrier, Channel, Constraints, Influence, Organization, Research, Teaching, communication