Tag Archives: Conflict

The Politics of Forgiveness and Reconciliation: A Way Out of the Dynamics of Conflict and Revenge (Published)

In fact Forgiveness may be contrary to human logic that often yields to the dynamics of conflict and revenge. But forgiveness is inspired by the logic of love. One needs to forgive others as well. The new person is a forgiven person, a person who makes restitution, a person who is honest about failings and weaknesses, a person who is open to the future and who recognizes the dignity of all. This paper calls all men and women and politicians across the globe to a stubborn fact that forgiveness is a key to peace and love which we as individuals and the world in general need today more than ever to effect a genuine and lasting healing and eschew reprisal conflict and revenge.

Keywords: Conflict, Genocide, Reconciliation., forgiveness, vengeance

How Cultural Differences Influence Conflict Within an Organization: A Case Study Of Near East University (Published)

The culture that people come from has played an important part in shaping any society. Almeida (2002) defined culture as the behaviours, contents and the way people think. Culture is of vital importance since it assist in the way people live hence articulating the manner in with information among people is administered. Miscommunication often arises due to the differences in cultures that exist hence this leads to people misunderstanding others cultural contexts. Individuals from certain cultures may deal with conflict easily while others tend to find it difficult in dealing with it amenably hence this leads to the system of sweeping it under the carpet (De Dreu et al., 2007). Conflict is triggered when there are cultural differences between individuals within an organisation or through general interaction with one another. This often leads to cross-cultural conflict which generally occurs in the context that individuals are not willing to understand each other’s diversity in cultures. The research study main objective is to examine the cultural differences that influence conflict within an organisation. The sampling techniques used was Quota Sampling were data was grouped according to ethnicities. Research study was qualitative in nature and made use of semi-structured interviews which were carried out with fifty participants from three ethnic groups. Data was analyzed using Qualitative Content analysis. Findings were put forward on ways management could reduce conflict by creating an environment were all cultures interact with one another freely.

Keywords: Conflict, Culture, cross-cultural conflict, cultural differences

The Role of Magico-Spiritual Powers in Understanding the Culture of Impunity and Lack of Transparency in Nigerian Politics (Published)

The culture of impunity and lack of accountability on the part of the Nigerian politician is simply incredible. While democratic tenets, the world over, presuppose uncompromising observance of the rule of law, accountability and transparency, the Nigerian experience stands as classical case of irony and paradox.  Thus, it deserves much more than a cursory interrogation, but an in-depth study. In order to understand the Nigerian situation, many researches have been carried out. Their conclusions point out corruption, weak institutional and legal framework, ethno-religious bias and inclinations as well as lack of free, fair and credible elections as factors responsible for the current state of affairs. However, the believe and indeed the practice of the Nigerian politician to indulge (almost incurably) in magico-spiritual activities in order to invoke powers that will enable them evade justice, mute public scrutiny and veil their culture of impunity and lack of transparency has received little or no deserving scholarly attention. Therefore, this paper examines this phenomenon and its impact on the body polity. Politicians and their allies, members of election petition tribunals, personnel of anti-graft agencies and magico-spiritual jobbers themselves attest to the endemic nature of the phenomenon. Interviews with these constitute primary source for this paper. Laced in segments of this paper are suggestions on how to put the practice of magico-spiritualism on the proper cause that will not be on a coalition part with democracy and good governance in Nigeria.

Keywords: Conflict, Democracy, Good Governance, impunity, magico-spiritual

Terribly Victimised Gender of Kashmir Conflict: A Women-Centric Perspective of Nayeema Mahjoor’s lost In Terror (Published)

Jammu and Kashmir has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. This picturesque valley, which has since been under the domain of India, has seen many uprisings. The movement for freedom ‘Azadi’ has left a deep imprint upon the minds of the inhabitants, but mostly it is the women of Kashmir who have been the worst hit victims. There have been many books depicting the Kashmir issue from a man’s perspective but hardly any from the women’s point of view depicting their suffering and misery. Logically only a woman can better express the traumas of women. Fortunately this need was fulfilled by Nayeema  Mahjoor  in the form of her novel Lost in Terror, perhaps the first novel, which shows the another side of the conflict ‘women side’ by realistically narrating the sufferings  which a Kashmiri woman goes through. The present paper attempts to make an assessment of the miseries and problems Kashmiri conflict –torn women have to face.  It will also deliberate on how Nayeema has become the representative voice of the women community, most importantly so because she herself has been a victim like thousands of others, which strongly authenticates her narration as first hand and valid.

Keywords: Conflict, Freedom, Jammu, Kashmir, Misery, Victims, Women

Effects of Inter-Parental Conflict on Academic Achievement Motivation of Form Three Students in Ruiru Sub-County Kenya (Published)

This study sought to examine the effects of inter-parental conflict on form three students in Ruiru Sub- County Kenya. It was guided by four theories: Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory; Martin Selgman’s Learned Helplessness Theory, Grych and Fincham Cognitive Contextual Framework Theory and Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. A mixed method research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of 281 Form three students from31 public and private secondary schools in Ruiru sub-county. Children Perception of Inter-parental Conflict Questionnaire (CPIC) Academic Motivation Survey (AMS) for Students, an Interview Schedule for Guidance and Counselling Master/Mistress and a Focus Group Discussion Protocol for parents of the students were used in data collection. Data collected was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings disclosed that there was a significant relationship between inter-parental conflict and students’ academic achievement motivation in qualitative data.

Keywords: Academic, Conflict, Inter-Parental, Parents, Students

The Process Model of Conflict Resolution (Published)

This paper is a contribution to the theory, principles and practice of conflict resolution. It takes on the task of publishing a model – a process model of conflict resolution – developed following a research into the resolution of an inter-ethnic conflict. We discussed the process model in terms of conflict resolution dynamics and practices. The discussion outlined the factors, processes and conditions which make resolution possible using the lessons drawn from our research into how one of Ghana’s most intractable conflicts, the Nkonya-Alavanyo conflict in the Volta Region, was resolved. The paper argued that conflict resolution should be understood as a process involving many dynamics including actors, issues, times, resources (finance) and conditions in the context where the conflict occurs. The model stresses the importance of resolving conflict through community structures, highlighting the importance of careful mapping of the conflict in order to identify the dynamics (issues and the actors) involved. We argued that conflict resolution should be approached as a multi-layered dynamic process where the latencies are interconnected, procedural and parallel. We argued that funding is an essential ingredient in conflict resolution as is timing of resolution efforts, trust building, long term commitment and capacity building (confidence building) and sensitivity to local context issues. We put forward the idea that conflict resolution is a multi-dimensional process involving a broad spectrum of actors, activities, processes, and resources.

Keywords: Conflict, Conflict Resolution, Ghana, Nkonya-Alavanyo, Process Model

Socio-Economic Factors Influencing the use of Coping Strategy among Farmers and Herders Affected by Conflict at Giron Masa Village, Kebbi State, Nigeria (Published)

This study was conducted at Giron Masa village, located 30km from Yauri town. The study determines the Socio-economic Factors influencing the use of coping Strategy among Farmers and Herders during post-conflict situation. Simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred (100) respondents (50 farmers and 50 herders) from the study area. Logistic regression (LR) analysis was used to ascertain the socioeconomic variables that influenced the use of the coping strategy among the farmers and herders affected by conflict. The results of the study shows that age, income, family size and farming experience were significant and thus influenced the use of POCS among farmers.  Annual income and production system influenced the use of Problem Oriented Coping Strategy (POCS) among herders. Age, farm size and farming experience were found to be significant in influencing the use of Emotion Oriented Coping Strategy (EOCS) among farmers. Specifically, years of herding experience increased the use of emotion oriented coping strategy among herders. The use of Social Support Coping Strategy (SSCS) among farmers was influenced by educational level; farm size and farming experience, while the variables are not collectively significant in influencing the use of SSCS among the herders. The research recommends the adoption of communal coping that entails the application of cooperative problem solving processes within the family and other social units dealing with stressful life events should be used as coping strategy in the event of farmer-herder conflict

Keywords: Conflict, Coping Strategy, Farmers, Herders

Are the Generational Interactions in the Brazilian Workplace Different From Other Countries? (Published)

This case approaches the differences between the generational interactions in the Brazilian workplace, in comparison with other countries, according to the current epistemology. Previous research points each newcomer employees’ generation with different expectations and motivations, regarding workplace activities. Entering a new job and dealing with the challenges of the initial period of time following entry is critical and demands substantial effort to adjust to new supervisors and peers. The reduction of conflict and ambiguity is an important outcome for organizational leaders in the areas of employee recruitment, engagement, and retention. Thus, we investigated the generational interactions in the Brazilian workplace, since there are few studies on the subject to support HRM practices in a wide and diverse country as Brazil. Finally, we brought future research implications.

Keywords: Brazilian Workplace, Conflict, Generations

Ethnography Of Communication – A Study of Just Lather, That’s all (Published)

Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.

Keywords: Characters, Conflict, Culture, Just Lather, Language, communication

Assessing Employees’ Perception of Conflict Management (Causes, Effects) an Empirical Study at Employees’ Working on Malathik for Real Estate Development and Installments Company (Published)

The concept of conflict has been treated as a general social phenomenon, with implications for the understanding of conflict within and between organizations. (Mike Amuhaya Iravo 2011). Employee conflict in the workplace is a common occurrence, resulting from the differences in employees’ personalities and values. Dealing with employee conflict in a timely manner is important to maintaining a healthy work environment. There are different causes and effects of conflicts has been investigated by academic researchers from 1978 till now, however still no agreement between researchers for causes and effects of conflicts. The purpose of this study is to assess employees’ perception of conflict management (Causes, Effects) for employees’ working on Malathik for real estate development and Installments Company. The research design was a descriptive survey. This design was adopted because it is most appropriate and helpful in determining and describing the perception of respondents on the variables studied (Gay, 1992; Newman, 2003). The target population comprised employees who had worked at Malathik for real estate development and Installments Company. The researcher designed and distributed (40 ) questionnaire forms and excluded (11) forms due to the lack of information which means overall sample is (29) employee . The data for the study was collected between September and November 2016. The data collected were edited, coded and processed with the Statistical Package for Science Solutions (SPSS), and discussed in narrative style for clarity and better understanding. Pearson correlation coefficient value was significant at the (0.05) level in dimension one (causes of conflict) and dimension two (effects of conflict) which reflect high validity for data to be used for analysis. Also alpha coefficient greater than the minimum acceptable 60% which was 69%, indicating a high reliability. The SPSS results for causes of conflict indicated that employee’s strongly agree about cause of conflict in their company come from ego problems and salaries & wages .The results also indicated that total mean of question number 2 is (2.34) which reflect that employees did not agree about poor organizational structure at Malathik Company while the total mean for question number three is 2.83 which reflect neutral answer. The SPSS results for effects of conflict indicated that employee’s agree about effect of conflict lead to low morale, low quality and lack of direction .The results also indicated that total mean of question number 8 is (2.34) which reflect that employees did not agree about low productivity at Malathik Company while the total mean for question number ten is 2.90 which reflect neutral answer. Finally, Based on research results and literature review, researcher has developed guidelines to avoid conflict not only suitable for Malathik Company but also can be applied in any organizations.

Keywords: Causes of Conflict, Conflict, Effects of Conflict, Employees, Perception

Aboriginal People and Canadian Federation- From the Perspective of Diversity Accommodation: Review (Published)

Following the European colonizer arrived at and invades Canada, the Aboriginal people-who are considered as the natives, have been oppressed for many centuries. Their land was taken by the settlers and their economy become too sluggish and subsistence; they were marginalized in the social, economic, cultural and political arenas. This paper is aimed to assess the root causes of conflict between the aboriginals and settlers and to identify measures taken by the government to address the problems. We used intensive secondary data through reviewing different books and international journals. Lose of land ownership, deterioration of health and economic development, worst assimilation of Aboriginal People to the main stream culture, Political marginalization such under representation of them under government office, Economic exploitation of Aboriginal People are some of the real causes of conflict between Aboriginal and non- Aboriginal People. Besides, they are not also allowed to run their own business activities, exercise their cultural ways of life, improve and develop their culture and traditions. Federalism, multiculturalism, empowering Supreme Court and the constitution act of 1982 were of the institutional arrangement recognized typically to deal with the existing real conflict and to accommodate diversity. Some of possible measures taken by the government are- the recognition of  the right to land title; the right to self-government on their internal matters, to develop their culture, language and identities. It also allowed to develop laws like laws on customary marriage for their people though subject to the approval of the minister responsible for their  affairs  have also been recognized to exercise.

Keywords: Aboriginal, Accommodation, Conflict, Diversity, Federalism

Managing Channel Conflict for Enhanced Organizational Performance (Published)

The focal point of this study is managing channel conflict for enhanced organizational performance. It is a survey research and the main instrument of data collection was the questionnaire. Out of three hundred and forty five questionnaires administered, 86% or three hundred were retrieved and used in the analysis. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) was strictly used in the analysis. The Pearson product moment correlation analysis was used to test the various hypotheses earlier formulated. The study found that conflict affects the performance of the channel members negatively. There is inverse relationship between conflict and profitability. As a result of these findings, it was recommended, amongst others, that conflict in all its ramifications be minimized so as not to distract channel members from performing optimally

Keywords: Channel, Conflict, Organizational Performance

Leadership Conflicts among Students on Nigerian University Campuses: The Experience of the University of Calabar, Calabar- Nigeria. (Published)

This study examined the factors that give rise to conflicts among students in their pursuit of leadership on the campus of the University of Calabar (UNICAL). Descriptive survey design was used and through stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques, a sample size of 250 was derived.  Two research questions were raised and a questionnaire tagged, Student Leadership Conflict Scale (SLCS) formed the data collection instrument.  Accruing data was analysed using frequencies and percentages. Results indicated (i) high level of conflict among students arising from their pursuit of leadership (ii) financial rewards and other benefits attached to leadership positions as the main motivators of the conflicts experienced.  To this end, it was recommended that allowances and other benefits of student leaders be reduced drastically to make it less lucrative and attractive to the greedy grabbing ones among the students.

Keywords: Conflict, Leadership, Student Associations, Student Unionism, Violence

Counselling Implications of Conflict and Conflict Resolution in Secondary Schools in Ebonyi State (Published)

The study investigated the counselling implications of conflict and conflict resolution in secondary schools in Ebonyi State.  Specifically the study assessed the extent to which school principals adopt dialogue, arbitration, third party and sanction in conflict resolution in their schools. The population for this study consisted of all the principals of public Secondary Schools numbering one hundred and fourty-seven (147), and the entire population was used. Four research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study.  The instrument for data collection was a four point modified likert-type questionnaire – conflict resolution assessment scale (CRAS), while the data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for the hypothesis. The findings showed that while sanction was used to a great extent, dialogue, arbitration and third party were used to a low extent.  Again, gender of principals does not significantly influence the type of conflict resolution method used.  The counselling implications of the findings were outlined including: the fact that people have problems which should not be taken for granted or sub-summed in their conflict.  Recommendations were also made for example that Government officials who relate with the school authority should also be involved in dialogue, arbitration and third party methods of conflict resolution instead of just using sanction as the only option.

Keywords: Arbitration, Conflict, Counselling, Dialogue, resolution, third party and sanction

Ethical Conflicts: The Implication for the Realization of Firms Objectives (Published)

This study is based on Ethical conflicts: The Implication for the Realization of Firms objectives.  Ethical conflicts occur when individuals are confronted with a clash between general belief systems about justice and morality as it affects their own personal circumstances. Ethical conflict is a process idea that cannot be eradicated in any organization. It is a process which constantly influences managers, subordinates, social life and growth of any organizations. Ethics goes beyond just making profit and economic development; it includes personal interest and systematic value integration. Ethics is concerned with individuals; manager therefore plans according to what he believes to be morally right. That means the company’s ethics may eventually be the norm and projection of the managers’ ethics, as a result, manager is faced with the challenge of aligning what he believed to be morally right to that of the believe of organization which he work.  The objectives of this paper is to determine how ethical conflict influence the performance of firms negatively and ascertain the extent to which standard ethical behavior facilitate achievement of firms objectives. This research engaged investigative and qualitative research methods as we did not test any model in a statistical sense. Data was gathered from numerous sources, including formal interviews, internal documents, and the internet. However, there is a strong reliance on interviews because rich insights and contextual information was sought from the key informants.  The paper demonstrated that the effect of ethical conflict on the realization of firms’ objectives is unquantifiable as firms internal and external dealings are constrained. Members of the public would no longer have confidence and trusts in the firms as personal or corporate dealing with the firms are minimized if not completely eradicated. This is a potential threat to firm’s performance. The finding also reveals that standard ethical behavior has the capacity to facilitate achievement of firm’s objectives positively as the confidence of clients is guaranteed and internal and external dealing of the firms not constrained. Firms that fail to educate its members can only anticipate a bothersome future. In today’s controversial civilization, we must and should be aware of the substance of our Code of ethics and the organizations should educate it members about standard behavior expected of employees during training and orientation session for effective management of ethical conflicts. If the employee’s find it difficult to key into ethical standard of the firm and/or traverse the ethical boundaries, he/she should be shown a way out of the systems as the success or failure of any firm depends on her ability to initiate and as well sustain policies that will minimize if not completely eradicated conflicts arising from ethical issues in the organization. These will go a long way in sustaining the performance and growth of the organizations.

Keywords: Conflict, Ethic, Ethical Conflict, Firms Objectives, Realization

Rural-Urban Issues and Human Capacity Building in an Era of Globalization: The Third World Perspective (Published)

This study examined the nexus between rural-urban issues and Human Capacity Building. In today’s globalizing world, the issue of human capacity building is very imperative more than ever before. Any country desirous of being relevant in the contemporary world cannot afford to toy with the issue of human capacity building. The high level of competition in the world makes it very inevitable for countries particularly those of the third world to take the issue of Human capacity building seriously because they would lag behind in the scheme of things and would not have anything to offer both at the local and international arena. This situation has brought about a situation whereby countries have been in search of various ways of boosting the human capacity in their various countries. In this endeavour much emphasis is placed on rural –urban issues. It is against this backdrop that this study is embarked upon to interrogate the role of rural-urban issues in human capacity building. Rural-urban migration simply means the movement of people particularly those within the labour force from the rural areas to the urban areas in search of greener pastures. Most times these set of people move to the urban areas to discover there is little or nothing for them to do and in most cases rendered redundant. As they depart the rural areas, they get the rural areas depleted of human resource that could have exploited and tapped the natural resources that abound there. This scenario to a very large extent would negatively affect the country’s development. It is against this backdrop that this study is designed to look for ways of ensuring the building of the human capacity through policies that could bring about the reduction or halting of rural-urban migration. This study is qualitative in nature hence data for the study were sourced through secondary means. Conflict theory was used as a theoretical framework.

Keywords: Conflict, Development, Globalization, Human Capacity Building, Rural-Urban Migration, Third World countries

Conflict Management Approaches: A Tool for Productive Employee Performance in Business Organizations (A Study of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko Plant) (Published)

This paper is a critical analysis of conflict management approaches as a tool for productive performance in business organizations, a survey of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. The study adopted simple empirical survey methods with a view of eliciting relevant data for analytical purpose so as to answer several questions and attain the objectives of the study. Both primary and secondary sources of data collection were utilized in a bid to attain the necessary result. Five point likert rating scale questionnaire were used in obtaining the opinions and views from respondents (i.e Strongly agree, SA (5), Agree, A (4), Undecided, U (3), Disagree, D (2), Strongly Disagree, SD (1)). The sample size for the study is 269 derived from the population of 825 employee of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. This was determined using Yaro-Yamane’s formulae. Bartlett’s test of Sphericity and Kaiser-Meyer Olkin measure of sampling adequacy, construct validity determination and Cronbach alpha for reliability determination was applied too. Multiple regression test was adopted for testing two formulated hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that conflict management have positive impacts in enhancing productivity of employees of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. Another finding reveals that strategies and techniques for management of conflict have significantly impacted on the performance of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant. The study recommended that the circumstance of conflict occurrence should be X-rayed, evaluated before deciding to adopt a suitable method, strategy and technique for conflict resolution and management. Secondly, the management of Dangote Cement Plc, Gboko plant should ensure that causes and varying forces that may cause conflict in organization are checkmated to ensure organizational success. These causes may include; limited resources, overlapping authority, inadequate treatment, differences in perception, role conflict, leadership styles and diversity differences amongst others.

Keywords: Business Organizations, Conflict, Conflict Management Approaches, Dysfunctional Conflict., Employee Performance, Functional Conflict, Productivity, Strategies and Techniques

Party Conflicts and Democratic Consolidation in Nigeria (1999 – 2007) (Published)

In every democracy the world over, political parties are seen as the instruments of democratic process. Hence, their relevance in establishing a stable democratic order cannot be overemphasized. But since the inception of the present democratic rule in Nigeria, political parties have failed to perform their fundamental responsibilities for a number of reasons which include fragile party relations, uncoordinated party system, inter and intra-party squabbles, among others. Notably, party crises have remained common features of politics in the country. But, like previous experiences where inter-party crises were the order of the day, the current democratic exercise has witnessed a predominance of intra-party conflicts, to the extent that the big parties including AD, ANPP, APGA and PDF have had and are still having their own fair share, the magnitude of which is based on the size and strength of the party. These crises had intensified unhealthy competition among the political parties and by implication, affected their functions. Exploring secondary data, this study examines the implications of inter and intra-party conflicts for democratic consolidation. While the thesis recognizes that effective political parties are essential for a nascent democracy, stable inter and intra party relations are sine qua non in consolidating democratic rule in Nigeria.

Keywords: Conflict, Democracy, Democratic Consolidation, Nigeria, Party Crises

The Extent to Which the Lives of Women in Conflict Prone Areas Have Been Affected: A Case of West and North Pokot Sub Counties, Kenya (Published)

War affects women and men differently. Whenever there is a conflict, women and children are the most that are hard hit. This paper focuses on the extent to which women in West and North Pokot have been affected by conflicts. The study was carried out in Kanyarkwat location, Katikatmor sub-location and Kopulio location, Nakuyen sub location of West and North Pokot respectively. A survey research design was used, where questionnaires and interviews were the major data collection tools. Observation was used, to provide information and observe actual behavior of the respondents. The findings reveal that women are largely affected by conflicts reporting displacement, sicknesses due to lack of hygiene, losses of family members and property, poverty, lack of schools and lack of medical facilities as being prevalent. Women end up living in a state of hopelessness and helplessness because of conflict related issues. Peace building capacities should be advocated for, with women being fully involved. The government and other stake holders should look for ways of alleviating the illiteracy rate in such areas and create awareness on the importance of peace building campaigns

Keywords: Affected, Conflict, Effects, North Pokot., West Pokot, Women


The study addresses the Jerusalem Municipality and the political conflict over Palestine during the British Mandate, 1918-1948. The Municipality has been established in 1863 during the Ottoman rule in order to provide services to the local residents. The first elections for the municipal council were held in 1908, which continued duties until the advent of the British occupation, 1917. The study mentions the shift from service provision objectives to political objectives, and how it became the scene of rivalry and conflict between the various Palestinian powers. This conflict led to split of the whole Palestinian nationalist movement, and diverted the Municipality from its original purposes, so it became a political platform for the opposition. Moreover, the British exploited this conflict to their favor and canceled the municipal elections, which have not been held until 1927. The British authorities inflamed the political dispute between parties of the Palestinian nationalist movement, thus making the Municipality the cause of the political conflict.

Keywords: Conflict, Dispute, Jerusalem, Ottoman, Plaestinian Nationalist Movement., Political Conflict