Tag Archives: Conflict

Natural Resources and Their Implications on Ethnic Group Conflict in Bafut Sub-Division from 1974 To 2011 (Published)

The contradictory decision and natural resources, culminated with the superiority of traditional administration made ethnocentric conflict inevitable. The role of actors involved in conflict management was based on personal interest and lack of collective effort to bring lasting solution to the situation. Interviews, administrative documents, dissertations, journals, articles, text books and internet websites were consulted. The result shows that administrative units, and natural resources disposition, attempted acculturation, domination in traditional governance provoked conflict in Bafut fondom. The implication on development in the area was a mixed blessing. Finally diverse actors in conflict management were controlled by self interest.

Keywords: Conflict, Implication, conflict management, ethnic group, traditional institution

Causes and Effects of Marital Conflict in Agbado Oke Odo and Ifako Ijaye Local Council Development Areas in Lagos State (Published)

Marital conflict is a serious issue in many families across the world. Many families have disintegrated and some couples live as if they are strangers because of persistent and unresolved conflicts. Nevertheless conflict and how they are responded to determine whether it will have positive outcome which will give couples marital fulfillment and satisfaction or negative outcome. This study attempts to explore causes and consequence of spousal conflict as well as conflict response styles employed by married male and female in Agbado Oke-Odo and Ifako Ijaiye Local Council Development Area in Lagos State. Both quantitative and qualitatative methods were used in collection and analyses of data. Convenience sampling was also used. The results showed that marital conflict is common to all families. The sources of marital conflict as evident in this study include but not limited to infidelity, sex, and distribution of house chores as well as spouse’s unemployment. It was also discovered that most husbands and wives minimize or stop communicating to each other when they are in conflict. In addition children’s need also suffers. The study recommends that couples seek the help of a counselor when they have issues they cannot by themselves resolve and managing conflict in a way that benefits both partners.

Keywords: Conflict, conflict response style, spousal conflict

The Application of Frameworks in the Unpacking of the Problematic of Human-Environmental Interaction: The Case of the Qua Iboe River in the Niger Delta of Nigeria (Published)

This paper looks at human-environment interaction (HEI) using the lens of three frameworks- DPSIR, Resilience/ Panarchy and Political Ecology as vehicles for a holistic understanding of the impact of anthropogenic activities on the environment. Drawing evidence from the case of the Qua Iboe River in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria as a marine resource, the complexity in the interaction between the local communities, the Federal Government and the oil companies were identified. The result of this interaction is the pollution of the river and the conflict between the stakeholders. It is therefore recommended among others that there is the need for multilayer governance involving all the stakeholders as a baseline for mitigation of the problem.

 

Keywords: Conflict, DPSIR, Environmental Pollution, Federal government, Niger-Delta, Political Ecology, Qua Iboe River, Resilience, panarchy

Attitude of Host Communities towards Deploying Corporate Social Responsibility to Manage Conflicts in the Niger Delta, Nigeria (Published)

Conflict is multi-faceted and as it is inevitable in human interaction. It could be productive or counter-productive, depending on how effectively it is managed. The perennial conflicts in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria have arguably yielded unproductive outcomes to the host communities, the oil producing companies and the country’s economy. To the host communities, violent and non-violent reactions have resulted to incidents of ecological devastation, poverty and low level of development, which oil exploration activities have created in the region. The oil companies have been victims of destruction of oil facilities, kidnapping and killing of oil expatriates, all negatively affecting their business. Considering the fact that attitudes of host communities is very important to the success of CSR programmes, this study examined the attitudes of host communities towards deploying CSR programmes to manage conflict in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The descriptive survey research design was adopted and structured questionnaire was utilized to gather data from 527 respondents selected through the multi-staged sampling technique. Findings showed that CSR programmes executed by oil companies towards conflict management significantly influenced attitudes of members of the host community. And that they were to a large extent satisfied with the CSR programmes executed in their areas. The study therefore recommended among other things that oil companies should carry out regular consultations to find out the needs of their host communities.

 

Keywords: CSR, Conflict, Niger-Delta, conflict management strategies

Intergenerational Discrepancies and Alienation in Selected Plays by Horton Foote (Published)

This paper examines intergenerational discrepancies and consequent sense of alienation in Horton Foote’s theatre, where traumatized youth are brought to life by dramatizing their sufferings in coping with the elderly and transforming into positive and fruitful members in American society. Foote also explores respective tropes, like alcoholism, death, and racism. The subject matter of his plays illustrates the power of cohesion within the society. Foote’s plays present a serious allegation of the parent’s personal intricacies and selfish exploitation of their children; but their essential theme of alienation and intergenerational discrepancies deserves a deeper view and treatment socially and psychologically.The paper shows the varying manifestations of social status as a power (re)shaping the lives of young and old men. Foote visualizes society as a fragmented, disappointed and alienated. He has fought against sentiments of deprivation, deficiency, oppression, and alienation, advocating intimacy, adequacy, and harmony between the two generations. The 20th cent. American playwright has recently received recognition and praise for his narrative plays about the nuances of negotiations and conflicts between the different generations within the same family. His talent emerged in developing conditions for a better world, a harmonious one that should start with the two generations by evoking real negotiations. His power came clear in illuminating the melancholic history of society around him where the gaps and differences between generations come to surface.

Keywords: Alienation, Conflict, Foote, familial relation, intergenerational discrepancy

The Conflict Management Strategies used in Conflicts between Teachers and Students: A case study, Kotebe Metropolitan University, Department of English in Focus (Published)

The aim of this study is to investigate the sources of conflict between students and teachers, how they are managed, and their effect on students and thus gain insight about student-teacher conflicts at Kotebe Metropolitan University, Faculty of Languages and Humanities, Department of English Language and Literature. The study is a qualitative one and has been carried out with the method of case study. The method of criterion sampling which is one of the methods of purposeful sampling is used in the qualitative study tradition. Participatory observation technique and semi-structured interviews were used to collect data. The study has shown that the main reasons for the conflict between teachers and their students were the existence of poor and insufficient communication between the parties involved, and teacher dominance in such interactions. It has also shown that inappropriate conflict solving strategies negatively affect the students’ psychology, social behavior as well as their academic success. It is absolutely necessary to manage the teacher student conflict correctly in order to create a positive school climate and to conduct the education process effectively.

Keywords: Conflict, Student, Teacher, conflict management, reason for conflict

An investigative study into the causes and effects of ethno-religious conflicts on women and children in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria, 1991 – 2020. (Published)

Conflict is a major problem in any given society and it is often inevitable. Since the re-introduction of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, Nigeria has become a permanent flashpoint of violent conflicts. These conflicts are political, ethnic, or religious in nature, and the consequences are devastating. Taraba State has not been an exception since its creation in 1991, witnessing incessant communal clashes across ethnic and religious lines. These ethno-religious conflicts have attendant debilitating consequences on life and property. The most disturbing aspect is their effects on women and children who are naturally the weaker proportion of any human population. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to isolate the effects of such conflicts on women and children for intense assessment. Thus, in order to do this, the article explores the ethno-religious conflicts in Southern Taraba State of Nigeria, particularly in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the article reveals that ethno-religious conflicts in the area of study have severe effects on women and children, causing not only deaths of husbands, children, siblings and loved ones, but destruction of their homes, amenities, social contracts, trusts and so on. The conflicts have also caused severe sufferings on the high number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), who are mostly women and children. However, the article suggests the need for restoration and sustenance of peace, not only in Wukari and Ibi LGAs, but Southern  Taraba, the State and Nigeria at large, through some immediate and long term solutions.

Keywords: Conflict, Death, Ethnic, Harmony, Hatred, Idps, Peace, Religion., Sustainable, Women, children, injury, refugees

The Liberian Conflict And The ECOMOG Operation: A Review of Nigeria’s Key Contributions (Published)

Right from inception, Nigerian foreign policy posture has been Afro-centric. This has made her to be more committed to peaceful coexistence in Africa in general and West Africa sub-region in Particular. Nonetheless, Nigeria has been participating actively in peace operations globally. This study examines Nigeria’s key contributions to the resolution of the Liberian conflict under the ECOWAS Ceasefire Monitoring Group (ECOMOG). While the theory of Manifest Destiny is adopted to explain Nigeria’s leadership role in the resolution, the work derives it data from the secondary source, which consists majorly of textbooks, journals, articles, reports, internet documents, among others. There is an array of information available on the performance of ECOWAS and ECOMOG hence historical research design is used in the study. The study also discusses the challenges of the mission. The findings show that Nigeria’s proactive leadership role in ECOMOG intervention in Liberia was a benchmark for future operations in Africa continent, and that while the holding of elections in 1997 and the subsequent withdrawal of ECOMOG clearly indicate that the operation was a success. The study calls on Nigeria to maintain her Afrocentric foreign policy posture but with more focus on industrialization and economic development of the region.

Keywords: Conflict, ECOMOG, Ecowas, Liberia, Nigeria

Conflict Level and Teachers’ Productivity: Interrogating the Association in the Context of Public Secondary Schools in Adamawa State, Nigeria (Published)

Conflict level is a potent factor that predicts the dimension of teachers’ productivity in the school system. Teachers’ productivity can be influenced functionally or dysfunctionally, depending on the level at which conflict is operating in a school. Considering the dynamic nature of conflict level therefore, this study investigated the association between conflict level and teachers’ productivity in secondary schools in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The study sampled 1,523 teachers through a purposive sampling technique. A self-structured questionnaire entitled “Conflict Level and Teachers’ Productivity Questionnaire” (CLTPQ) was used to gather information from teachers selected for the study. Data collected were analysed with Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis and Multiple Regression Analysis at 0.05 level of significance. A multiple bar chart was used to represent the research question developed in the study. It was discovered that conflict level varies from one secondary school to another. Also, there was a significant relationship between conflict level and teachers’ productivity (r = 0.080; P < 0.05) and that conflict level was found to make a significant relative contribution to teachers’ productivity (ß = -0.162, P < 0.05) in secondary schools. It was recommended that teachers and school administrators should be exposed to trainings in peace and conflict management in order to positively enhance their social relationships for optimum performance in secondary schools. Also, school administrators as well as teachers should strive to ensure that moderate or optimum conflict level is operating in their schools for the attainment of positive outcomes in order to enhance teachers’ productivity.

Keywords: Conflict, Teachers Productivity, conflict level, public secondary school

Jukun-Tiv Relations in the Benue Valley Region: The 2019 Scuffles in Southern Taraba State, Nigeria (Published)

Conflict, in general, is an inevitable part of relationship within and between groups and societies. It is intrinsic and thus natural to human and is expressed in diverse forms, differences in opinion, views and sentiments etc. When conflict occurs, interests are always at stake. The values attached to these interests mostly define the nature and character of such conflict. The most disturbing is the violence that often leaves in its wake several loss of lives, destruction of valuable property and a general sense of insecurity. The 2019 Jukun-Tiv conflict in Wukari assumed such a character with the attendant consequences of violent conflict, fast becoming the “normal” reality of our time. This is not only dangerous and unacceptable, but has formed the basis on which this research work is dedicated to resolving. Through a multi-disciplinary approach, the research attempt an analysis of the nature and character of the 2019 Jukun-Tiv conflict within a broader context of relationship in the Benue Valley Region of Nigeria. At the end, practicable and justifiable processes and ways that would guarantee positive and viable relationship between the Jukun and Tiv are suggested.

Keywords: Colonial, Conflict, Economic, Political, Politics, Relationship, Social, policies, pre-colonial

Jukun-Tiv Relations in the Benue Valley Region: The 2019 Scuffles in Southern Taraba State, Nigeria (Published)

Conflict, in general, is an inevitable part of relationship within and between groups and societies. It is intrinsic and thus natural to human and is expressed in diverse forms, differences in opinion, views and sentiments etc. When conflict occurs, interests are always at stake. The values attached to these interests mostly define the nature and character of such conflict. The most disturbing is the violence that often leaves in its wake several loss of lives, destruction of valuable property and a general sense of insecurity. The 2019 Jukun-Tiv conflict in Wukari assumed such a character with the attendant consequences of violent conflict, fast becoming the “normal” reality of our time. This is not only dangerous and unacceptable, but has formed the basis on which this research work is dedicated to resolving. Through a multi-disciplinary approach, the research attempt an analysis of the nature and character of the 2019 Jukun-Tiv conflict within a broader context of relationship in the Benue Valley Region of Nigeria. At the end, practicable and justifiable processes and ways that would guarantee positive and viable relationship between the Jukun and Tiv are suggested.

 

Keywords: Colonial, Conflict, Economic, Political, Politics, Relationship, Social, policies, pre-colonial

The Dynamics of Internal Boundary Conflict Management between Cross River State and Her Neighbours 1978-2010 (Published)

The concern of academics the world over is to contribute to the development and peaceful co-existence of its citizens, hence they domicile their research towards achieving this objective. Using descriptive methodology, this study critically examines the crisis bedevilling Nigerian communities, arising majorly, from boundary or border lines. This crisis has raised a lot of concern with dire consequences on the people’s cordial relationship. This paper therefore attempts to examine the existing relationship over time amongst the people of the study area, taking into consideration the causes of the conflict with a view to proffering possible solutions in curbing them. In achieving the above, the paper discovered that DECREE 23 of 1985 rather than carefully studying the situation with consultations, the authorities were rather in a hurry with its enactment. Also at the pivot of the conflicts is the National Boundary Commission which must be proactive if peace must be achieved.

Keywords: Conflict, Cross River State, Dynamics, Management, internal boundary

Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in Imo State Public Sector: An Empirical Approach (Published)

The focus of this paper is on Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms in the Imo State Public Sector. The study used survey approach and covered a population of 305 senior staff of eight selected public sector organizations in Imo State. In determining the sample size, the researchers used purposive sampling technique to select 221 members of staff, however, only 198 copies of the survey tool was accurately filled and returned which yielded 89.59% return rate. The data used was generated from both primary and secondary sources but a five point likert scale survey tool titled Emotional Intelligence and Industrial Conflict Resolution Mechanisms Questionnaire (EI&ICRMQ) was the major instrument for data collection. The statistical tool used for data analysis is the one-way ANOVA test using the 23.0 version of SPSS. The study found that variations in the results obtained showed that emotional intelligence effect on negotiation is more significant as it posted the least output (0.000). This is closely followed by mediation that posted an output of (0.006). The result however showed that in arbitration, emotional intelligence plays little or no role as it posted an output (0.075) that is higher than the level of significance (0.05). The study concluded that emotional intelligence is key to conflict resolution especially when the conflicting parties opt for negotiation as a mechanism. Sequel to the findings and conclusion above, the study recommended that to enhance management-labour relations, conflicting parties should ensure that only representatives with high emotional intelligence quotient are sent when adopting negotiation as a conflict resolution mechanism. Training representatives of conflicting parties to imbibe and exhibit emotional intelligence can enhance the success rate of mediation as a conflict resolution mechanism and that conflicting parties adopting arbitration as a conflict resolution mechanism should focus on gathering needful data for evidence and avoid being emotionally sentimental

Keywords: Arbitration, Conflict, Emotional Intelligence, Mediation, Negotiation.

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

Evaluation of Corruption and Conflict in Nigerian Oil Industry: Imperative for Sustainable Development (Published)

Not only can corruption keep African states in cycles of violence by funding armed groups and criminal networks, it can also prevent the development of effective institutions of governance. When money and resources are diverted by corrupt African officials to private accounts and businesses instead of being channeled to inclusive citizen’s needs, the clock turns back on social and economic development. This, in turn, can create further instability. In these ways, corruption, conflict and sustainable development are linked. Since its return to civil rule in May 1999, the country, especially the oil producing Niger Delta region, has drifted from one violent conflict to another, often with devastating consequences on human life and socio-economic development. Most analysts blame this violence on the many injustices perpetrated by the central authorities (especially the inadequacies of the current revenue sharing formula that denies oil bearing states their dues). The paper examines the relationship between corruption in oil sector, conflict and sustainable development and was anchored on resource curse theory. This study recommends amongst others that the award of oil block, contract, and licensing and production right should follow due process and transparent process. Also that the awarding of oil block to individuals should be discourage rather they should be awarded to corporate entities with wide spread ownership.

Keywords: Conflict, Corruption, Development, Violence, oil industry

The Politics of Forgiveness and Reconciliation: A Way Out of the Dynamics of Conflict and Revenge (Published)

In fact Forgiveness may be contrary to human logic that often yields to the dynamics of conflict and revenge. But forgiveness is inspired by the logic of love. One needs to forgive others as well. The new person is a forgiven person, a person who makes restitution, a person who is honest about failings and weaknesses, a person who is open to the future and who recognizes the dignity of all. This paper calls all men and women and politicians across the globe to a stubborn fact that forgiveness is a key to peace and love which we as individuals and the world in general need today more than ever to effect a genuine and lasting healing and eschew reprisal conflict and revenge.

Keywords: Conflict, Genocide, Reconciliation., forgiveness, vengeance

How Cultural Differences Influence Conflict Within an Organization: A Case Study Of Near East University (Published)

The culture that people come from has played an important part in shaping any society. Almeida (2002) defined culture as the behaviours, contents and the way people think. Culture is of vital importance since it assist in the way people live hence articulating the manner in with information among people is administered. Miscommunication often arises due to the differences in cultures that exist hence this leads to people misunderstanding others cultural contexts. Individuals from certain cultures may deal with conflict easily while others tend to find it difficult in dealing with it amenably hence this leads to the system of sweeping it under the carpet (De Dreu et al., 2007). Conflict is triggered when there are cultural differences between individuals within an organisation or through general interaction with one another. This often leads to cross-cultural conflict which generally occurs in the context that individuals are not willing to understand each other’s diversity in cultures. The research study main objective is to examine the cultural differences that influence conflict within an organisation. The sampling techniques used was Quota Sampling were data was grouped according to ethnicities. Research study was qualitative in nature and made use of semi-structured interviews which were carried out with fifty participants from three ethnic groups. Data was analyzed using Qualitative Content analysis. Findings were put forward on ways management could reduce conflict by creating an environment were all cultures interact with one another freely.

Keywords: Conflict, Culture, cross-cultural conflict, cultural differences

The Role of Magico-Spiritual Powers in Understanding the Culture of Impunity and Lack of Transparency in Nigerian Politics (Published)

The culture of impunity and lack of accountability on the part of the Nigerian politician is simply incredible. While democratic tenets, the world over, presuppose uncompromising observance of the rule of law, accountability and transparency, the Nigerian experience stands as classical case of irony and paradox.  Thus, it deserves much more than a cursory interrogation, but an in-depth study. In order to understand the Nigerian situation, many researches have been carried out. Their conclusions point out corruption, weak institutional and legal framework, ethno-religious bias and inclinations as well as lack of free, fair and credible elections as factors responsible for the current state of affairs. However, the believe and indeed the practice of the Nigerian politician to indulge (almost incurably) in magico-spiritual activities in order to invoke powers that will enable them evade justice, mute public scrutiny and veil their culture of impunity and lack of transparency has received little or no deserving scholarly attention. Therefore, this paper examines this phenomenon and its impact on the body polity. Politicians and their allies, members of election petition tribunals, personnel of anti-graft agencies and magico-spiritual jobbers themselves attest to the endemic nature of the phenomenon. Interviews with these constitute primary source for this paper. Laced in segments of this paper are suggestions on how to put the practice of magico-spiritualism on the proper cause that will not be on a coalition part with democracy and good governance in Nigeria.

Keywords: Conflict, Democracy, Good Governance, impunity, magico-spiritual

Terribly Victimised Gender of Kashmir Conflict: A Women-Centric Perspective of Nayeema Mahjoor’s lost In Terror (Published)

Jammu and Kashmir has been a bone of contention between India and Pakistan since the partition of the subcontinent in 1947. This picturesque valley, which has since been under the domain of India, has seen many uprisings. The movement for freedom ‘Azadi’ has left a deep imprint upon the minds of the inhabitants, but mostly it is the women of Kashmir who have been the worst hit victims. There have been many books depicting the Kashmir issue from a man’s perspective but hardly any from the women’s point of view depicting their suffering and misery. Logically only a woman can better express the traumas of women. Fortunately this need was fulfilled by Nayeema  Mahjoor  in the form of her novel Lost in Terror, perhaps the first novel, which shows the another side of the conflict ‘women side’ by realistically narrating the sufferings  which a Kashmiri woman goes through. The present paper attempts to make an assessment of the miseries and problems Kashmiri conflict –torn women have to face.  It will also deliberate on how Nayeema has become the representative voice of the women community, most importantly so because she herself has been a victim like thousands of others, which strongly authenticates her narration as first hand and valid.

Keywords: Conflict, Freedom, Jammu, Kashmir, Misery, Victims, Women

Effects of Inter-Parental Conflict on Academic Achievement Motivation of Form Three Students in Ruiru Sub-County Kenya (Published)

This study sought to examine the effects of inter-parental conflict on form three students in Ruiru Sub- County Kenya. It was guided by four theories: Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs theory; Martin Selgman’s Learned Helplessness Theory, Grych and Fincham Cognitive Contextual Framework Theory and Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory. A mixed method research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study comprised of 281 Form three students from31 public and private secondary schools in Ruiru sub-county. Children Perception of Inter-parental Conflict Questionnaire (CPIC) Academic Motivation Survey (AMS) for Students, an Interview Schedule for Guidance and Counselling Master/Mistress and a Focus Group Discussion Protocol for parents of the students were used in data collection. Data collected was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings disclosed that there was a significant relationship between inter-parental conflict and students’ academic achievement motivation in qualitative data.

Keywords: Academic, Conflict, Inter-Parental, Parents, Students