The Process Model of Conflict Resolution (Published)
This paper is a contribution to the theory, principles and practice of conflict resolution. It takes on the task of publishing a model – a process model of conflict resolution – developed following a research into the resolution of an inter-ethnic conflict. We discussed the process model in terms of conflict resolution dynamics and practices. The discussion outlined the factors, processes and conditions which make resolution possible using the lessons drawn from our research into how one of Ghana’s most intractable conflicts, the Nkonya-Alavanyo conflict in the Volta Region, was resolved. The paper argued that conflict resolution should be understood as a process involving many dynamics including actors, issues, times, resources (finance) and conditions in the context where the conflict occurs. The model stresses the importance of resolving conflict through community structures, highlighting the importance of careful mapping of the conflict in order to identify the dynamics (issues and the actors) involved. We argued that conflict resolution should be approached as a multi-layered dynamic process where the latencies are interconnected, procedural and parallel. We argued that funding is an essential ingredient in conflict resolution as is timing of resolution efforts, trust building, long term commitment and capacity building (confidence building) and sensitivity to local context issues. We put forward the idea that conflict resolution is a multi-dimensional process involving a broad spectrum of actors, activities, processes, and resources.
The Role Of Regional Economic Communities in Conflict Resolution in Africa: The Case of Igad’s Peace Process in South Sudan (Published)
Nowadays, most Regional Economic Communities (RECs) in Africa are playing a crucial role in maintaining peace and security in Africa through resolving conflicts in a democratic and civilized way. Being one of the major building blocks recognized by African Union, IGAD is striving for sustaining peace and security throughout its turbulent and conflict raging operational area. In view of that, the objective of this paper is thus to assess the role of RECs in resolving conflicts in the case of IGAD’s peace process in South Sudan. To meet the objective of the study, secondary sources of data were utilized. After gathering the necessary data, qualitative methods of data analysis were employed to discuss, analyze and drawing inferences. Accordingly, the results of the study show that IGAD and its extension IGAD-PLUS had lightened some hopes in opening up ways for negotiation of the warring parties. Meanwhile, the peace process is heavily challenged by factors such as the strong need of the Uganda’s troop to stay in South Sudan, the deep division and rivalry among the regional powers, the reluctance of the warring parties and the poor institutionalization of IGAD. Hence, primarily, IGAD should use any means possible to withdraw the Uganda’s military force from the country. Without withdrawing this unrecognized and unacceptable military intervention, peace is unthinkable in South Sudan. Moreover, imposing sanctions in addition to the mediation process is a viable solution to stop the violation of the ceasefire accords by the parties in conflict.
Conflict Resolution for Jordan River Basin Dispute Considering Coalitions among Riparian States (Published)
This paper aims to establish a practical conflict resolution mechanism and applies it to solve the strategic long-term dispute for Jordan River Basin. The paper starts with a brief history of the Jordan River Basin dispute. The paper then presents a game theoretic approach based on the Graph Model technique for conflict resolution, to investigate the Jordan River Basin dispute, considering the complex socio-political aspects involved. The proposed g model of this paper first defines the courses of actions available to all the involved stakeholders along with their preferences among them. Accordingly, the model applies stability and sensitivity analyses to propose an optimum resolution to the conflict and to examine the sensitivity of such resolution to the uncertainty in stakeholders’ preferences. In this study, three scenarios were investigated with different coalition possibilities among different countries, as follow: (i) Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan; (ii) Lebanon, Jordan, Israel, and Palestine; and (iii) Jordan, Israel, and Palestine. The results of the model suggest that the best resolution for all parties is through combined water and peace treaties. The results also indicate that a peace treaty between Israel and Palestine is the best resolution to the conflicts. The application of the Graph model in this paper shows its practicality and ability to provide each decision maker with a simulation environment to examine the moves and countermoves which considered during the negotiation among the different parties.
Traditional Justice System and Conflict Resolution: Exploring the Pre-colonial Institutional Frameworks in Mamfe and Bakweri lands of Cameroon (Published)
The current paper is geared at establishing the historicity of the traditional justice system in Cameroon using the Mamfe and Bakweri experiences. It centers on how traditional justice was dispensed in certain specific areas in Cameroon. Before the introduction of Formal Justice Instruments, it is important to mention that different societies applied different instruments of justice. Justice systems were modeled based on cultural belief patterns. Every society in pre-colonial Cameroon had its unique instruments of dictating and punishing crime. These instruments were enshrined in the people’s culture and handed down from generation to generation. The recognition of these traditional instruments of justice was born out of the ever increasing acceptance of the validity and legitimacy of the adjudicative powers of traditional leadership. In some instances a word from majesty was law. To realize this study, an interdisciplinary approach is adopted to prop into traditional instruments of justice using the Bakweri and Mamfe areas as typical examples. A qualitative design was adopted to look at the various crimes that were committed in these societies and the punishments that were mated out depending on the nature and magnitude of the crime. From all indications the traditional society in the Mamfe and Bakweri areas were not lawless societies. The people upheld human right values through their traditional belief patterns and could dictate and punish crime accordingly. The spirit of fair hearing was accorded criminals before punishment was mated out and this was enshrined in the doctrine of the traditional councils and customary courts that were charged with the resolution of land disputes, marital conflicts and other crimes like theft. Colonialism came with its own judicial system but some of the customary legal practices have continued to survive like customary marriages that are still recognized even in the presence of modern patterns of marriage.
Traditional Justice System and Conflict Resolution: Exploring the Pre-Colonial Institutional Frameworks in Mamfe and Bakweri Lands of Cameroon (Published)
The current paper is geared at establishing the historicity of the traditional justice system in Cameroon using the Mamfe and Bakweri experiences. It centers on how traditional justice was dispensed in certain specific areas in Cameroon. Before the introduction of Formal Justice Instruments, it is important to mention that different societies applied different instruments of justice. Justice systems were modeled based on cultural belief patterns. Every society in pre-colonial Cameroon had its unique instruments of dictating and punishing crime. These instruments were enshrined in the people’s culture and handed down from generation to generation. The recognition of these traditional instruments of justice was born out of the ever increasing acceptance of the validity and legitimacy of the adjudicative powers of traditional leadership. In some instances a word from majesty was law. To realize this study, an interdisciplinary approach is adopted to prop into traditional instruments of justice using the Bakweri and Mamfe areas as typical examples. A qualitative design was adopted to look at the various crimes that were committed in these societies and the punishments that were mated out depending on the nature and magnitude of the crime. From all indications the traditional society in the Mamfe and Bakweri areas were not lawless societies. The people upheld human right values through their traditional belief patterns and could dictate and punish crime accordingly. The spirit of fair hearing was accorded criminals before punishment was mated out and this was enshrined in the doctrine of the traditional councils and customary courts that were charged with the resolution of land disputes, marital conflicts and other crimes like theft. Colonialism came with its own judicial system but some of the customary legal practices have continued to survive like customary marriages that are still recognized even in the presence of modern patterns of marriage
An ethnographic research method that allows for a blend of aspects of qualitative and quantitative investigations was adopted in this study to establish whether both the oil prospecting companies and their host communities have the same view that mutual coexistence between the two parties is very feasible and relatively cheaper via excellent CSR practices by the oil companies. CSR, an acronym that stands for Corporate Social Responsibility, is the persistent commitment by a business organization to ethically behave to contribute maximally to the economic and environmental advancement of the quality of life of its workforce and the society, particularly the host communities. It was hypothesized that excellent CSR practice by the oil companies might be a potent solution to the violent crisis that has unfortunately characterized the relationship between oil prospecting companies and their host, the oil producing communities in the Niger Delta. The effectiveness of seven indicators of CSR as perceived by the oil corporations and the oil-producing areas in the resolution of the brutal conflicts in the Niger Delta were empirically investigated. A large sample of 2,487 was drawn by proportional stratified random sampling technique from the host communities and oil companies for the study. Results showed an overwhelming discrepancy between oil companies’ staff and oil producing areas indigenes for each of the seven CSR indicators. While host communities absolutely or strongly favored adoption of CSR as a viable strategy for ending the crisis and ensuring ultimate peace in the Niger Delta; the staff of oil prospecting companies held a diametrically opposite view. It is therefore recommended very strongly that oil producing companies in the Niger Delta should accord primary attention to excellent CSR practices to guarantee mutual peaceful coexistence and optimum oil production in the Niger Delta Region.
Language as a structure of meaning giving and reality creation is composed of words, phrases and sentences. Humans’ communications are based on these features to describe an event, explain one’s emotions, needs, interests and fears etc. Language is used to resolve or escalate dispute. People from different culture and social units perceive the world through the lens provided by their distinctive languages. Meaning that language provides repertoire of words that name the categories into which the language users have divided their world. In fact, definitions of words are linguistically, culturally and contextually bound. This is because words carry meanings that make sense to members of a shared social environment. Dispute resolution relies heavily on words (language). However, there is an underlying assumption in Nigeria that all these words should be in English – the second language. The researcher posits that if English is to be a conflict resolution tool in Nigeria. It must accommodate the diversity of culture and language usage. The paper therefore explores the challenges of English language in intercultural conflict resolution, and emphasizes the need to consider the different uses of the language in national and transnational conflict resolution.
An Appraisal Of The Dominant Causes Of Boundary Conflict Between Nigeria And Cameroun: The Bakassi Peninsula Perspective (Published)
This paper appraised the dominant causes of boundary conflict between Nigeria and Cameroun with reference to the Bakassi peninsula perspective. The realist theory was used as a framework of analysis. Data were derived from secondary sources and content analysis based on logical deduction and analysis of documents was adopted. The study found out that the dominant causes of the conflict include geographical and constitutional positions; colonial-legal sources, demographic, politico-strategic and economic issues. It further reveals that the Court resolutions on the conflict in favour of the Republic of Cameroun was informed by the colonial-legal sources, as such, it provoked reactions from various segments of the Nigerian public including Bakassi indigenous population, their paramount ruler, the Cross River State Youths Assembly and Nigerian Senate. But with the mediation of UN/Secretary General between the two countries’ presidents, Bakassi territory was officially handed over to the Camerounian Government. Hence, Cameroun-Nigeria Mixed Commission (CNMC) was established to finalized border demarcation between the two countries. Therefore, the study recommended among others that to further strengthening Nigeria-Cameroun relations: Both countries governments should desist from neglecting border areas, but encourage infrastructural developments, effectively occupying of border areas to avoid future incursions; Both countries governments should strictly abide by all diplomatic notes and agreements they have or will exchange between each other now and in future; Be committed to Organization of African Unity (OAU) declaration, which stipulates that independent African countries were bound to respect inherited colonial borders; that as both countries have recognized unprofitable nature of armed conflict and ceased fire, CNMC should be a permanent structure where problems arising from the management of the disputed areas be debated and resolved. However, the paper concluded that both countries should take advantage of conflict resolution to explore possible areas of cross-border collaboration and described peaceful conflict resolution by both countries, a model for all nationals fighting over conflicting interest(s).
Conflict Resolution in Higher Education Institutions: The Case of Ghanaian Public Universities (Published)
The paper reports preliminary findings from an ongoing research analyzing the purported resolution of promotion-related conflicts in Ghanaian Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). The purpose of the study was to examine how promotion-related conflicts in HEIs are being resolved. It sought to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the processes and procedures with the view to recommend ways of improving the resolution of promotion-related conflicts in Ghanaian HEIs. The data is drawn from questionnaires administered to two hundred and forty (240) randomly sampled Faculty members, while 18 senior administrators were also purposively sampled for semi-structured interviews. Promotion policy documents were also analyzed. The data reported in this paper highlights that Ghanaian Universities have processes and procedures for conflict resolution, although the quality of the procedures may be debated. It further suggests that ‘process’ is a critical factor in resolving promotion-related conflicts in HEIs.
INTERROGATING THE INVOLVEMENT OF NATIVE GODS IN CONTEMPORARY AFRICAN CONFLICT MANAGEMENT (Published)
Africa is witnessing increasing incidences of direct violence and demonstrated inability of governments to restore enduring peace largely through Western models of conflict resolution that necessitated the interrogation of traditional models with emphasis on the involvement of native gods. The study was descriptive and qualitative that relied on secondary data sources. It found that the Traditional models provided for a Win-Win arrangement relied on collective wisdom of the society while the involvement of native gods compelled compliance with resolution terms for fear of non-compliance. It found that governments largely failed to remain neutral in managing conflicts. Specific cases of successful interventions of native god were the final resolution of Aguleri-Umuleri, Umunebo- Umuokuzu and Okrika conflicts in Nigeria. The study concluded that the relevance of native gods is largely limited to intra-ethnic conflicts while it has been perverted by political elites. The study recommended that governments must pay attention to early warning signal to minimize direct violence and develop strong political will to confront the issues of conflict. Finally, the traditional models concerning the intervention of native gods could be combined with Western models where practicable as it cannot stand alone.
The work examines Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) Diplomatic methods of conflict resolution in West Africa. The objectives is to ascertain how effective these methods have been utilized in resolving conflicts in West Africa with a view of making appropriate recommendations based on research findings on how best to employ these methods by the community. The work adopted the doctrinal methodology of research, mainly primary and secondary sources such as: textbooks, official documents from ECOWAS, periodicals and internet resources. The work observed that these methods were successfully used to restore peace in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Togo, Cote d’ivoire, Guinea Bissau, Senegal and Gambia. Thus, the methods are useful in settlement of disputes and should be encouraged because the decision is reached by the parties themselves and enforcement of such agreement may be easier. The current use of council of elders on ad-hoc basis for peaceful resolution of conflicts is not sufficient. The ECOWAS should establish Commission of Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration as it will serve as a reminder to disputants that there is still the last opportunity to resolve their differences. Those to be appointed mediators should have good track records in terms of high level work experience and character; be endowed with negotiating skills and able to bring about peace and reconciliations that can be employed in potential conflict situations.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN ORGANIZATIONS-AN ANALYSIS (Published)
Conflict is as inevitable in every organization as change. Conflict is a potential element in all human interactions. Conflict can be harmful but also useful in achieving desired goals. Conflict resolution plays a vital role in the growth of an organization as it fosters creativity and innovation. The focus of the study was to analyse conflict resolution policies and practices, and employee perception of these conflict resolution policies in the sampled organization. A self-administered questionnaire was employed and administered among the management and staff of the sampled International Organisation in Accra, Ghana. Convenience sampling method was used in selecting 55 respondents from the various units of the organization and descriptive statistics were employed for analyzing the data collected. For the data analysis, SPSS (21.0) was used. The findings of this research revealed some major causes of conflict in the organizations. This research identified the conflict resolutions policies that the organization has put in place to manage and resolve conflict in the organization, and employees’ perception of these policies.
THE MOSAIC LAW AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION (Published)
This paper aims at making contributions in finding solutions to the problems, which conflict leaves behind wherever and whenever it happens. Disagreements or controversies between opposing parties that lead to conflicts in all aspects of life when not well managed have left tales of woes that are akin to reminiscence of after war effects in areas where they happened. The all-knowing God, who knew ahead of time what might happen to the fledgling nation of Israel as she entered into her Land of Promise, provided the Mosaic Laws that would checkmate misdemeanours of the people in their inter-relationship with each other and God Himself. This is purely a library research. Several books were consulted, which made it easy to crystallize a message for application. It is expected that any people that apply the message of the Mosaic Law in their daily living are likely to avoid conflicts that have devastating effects on them. Although the laws were given to Israel to govern her life in the land of promise for blessing instead of cursing, there was an attendant purpose in the giving of the Mosaic Law to Israel—a purpose that still stands today. Simply put, its proper use is to show man his total helpless and hopeless condition before a righteous and just God. The thesis of this paper is therefore to encourage people to employ the tenets of the Mosaic Law and to avoid or ameliorate the problem(s) caused by conflicts.
POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)
The study analyses the Poverty Alleviation Programmes as an alternative to Peace and Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria; it links the frequency of Conflicts (insecurity) in the region the incidence of absolute and abject poverty. The study predominantly utilized secondary data. In the final analyses, it is shown that conflicts in the region are traceable to poverty. The study concludes that, peace, stability and security is the foundation for achieving the socio-economic development; therefore, preventing conflict, resolving conflict and for peace to be built, poverty has to be alleviated or eradicate the poverty tension that breeds ground for conflict, which requires a genuine commitment for poverty alleviation programmes and involvement of constituents people at every level–design, implementation and monitoring of poverty reduction programs