This research presents examples from corpora where ‘in spite of’ directly follows clauses and behaves like a conjunction although the phenomenon has not been widely acknowledged and has been regarded as a mistake. This study empirically investigates whether ‘in spite of’ and other group prepositions expressing concession cause a functional shift from a preposition to a conjunction without causing any morphological changes. The research procedure is as follows: (i) The frequency of [in spite of + SV] in universally available corpora is shown from synchronic and diachronic perspectives; (ii) it is clarified how [in spite of + SV] is used in context, semantically and syntactically; (iii) what influences the establishment and functional conversion of [in spite of + SV] into a conjunction is explained; and (iv) whether other phraseological units expressing concession express the same phenomenon as [in spite of + SV] is explored based on quantitative and qualitative viewpoints.
This study examined the relationship between cargo handling equipment and port productivity in Tin Can Island Port, Apapa, Lagos. This study made use of 50 plant operators as sampled size based on simple random sampling technique, in which questions like how storage capacity of Tin Can port could be analysed and what is the relationship between equipment and productivity in the port. These data were subsequently analyzed through regression analysis and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient. The result showed that port productivity components were few, unserviceable and obsolete, storage capacity was inadequate and unable to cater for the existing volume of cargo in pre – reform era. While in post – reform era more cargo handling equipment have been procured, storage capacity have been increased and expanded, latest cargo handling equipment with high lift capacity have been procured. Therefore, the study recommended that faulty cargo handling equipment should be repaired, government and other stakeholders should encourage research into areas of post productivity.