Tag Archives: Concentrations

Concentrations of Selected Trace Elements and Their Temporal Variation in Borehole Water, Eldoret Municipality, Kenya (Published)

Water is a basic human requirement as it is extensively used in everyday life and if contaminated, it is detrimental to life and can cause health effects. This study assessed levels of trace elements; Copper, Chromium and Manganese in borehole waters in Eldoret Municipality, Kenya. Samples were collected from selected boreholes in pre-cleaned 0.5L polyethylene bottles and analysed for the trace metals using standard procedures. Statistical analysis of data was carried out using SPSS (version 12.0). Copper concentration ranged from 0.005 – 0.050 ppm, Chromium ranged from 0.04 – 0.23 ppm while Manganese concentration ranged from 0.068 – 0.291 ppm. 69% of the borehole water samples had significantly high chromium concentrations (p < 0.05) compared to WHO/FAO recommended values (0.1ppm). Similarly Copper concentrations in water samples from boreholes at Munyaka were significantly higher than WHO/FAO recommended values (0.036 ppm). The elevated Chromium and Copper concentrations particularly at Kipkorgot and Munyaka could be attributed to the quarry activities near the borehole and runoff water from the nearby farms where fertilizers and chemical sprays are normally used, respectively. In conclusion the concentration of the trace elements Copper, Manganese and Chromium in the study was generally lower than WHO/FAO recommended values. There were no significant temporal variations of the trace elements in studied water samples. Recommendation is made for regular monitoring of the borehole waters in the study area to ensure health and safety of consumers.

Keywords: Borehole Water, Concentrations, Health Effects, Trace elements

Fungicidal Potential of Homeopathic Pellets in the Inhibition of Root Rot Fungi and For Promotion of Crop Plants Productivity (Published)

Root rot pathogens cause heavy economic damages in agricultural field. The aim of this research is to evaluate the fungicidal efficacy of potentised homeopathic pellets (30C) namely Arnica montana and Thuja occidentalis on germination, growth, yield of crop plants and root rot fungi particularly Fusarium spp, Rhizoctonia solani and Macrophomina phaseolina. Homeopathic pellets were found to be effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth of test fungi in vitro experiment. Whereas, investigation in vivo field experiment showed that A. montana and T. occidentalis pellets @ 75% v/w concentration (prepared from 30C) remarkably control the pathogenic fungi and significantly enhanced the growth parameter and yield of crop plants followed by 50% v/w concentration (prepared from 30C) as compared to control. Experiments have shown positive effect in reducing the intensity of disease caused by root rot pathogen and improve the growth of crop plants.

Keywords: Concentrations, Homeopathic Pellets, Inhibition, Leguminous and Non Leguminous Crops, Root Rot Fungi


The Influence of calcium sources and concentration on the storage performance of strawberry fruit was determined by harvesting the fruits at red stage and treatment with calcium nitrate, calcium gluconate and calcium chloride at 0% (distilled water), 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% calcium solutions by dipping for 30 seconds. The calcium sources, concentration and the interaction of calcium sources and concentration significantly affected the storage performance of strawberry fruit. While all the three sources and concentrations were effective in decreasing the storage associated changes i.e. weight loss, decline in marketable fruits, loss of organoleptic quality, increase in TSS, decline in reducing sugars, total sugars and acidity and increase in Sugar/ Acid ratio in strawberry fruit, thus extended the shelf life, Calcium gluconate and calcium concentration of 1.5% was more effective. Treatment of strawberry fruit with 1.5% calcium from Calcium gluconate source resulted in the highest number of marketable fruit (100%), extended shelf life (10 days) total soluble solid (7.80%) with the minimum weight loss (5.45%). Ascorbic acid content was the highest (35.35 mg/100 g) in fruits treated with the calcium nitrate at 1.0% calcium concentration but was at par with Calcium gluconate. It can be concluded that calcium gluconate at 1.5% concentration is an effective calcium treatment to retain the quality and extend the shelf life of strawberry fruit.

Keywords: Calcium, Concentrations, Fruit, Perishable, Quality, Salts, Sources, Storage, Strawberry