Tag Archives: Computer Based Test

The Effect of Interaction between Test Type and Anxiety on Achievement and Time (Published)

The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of interaction between the test type and test anxiety level on achievement and performance time. The experimental design according to the independent variables is 3×2 factorial design. The test was delivered through three types; paper (Paper Based Testing-PBT), computers (Computer Based Testing-CBT) and mobile devices (Mobile Based Testing-MBT). Seventy two participants of the third secondary students were randomly assigned into six ex­perimental groups. To classify the sample according to test anxiety level (low/ high), an adapted version of the Westside test anxiety scale was used. Data analyses were conducted to test the hypotheses derived from research questions. The research instrument was an achievement test on the first unit of the third secondary curriculum. Two-way ANO­VA test was used to investigate the main effects of the independent variables on dependent ones. Findings revealed the effect of test anxiety on achievement and performance time in favor of low anxiety level students. There were no significant differences on achievement and performance time due to the main effect of test type. Also, there were no significant differences on achievement and performance time due to interaction between test type and test anxiety level.

Keywords: Computer Based Test, Mobile Learning, Mobile-Based Test, Paper-Based Test, Test Anxiety Level


Most business managers have seen change becoming a regular aspect of organizational life and they must constantly monitor and respond to these changes appropriately. The overriding goal is to optimize the output of the people involved in this process and reduce the risk of failure in achieving the desired change. Change management is usually seen from an organizational context and refers to the process of developing a planned approach to change in an organization. Business environment has become much more turbulent, uncertain and demanding change is inevitable in an organisation. Business operates in a dynamic environment and organisation that fails to recognise the inevitability of change is doomed to fail. This paper is designed to examine the nexus of change management on organisational performance and survival in Nigerian universities using University of Ilorin as a case study. Both primary and secondary sources of data constitute the main source of data gathering. Random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample size. Regression analysis was used to analyse the data obtained and the testing of one hypothesis formulated. The results obtained reveal a strong negative relationship between changes introduced through Computer Based Test in the University.This research recommends that before embarking on any change, the university should attempt to maintain useful customs and informal relationship, build trust, encourage participation, provide information in advance, make only necessary changes, guarantee against loss, provide counselling, allow for negotiation between the University Management and the staff and students.

Keywords: Change Management, Computer Based Test, Counselling, Negotiation., Participation, Transformation