Tag Archives: Composition

Floristic Composition, Diversity and Structure of Two Proposed Community Forests in the Deng Deng National Park-Belabo Council Forest Conservation Corridor, East Region of Cameroon (Published)

The assessment of floristic composition of every ecosystem is very important in ecological planning and productivity.  The main objective of this study was to determine the species composition, structure and diversity in two community forests between the Deng Deng National Park and the Belabo Council Forest.  The transect method was employed in data collection. Four long transects were established parallel to each other in each community forest at a distance of 2km apart. In each transect, plots of 20x500m were established at interval of 500m. A total of 25 plots 20x500m (1ha each) were established in the two community forests; 13 plots in community forest one (KEBO) and 12 plots in community forest two (KEPOL). This gave a total of 0.25% of the total land surface sampled in both community forests. Within each plot, all individual trees≥10cm were identified, measured, and recorded.  A subplot of 10x10m was established in each plot to identify trees of <.10cm. The identification of plants was done using a combination of characters such as the general form of the tree (butresses, roots systems, bark texture; slash colour, smell, leaf type and shape) as well as the flowers, and fruits of the trees.  The dbh of all trees were measured at 1.3 using the dbh metal tape. The height of trees was measured through estimation (average estimates of all field researchers). Results revealed a total of seven thousand eight hundred and seventeen (7817) individual plants with dbh ≥10cm in the entire study area. From this number,  4108 tree stems   ≥10cm were identified and measured in community forest (KEBO) one. This belongs to 156 species in 41 families. In community forest two (KEPOL), a total of and 3708 stems were identified and measured. This belongs to 149 species in 41 families. Fabaceae  ,Malvaceae , Euphorbiaceae and Rubiaceae were found to be the most dominant plant families while Drypetes sp, Annonidium manii and Funtumia africana were found to be  the most dominant plant species. Species composition and diversity varied in the two community forests. Community forest one  was  characterized by high diversity and similar species composition shown by the Shannon diversity index of 3.6 while community forest two showed signs of poor diversity as seen from the index of 3.41. Tree basal area was high in KEPOL than KEPOL. Species in the different plots were similar but with outliers of plot 4 in KEBO and plot 12 in KEPOL had species which were far more different from the rest of the plots.

 

Keywords: : basal area, Composition, Diversity, Structure, floristic

Using Graphical Model to Improve Students’ Performance in Composition and Inverse Of Functions at Offinso College of Education (Published)

The concept of function is one of the central concepts in Mathematics; as such it has received attention in Mathematics Education Research. However, the research focused explicitly on the two subtopics of a function: Composition and Inverse. This study examined the use of graphical model to improve the performance of first year Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) students of Offinso College of Education, in Ashanti Region of Ghana. The study also investigated how the textbooks treated this particular topic and how teachers taught these two subtopics of a function. A total of fifty (50) students participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interview and rating scale questionnaire. In addition to these, the students wrote pre-test and post-test. The data were analyzed in detail using quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results of the study suggested that, the performance of the students in the post-test was far better than the pre-test indicating that the intervention worked. Finally, the students’ interest was motivated and also developed confidence in solving composition and inverse of functions using graphical model. It is recommended that, constructivist theory of learning should be encouraged in all spheres of Mathematics classroom environments so as to give learners the opportunity to find meaning to their own learning in order to explore new ideas and findings concerning their future.

Keywords: Composition, Diploma in Basic Education (DBE), Inverse Function, graphical model

Using Graphical Model to Improve Students’ Performance in Composition and Inverse of Functions at Offinso College of Education (Published)

The concept of function is one of the central concepts in Mathematics; as such it has received attention in Mathematics Education Research. However, the research focused explicitly on the two subtopics of a function: Composition and Inverse. This study examined the use of graphical model to improve the performance of first year Diploma in Basic Education (DBE) students of Offinso College of Education, in Ashanti Region of Ghana. The study also investigated how the textbooks treated this particular topic and how teachers taught these two subtopics of a function. A total of fifty (50) students participated in the study. The data were collected through semi-structured interview and rating scale questionnaire. In addition to these, the students wrote pre-test and post-test. The data were analyzed in detail using quantitative and qualitative techniques. The results of the study suggested that, the performance of the students in the post-test was far better than the pre-test indicating that the intervention worked. Finally, the students’ interest was motivated and also developed confidence in solving composition and inverse of functions using graphical model. It is recommended that, constructivist theory of learning should be encouraged in all spheres of Mathematics classroom environments so as to give learners the opportunity to find meaning to their own learning in order to explore new ideas and findings concerning their future.

Keywords: Composition, Diploma in Basic Education (DBE), Inverse Function, graphical model

The Compositional and Mineral Content of Granola (Breakfast cereal), Produced from Different locally available cereal Grains (Published)

The consumption of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal contributes significantly to the dietary intake of a number of nutrients. However the knowledge of the mineral content of such breakfast cereal is limited. The present study was aimed to evaluate the proximate, mineral and sensory characteristics of the new granola products. Six different ready-to-eat breakfast cereals were produced from different locally available and cheap cereal grains such as maize (white, yellow and popping corn varieties), guinea corn and millet. Oat was used as control and samples were analyzed using standard methods. Sensory analysis showed that there was significant difference in their color, taste, texture and overall acceptability, while flavor showed no significant difference (p≥0.05) in all the samples. Oat based granola (control) had the highest values for fat, protein and energy which were significantly different from the other samples, but however lower in moisture content, fiber and total available carbohydrate. Yellow maize granola had the lowest protein content as well as the highest value for carbohydrate with the control showing the reverse trend. The result also showed that the control sample A, had the lowest value for fiber and the highest energy while the white maize granola which had the highest fiber had the least energy in kcal/g. A total of eight essential minerals associated with cereal grains were evaluated, namely calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron copper and zinc. The yellow maize granola (sample C) was significantly high (p≤0.05) in calcium, iron and copper but low in magnesium, sodium and zinc, while the millet based granola (sample F) was significantly (p≤0.05) high in potassium and zinc.  Magnesium and phosphorus were highest in the guinea corn based granola (sample E). The ready to eat breakfast granola have shown from the study to contribute significant amount per/100g of consumption of the important minerals particularly iron and magnesium. This study also showed that the production of granola from other locally available grains gave acceptable products without altering its properties.

Keywords: Cereals, Composition, Sensory Properties, breakfast, granola, mineral elements