Functional properties and sensory evaluations of ‘chin-chin’, bread and biscuits produced from composite flours from African yam bean, Orange fleshed sweet potatoes, plantain, cocoyam, maize, and wheat (Published)
The aim of this study was to produce ‘’chin-chin’’, bread and biscuit from composite flours of African yam bean (AYB), plantain, maize, orange fleshed sweet potatoes (OFSP), wheat and cocoyam.AYB seeds were fermented in citric acid medium (0.5%). Maize seeds were fermented in tap water for 48hrs. Green matured plantain fruit, cocoyam corm and OFSP tubers were processed into flour. The functional properties of the flours were determined using standard laboratory methods. Products were developed from the composite flours using conventional methods. Sensory properties of the products were assessed using a 9-point hedonic scale. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze data.Bulk density, water absorption capacity, swelling index, foaming capacity, Potential of Hydrogen, oil absorption capacity, gelation capacity and solubility of the flours differed, while the products had variable degree of acceptability. The standardized recipes will ensure products of predictable quantity and quality.
Effect of Fermentation Time and Blending Ratio on Nutrients and Some Anti Nutrient Composition of Complementary Flour (Published)
Most complementary foods used in low income households are often characterized by low nutrient density, poor protein quality, low mineral bioavailability, and low energy. Fermentation and blending are an easily applicable approach to improve the nutrient content and mineral bioavailability of such complementary foods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop nutritionally adequate complementary flour with a safe level of antinutrients. Three fermentation times (0, 24, and 36 hr) and four blends of composite flour consisting of maize, haricot bean, and cooking banana, respectively, in the proportion of 65:20:15, 60:30:10, 50:35:15, 30:60:10 were used in the formulation with 100% maizeas control. Fermentation causes significant (P˂0.05) reduction in moisture from 9.00 to 6.59%, ash from 2.31 to 1.75%, crude fiber from 5.05 to 3.21%, iron from 5.14 to 4.21mg/100g, calcium from 54.42 to 43.75 mg/100g, condensed tannin from 46.93 to 31.32 mg/100g, phytate from 70.24 to 36.99 mg/100. On the other hand anincrement of crude fat from 5.12 to 6.43%, protein from 13.44 to 14.98%, total carbohydrate from 70.14 to 72.07%, energy from 380.39 to 398.83 Kcal/100g, zinc from 4.41 to 5.24 mg/100g, Vitamin C from 3.99 to 5.75 mg/ml were recorded as fermentation time increased. The proximate composition of composite flour ranged from 1.19 to 2.87% for ash, 6.93 to 7.50% for moisture, 5.31 to 6.23% for crude fat, 2.71 to 5.71% for crude fiber, 9.35% to 18.28% for protein, 66.04 to 77.16 % for carbohydrate and 385.11 to 395.28 Kcal/100g for energy value. Substitution of haricot bean and cooking banana to maize flour increased in (mg/100g) calcium content from 27.80 to 61.43, iron from 3.50 to 5.69, zinc from 3.07 to 6.24, phytate from 2.04 to107.21 and condensed tannin from 1.44 to 74.60 in formulated composite flour. Vitamin C content of complementary flour increased from 2.97 to 5.55 mg/ml as cooking banana proportion level increased. Based on the present finding fermentation and substitution of maize with haricot bean and cooking banana could be, recommended in the production of nutritious complementary food for older infants and young children.
Study of the nutritional quality and acceptability of millet biscuits (Pennissetum glaucum L.) supplemented with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L) and Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea L.) (Published)
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of legume flour cowpea and Bambara groundnut from Burkina Faso at different levels 15%, 30% et 50% on the nutritional quality and acceptability of millet biscuits. The macronutrients, iron and zinc contents were determined using standard AOAC methods. The acceptability test of cookies were performed with a panel of 30 tasters. The protein content of cookies increased proportionally with the supplementation. The protein contents of cowpea cookies were higher than Bambara groundnut cookies, 12.82 g / 100 g and 10.47 g / 100 g respectively. Supplemented cookies have low iron and zinc contents, 2.23 mg / 100 g and 1.87 mg / 100 g respectively for cowpea and Bambara groundnut. On the organoleptic level, up to 15% supplementation, there is no significant difference in odor and taste.