Tag Archives: Competitive Advantage

Analysis of Sustained Competitive Advantage of Palm Cooking Oil Company in Indonesia Using Resource-Based View Approach (Case Study at Pt. Xyz) (Published)

Indonesia is the biggest crude palm oil (CPO) exporter in the world. CPO export gave Indonesia the highest foreign exchange compare to the other sector. The current competition level of pam cooking oil in Indonesia added by the limitation of opening new field urge companies to survive by searching for the source of competitive advantage. The aims of this study are to identify company resources and capabilities and analyse them to obtain the source of sustained competitive advantage for the company. This study uses literature review, in-depth interview and questionnaires to gather the opinion of experts. Data analysis using descriptive qualitative method using Value Chain Analysis (VCA) and Valuable, Rareness, Inimitability, Organization (VRIO) framework as tools. The results showed that there are 16 resources and 15 capabilities identified using VCA. One resource pass the VRIO analysis and become the source of sustained competitive advantage for the company. Four resources and capabilities pass the V, R and O variable and gave temporary competitive advantage to the company. Two capabilities do not fulfil the O variable and gave the company competitive disadvantage. Strategy developed combine several resources and capabilities to produce new resource and capability which are unique and inimitable.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, RBV, VCA, VRIO., palm cooking oil

Managerial Roles and Competitive Advantage: SMEs, Perspective from Lagos State Nigeria (Published)

The operation of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) has awakened the interest of experts globally due to the varied challenges from low market share, poor sales growth, and dwindling profit. These have made them less competitive, market/product failure, and sub-optimal performance, and at times closures. Hence, this study investigated the effect of managerial roles on competitive advantage of SMEs in Lagos State Nigeria. Cross sectional survey research design was adopted using structured questionnaire. The target population comprised 460 owner- managers of the selected SMEs in manufacturing, real estate, agricultural and services sector in the five main divisions of the State (Ikeja, Badagry, Ikorodu, Lagos Island, Epe). Multistage sampling technique was used. Pilot study was carried out to establish the validity and reliability of the research instrument. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients for the constructs ranged from 0.790 and 0.946. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistically and significant relationship was established between managerial roles and competitive advantage with adjusted R2 0.61, F-stat (4,450)=183.13, p<0.05. In addition, marketing (β = 0.529, t = 8.523, p<0.05), people management (β = 0.610, t = 13.055, p<0.05) significant affected competitive advantage while communication and negotiation exhibited insignificant effect on competitive advantage of SMEs in Lagos State. This study recommended that SMEs should actively invest in marketing and human resources to ensure competitive advantage.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Managerial roles, Marketing, SMEs, people management

Entrepreneurial Marketing Practices and Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Nigeria (Published)

Entrepreneurial marketing practices and competitive advantage of small and medium size enterprises in Enugu State was studied to examine the effect of entrepreneurial marketing dimensions on competitive advantage of small and medium size enterprises in Enugu state. The study applied descriptive research design with the aid of survey method in obtaining the data needed. The sample size of the study was 356 owners/managers of small and medium-sized enterprise in Enugu state. Descriptive Statistics and multiple regressions analytical tool were used to analyze the data. Findings reveal that proactiveness has no significant relationship with competitive advantage. Opportunity focuse has statistically significant relationship with competitive advantage. Risk- taking has no significant relationship with competitive advantage. Innovativeness has statistical significance relationship with competitive advantage.  Customer intensity has no statistical significance relationship with competitive advantage; resource leveraging has no statistical significant relationship with competitive advantage. Value creation has significant relationship with competitive advantage. We conclude that SMEs operators should emphasis on innovativeness, opportunity focus, and value creation, this will enable them compete favorably.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Entrepreneurial Marketing, Small and Medium Size Enterprises

Consumer Purchase Behavior: Potential Markets in Argentina for Brazilian E-Book Retailers (Published)

Traditional teaching materials, especially books and academic texts, fail to keep up with the increasing demands of the newly hyperconnected students in Latin America. It could represent an opportunity for retailers and publishers, in order to reposition their brands, through innovative strategic offers of digital products and services. This research considered the Argentinian macro-environment and characteristics of the sub-section of academic publishers. The structural factors of the proposed product in the subsegment supply chain, as well as the proposed positioning and potential competitive advantages in the microenvironment. Corresponding aspects to the adoption potential and usage continuity of the product (e-Book or e-Textbook) for the proposed subsegment. Primary data was gathered from a survey conducted with undergraduate and graduate students. This work provides a knowledge framework, so that companies – based on the proposed study, might develop action plans destined to position their brands in the identified subsegment in Argentina, solidifying the positioning next to the academic consumer. Discussion, research limitations, and future research compile this work.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, E-Books, consumer purchase behavior

The Impact of a Sustainable Competitive Advantage on a Firm’s Performance: Empirical Evidence From Coca-Cola Ghana Limited (Published)

Current organizations turn to many standard techniques to achieve competitive advantage, and if they are sustainable, then the organization benefits from the competitive advantage. As markets grow more saturated, only the organization with the highest sustainable competitive advantage will benefit the most. The primary objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of a sustainable competitive advantage on firm’s performance using evidence from Coca-Cola Ghana limited. The population included employees of Coca-Cola Ghana Limited in the four main regional capital cities and affiliated stakeholders. The data collected from 356 respondents were analyzed with Smart PLS statistical software. The results from the Structural Equation Model (SEM) revealed that sustainable competitive advantage is positively related to organizational performance. Resources and competitive environment have a moderating effect on firm’s strategy. It also established that resources and competitive environment are directly related to firm’s performance. Finally, it confirmed the relationship between human resource strategy and firm’s performance as positively related. The study concludes that the effects of the firm’s strategy, resources and competitive environment and human resource strategies on sustainable competitive advantage are undeniable and they have numerous impact on firms’ performance.

Keywords: Coca Cola Ghana Limited, Competitive Advantage, Firm Performance, Partial Least Squares, Sustained Competitive Advantage

Assessment of Market Practices and Organizational Competitiveness of Sheba Leather Industry (Plc) (Published)

Ethiopian leather development strategy has put the shoe industry on the forefront position to accelerate the development of the sector. The study focuses on the assessment of market practices and organizational competitiveness of Sheba leather industry. The main purpose is to find the factors that allow and prevent the company from coping up with competitive pressures and to find out the competitive advantages enjoyed and disadvantages faced by the company. A concept of competitiveness and parameters for measuring it has been discussed. The porter diamond model has been chosen to analyse the company’s competitiveness. As source of data four department managers and the general and deputy manager of the company were contacted by the researcher. The result depicts the low level competitiveness of the company. All determinants of competitiveness (factor conditions, home demand condition, related and supporting industries, and firm strategy, structure and rivalry) are found to be insignificant with the exception of natural resource endowment of the country in hides and skins and low labour cost availability. Lack of strong existence of related and supporting industries and factor conditions like scarcity of skilled labour, unavailability of raw materials (chemicals and shoe accessories) are the factors that limit the company from utilizing its cost advantage in raw hides and skins and sustaining its market share on domestic and international market.  The study forwarded the diversification of the company’s product destination into large bases and the establishment of distribution outlets in different part of the country to base the company’s market on strong domestic demand.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Competitiveness, porter diamond model

Business Process Reengineering (Bpr) and Competitive Advantage in a Recessed Economy. A Study of Selected Brewing Firms in Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

The economic condition in Nigeria has thrown up a lot of issues that are disturbing and constitute threat to the very existence of businesses. This necessitated this study to examine how organizations will implement reengineering so as to stem the tide of recession and remain competitive. Specifically, the study sought to examine the type of relationship that exists between management commitment and innovative strength of the studied firms in a recessed economy. The study population consisted of 872 staff of Life Breweries Plc and SABMiller Plc while the sample size was 274. Data were collected using questionnaire and analysed with the use of Correlation Analysis using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Findings indicated that there was a significant positive relationship existing between management commitment and innovative strength with a correlation coefficient of .975 and a p-value of .000. The study recommended among other things that management of the focused firms should lead the change processes by example so as to motivate their followers to buy into the idea.

Keywords: Business Process Reengineering, Competitive Advantage, Innovative Strength., Management Commitment

Intellectual Capital Impact on Competitive Advantage Achievement in Jordanian Financial Companies (Published)

This study aims at investigating the impact of intellectual capital on achieving competitive advantage in Jordanian financial companies. The study population consists of all companies operating in financial sector: banks, insurance companies and shareholding companies listed in Amman financial market amounting 100 companies. The researcher used convenient random sample from the said companies amounting 80 companies that is (80%) of the study population. The questionnaire was distributed to HR managers or their representatives in these companies.  80 questionnaires were distributed, 76 questionnaires were collected that is 95%  .All questionnaires were valid for analysis, To achieve study objectives a questionnaire was developed to measure intellectual capital dimensions, which are believed to influence competitive advantage achievement in these companies. The study concluded a set of results; the most important is that there is a positive relationship between intellectual capital dimensions with its five variables and achieving competitive advantage in Jordanian financial companies. This confirms the importance of intellectual capital in achieving competitive advantage in these companies. The results also showed that Jordanian financial companies have interest in intellectual capital, since there was sufficient interest in attracting intellectual capital, focusing on customers and activating intellectual capital. The results also showed that these companies have less interest in making intellectual capital and maintain the same. Finally, the study recommended a set of recommendations, the most important of which is the need for top management in Jordanian financial companies to continue paying attention to all intellectual capital dimensions as important variables that contribute to these companies competitive advantage which enhance their position in the market.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Intellectual Capital, Jordanian Financial Companies

Structural Change in Regional Economies: Empirical Evidence from Aceh, Indonesia (Published)

Aceh is a western province of Indonesia, located on the Sumatera Island. This study aims to describe economic conditions in the Aceh Province. The economic phenomenon is described using the Esteban-Marquilas modified shift-share analysis. The results show that most of the economic sectors in Aceh Province do not have a competitive advantage but still specialize compared to the same sector at the national level. Nevertheless, there are still two sectors that have a competitive advantage and specialize, namely the water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities sectors; and accommodation and food service activities sector. This is due to the decrease in the contribution of primary and secondary sectors in the formation of gross regional domestic product in Aceh. Earlier Aceh’s economy depended on the primary sector. This indicates a structural change in the economy.

Keywords: Allocation Effect, Competitive Advantage, Regional Development., Shift-Share Analysis, Structural Change

The Relationship between Research and Development Alliance and Competitive Advantage of the Kenya Commercial Bank, Eldoret Branch (Published)

Strategic alliance relationship continues to be one of the leading business strategies. It is driven majorly by increasing competition in the global market. It is also increasingly becoming popular in the business world. The research sought to establish the relationship between strategic alliances and competitive advantage at the Kenya Commercial Bank. Based on the study, this paper explores the extent to which research and development alliance influences competitive advantage at the KCB. The rationale for carrying out the research was to provide evidence-based practice for KCB and other banks as they engage in strategic alliances. The study adopted a correlational survey research design. It targeted a population of 75 respondents. The sample size comprised 63 respondents selected using random sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire. The data obtained from the questionnaires were coded, organized and analysed using descriptive statistics specifically employing frequency and percentages to analyse closed-ended questions while mean and standard deviation was used to analyse the five point Likert questions. Hypotheses were tested to determine the relationship between research and development alliance and competitive advantage of KCB. The research results revealed that that there was a significant relationship between research and development alliance and competitive advantage (p=0.000). The study concluded that the Kenya Commercial Bank has gained competitive advantage as a result of entering into research and development alliances with various partners across different industries. Therefore, the study recommended that KCB should continue partnering with other commercial banks and organizations through research in order to increase its market share. The paper is significant as it identifies ways in which banks can exploit research and development alliance to provide customers with quality needs-based services and achieve competitive advantage in the banking industry.

Keywords: Alliance, Competitive Advantage, Development, Eldoret, Kenya Commercial Bank, Research

Effect of Collaborative Awareness on Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya (Published)

Global competition within firms has forced most manufacturing industries to become more innovative and strategic in their supply chain practices. One way of achieving this is through Supply Chain Agility. The study focussed to assess the Effect of Collaborative Awareness on Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetic Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya. Relational View theory, Resource Based View Theory and Stategy, Structure and Performance Theory was adopted in the study. Cross-sectional survey research design was used in the study. The target population of the study was 714 employees working in the Cosmetic Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya. A sample of 256 was selected from the target population using a Multi Stage Sampling Technique. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the collected data. The results of the study reveal that collaborative awareness contributes positively to supply chain agility of cosmetics manufacturing firms in the County Government of Nairobi.Generally, majority of the respondents agreed that Collaborative Awareness contributes positively to Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi. The results also indicates that there is a positive and statistically significant correlation between collaborative awareness and supply chain agility (r=0.505, p<0.001). This implies that collaborative awareness enhances supply chain agility of cosmetics manufacturing firms in the County Government of Nairobi.  As evidenced from the results it can be concluded that collaborative awareness positively affects the Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms and as such the firms should constantly be in collaboration with their partners since it one of the strategies employed by firms to deal with uncertainties. Interesting findings might be obtained from studies that explore integral relationship strategies in other industries or settings.

Keywords: Collaborative Awareness, Competitive Advantage, Relational View Theory, Resource Based View Theory, Strategy, Structure and Performance Theory, Supply Chain Agility

Competitiveness of Lebanon in Tourism: Comparison with Jordan, Egypt and Turkey (Published)

The purpose of this research is to determine Lebanese tourism industry’s competitiveness compared to its major rivals, i.e.  Jordan, Egypt and Turkey. First of all, Lebanese tourism industry was evaluated through obtained information from secondary sources (i.e. bank reports, Ministry of Tourism reports). Then, the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report (2015) is used to compare the global rankings of Egypt, Jordan, Turkey and Lebanon. And finally, questionnaire analysis was carried out to understand people’s perception towards these countries. Findings revealed that the tourists’ inflow to Lebanon has witnessed a constant decrease since the emergence of the Arab Spring while it demonstrated its second annual upturn in 2015. However, overall ranking in the globalised world showed that Lebanon is in the last position compared to its rivals. Findings also indicated that despite having worse results compared to its rivals in factors like business environment, human resources, labour market and ICT readiness, Lebanon confirmed a better standing in health and hygiene and performed better than Egypt in safety and security matters. It was also proven by this study that Lebanon is performing either similarly or better in factors like mild climate, image, leisure attractions, educational and multilingual workforce, regional competition and environment protection.  However, conversely, it demonstrated either bad or worse performance in factors like eco-tourism, world class hotels and airports, natural environment, cost of accommodation and natural heritage. Moreover, the results of the research showed that the competitive position of Lebanese tourism is not the same in different international markets.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Lebanon, Tourism Competitiveness

The Role of Financial Capital Resource Capabilities in Improving Employee Performance in Courrier Companies in Kenya (Published)

Financial capital in organizations is a key form of asset that exists in various sources and characteristics. Financial capital commonly refers to assets needed by a company to provide goods or services, as measured in terms of money value. The most important sources of financial capital are debt and equity. Debt represents credit from a lender, also known as creditor, and is created when a creditor agrees to lend a sum of assets to a debtor (borrower). It is imperative that firms source for financial resources that will enable purchase of tools and other equipment required by employees in discharging their duties. Equity on the other hand is direct investment into an organization. The initial equity is financed by the principal owner and the start-up team, then equity is obtained for their successive growth from high net worth family members, friends called angel market. This paper is an assessment of the role played by financial capital resource capabilities of a firm to improve employee performance. The study used a target population of 2800 from which a sample of 339 respondents was obtained using Cochran’s formula. Simple random sampling and employed explanatory research design were also used.. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that financial capital resource capabilities had a great influence on employee performance, thus played the key role in organization’s performance.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Employee Performance, Financial Capital Resource Capabilities

Human Resource Management Practices and Competitive Advantage: The Mediator Role of Person-Organization FIT (Published)

Competitive advantage has been viewed as an essential tool for organizations to compete in the current business environment. Kuwaiti manufacturing companies strive to cope with new changes and adopt competitive advantages to survive and continue in the global economy. The purpose of this study is to examine the direct relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and competitive advantage for Kuwaiti manufacturing companies, as well as the indirect relationship between HRM practices and competitive advantage by means of person-organizational (P-O) fit. The respondents were employees working in sixty-three manufacturing companies. The findings indicate that HRM practices have a significant positive impact on competitive advantage. In addition, the P-O fit has a mediation impact on the relationship between HRM practices and on competitive advantage. Our results showed that only eleven of twenty HRM practices were found to have effects on competitive advantage. These results are consistent with previous research, which suggested that there is lack of consensus in the existing literature on which HRM practices are best. A discussion of the study’s findings and limitations are provided.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Human Resource Management Practices, Kuwaiti Manufacturing Companies., Person-Organizational Fit

The Relationship between Premium Beer Brand Attributes and Brand Loyalty – An Exploratory South African Study (Published)

This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study conducted among a convenience sample of 300 premium beer consumers selected from two major cities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Breweries (SAB), the largest brewery in South Africa has been struggling to compete in the premium beer market as a result of more brands competing in the premium beer market which is the most attractive segment of the beer market. This paper aimed at exploring the factors that attract consumers to premium beer brands. It was ascertained that the crispiness of the beer, superior, unique taste and, the price of the beer brand ate important factors.The implications of the above for the SAB, is that premium beer market is a highly competitive market hence, marketing strategies should take into consideration the factors which attract the consumers to a brand. For the SAB to gain a competitive advantage, it needs to design marketing strategies that will differentiate its premium beer brands on the basis of the important factors that attract consumers, namely price, beer quality, crispiness and taste.

Keywords: Branding, Competitive Advantage, Consumer Behaviour, Premium Beers, South African Breweries.

Building Sustainable Organizational Capabilities through Supply Chain Innovation (Published)

Organizational performance directly affecting supply chain management practices. A continuous innovation in supply chain is important for corporations to achieve sustainable competitive advantage, to differentiate from competitors. Contemporary supply chain management stresses coordinating supply chain stakeholders into seamless unit in meeting customers demand and enhancing competitive advantage. Although companies concentrate on innovating independently for developing capabilities, companies however demonstrate reliance on creating their supply chain innovation capability. As markets became global, competition intensified. This forced the companies to innovate to be competitive and carryout holistic, fully integrated approach to their supply chain designs. This can replace traditional thinking in pursuit of effective and responsiveness supply chain. The research addresses gap in the literature between supply chain innovation and organizational capabilities. The study explore how organizations expand their efforts in improving relationships for developing capabilities of supply chain and what capabilities do firms develop to create innovation capacity within a supply chain. Companies in Karnataka, India surveyed to examine the inter relationship beteen organizational capability and supply chain innovation. The results showed that supply chain innovation has positive relationship with organizational capabilities and supply chain integration mechanisms do impact supply chain innovation.

Keywords: Capabilities, Competitive Advantage, Innovation, Performance, Supply Chain


Strategic management researchers have alluded to the fact that tangible/intangible assets and intangible capabilities contribute to the achievement of organization’s competitive advantage. Thus, this study was conducted owing to the increase in the employment of knowledge workers, the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in service delivery, and the upsurge in the number of hotels in the hospitality industry in Makurdi metropolis. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge dissemination and Competitive Advantage (CA). The study adopted ex-post-facto research design and purposive sampling technique. Questionnaire were employed to collect data from employees of selected hotels. Chi-square statistical method was employed to test the research hypothesis. It was found that knowledge dissemination is significantly related to CA. The researchers recommend increased knowledge dissemination via knowledge sharing and transfer among employees and between departments.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Knowledge Management, Knowledge Sharing, Knowledge dissemination, Knowledge transfer


Green marketing, also known as Environmental marketing or Ecological marketing, includes all the marketing activities of the firm, starting from conceiving the product idea to the actual sale of the product, which are designed with the objective to either create a positive impact or reduce the negative impact of its products on the environment. This is done in order to cash in on growing customers’ concern about environmental degradation. Simply stated, green marketing sells the idea of relatively superior environmental characteristics of a company’s product and service offerings.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Green Marketing, Social Responsibility


This research aimed at investigating the role of electronic customer relationship management pillars in achieving competitive advantage for banking sector in Jordan. Through monitoring the reality of the role of these pillars(E-Customer, E-Relationship, and E-Management)to achieve competitive advantage in the banks of Jordan. This study has identified the most important factors pursuing the implementation of electronic customer relationship management in commercial banks of Jordan. This research paper has used a quantitative technique to collect data from participants, afterwards, SPSS statistical techniques were used to obtain the findings of this research. The results showed that most commercial banks in Jordan use electronic customer relationship management through interacting with all business activities that require direct contact or indirect communications with clients to achieve maximum competition. In light of the results of this research the researcher has introduced a set of recommendations that promote the use of electronic customer relationships management as well as enhance the competitive advantage of commercial banks in Jordan.

Keywords: Banking Sector, CRM, Competitive Advantage, E-CRM, Jordan


The focus of this study was on competitive strategies that firms adopt in the Kenya beverage industry in order to create above average performance. The fundamental basis of above industry performance is sustainable competitive advantage which is either created by low cost or differentiation strategy. The study aimed at establishing the generic strategies food and beverage firms in Kenya employ for sustainable competitive advantage. This research entailed a descriptive study design. Descriptive design uses a set of scientific methods to collect raw data and create data structures that are used to describe the existing characteristics of a defined target population. This study sought to do that among the F & B firms in Kenya. The study population consisted of 138 food and beverage manufacturing firms in Kenya registered with the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) by 2011. The data was tested for central tendency and dispersion after confirmation of normal distribution by appropriate tests of normality. Since the sample size was 32 (over the minimum 30 required for statistical analysis), regression analysis was carried out and interpretation of results of tests of hypothesis done. The research showed that 56.2 percent of the firms embrace duo strategies of cost leadership and differentiation simultaneously while 25 percent were exclusively on cost leadership and 18.8 percent were exclusively using differentiation. The use of dual strategies is a company survival tactic in terms of diversification of risks especially in very competitive environments like that of the Kenyan F&B industry. Results from Pearson’s rank correlation coefficient between the dependent variable Y and the independent variables X1 and X2 gave coefficients of 0.653 and 0.279 respectively which was an indication of positive correlation.

Keywords: Competitive Advantage, Cost Leadership, Differentiation, Generic Strategies