The broad objective of this paper is to determine the effect of queuing system analysis on performance of Guaranty Trust Bank Nigeria Plc, Ekpoma, Edo state. Specifically, this paper seeks to examine the effect of system (facility) utilization rate on competitive advantage of the focused institution. The study was anchored on resource base theory propounded by Robert Grant (1996). Survey design was used, a population of 1,129 which emanated from the service rate of a five- day study was used for the study, the data was analyzed using tables, bar charts and tora soft- ware version 1.00. Findings revealed that facility (system) utilization impacts the competitive position of Guaranty Trust Bank Nigeria Plc. Ekpoma since (Rho/c) value = 0.435, (Mu) value = 15.05 and (Ws) value = 0.07. The study concludes that an analysis of the queuing system of the institution from time to time could aid its performance level. Sequel to the conclusion, the researcher recommended an increase in the number of servers used by the financial institution in focus because of the number of local governments (Esan West, Esan Central, Igueben and Uhunwonde) it serves.
Citation: Ohue Paul Itua (2021) Queuing System and Performance of Guaranty Trust Bank Nigeria Plc, Ekpoma, Edo State, International Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.9, No.4, pp.22-38
Strategic Marketing, Innovation Culture and Competitive Advantage of Selected Petroleum Products Marketing Companies: Evidence from Nigeria (Published)
This paper investigated the effect of strategic marketing (SM) on innovation culture (IC) and competitive advantage (CA) of selected petroleum products marketing companies in Lagos State, Nigeria. It further examined relative moderating role of resource capabilities (RC). A cross-sectional survey research design was used in the study. Target population comprised 1568 managerial staff of the selected companies. Cochran’s formula was used to determine a sample size. Stratified random sampling and proportionate sampling techniques were used to group the sample to definite categories of directors, senior managers, marketing managers and supervisors and for adequate representation. A validated questionnaire was administered and a total of 497 retrieved for analysis. The data collected were analysed using multiple regression analysis. The findings revealed that strategic marketing had a positive and significant effect on innovation culture (Adj.R2= 0.390, F (1, 491) = 80.180, p < 0.05) and competitive advantage (Adj.R2 = 0.627, F (4, 491) = 208.685, p < 0.05). The study recommended that the management of petroleum products marketing companies should be committed to adopting strategic marketing towards building innovation culture and achieving competitive advantage.
Examining the effect of fleet management on competitive advantage in the transport industry (Published)
The study assessed the impact of fleet management practices on competitive advantage in the Ghanaian transport sector within the Kumasi metropolis. The study was conducted on a sample of 200 firms with which 178 responses were successfully received representing 89% response rate. Data was collected using questionnaire. Purposive sampling technique was adopted in selecting respondents. The research designs adopted was explanatory and was analyzed using IBM Statistical Packages for Social Sciences version 20. Regression, correlation and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used for data analysis. The study revealed that, repair and maintenance, fuel and driver management, and training have positive effect on competitive advantage whiles vehicle tracking have an inverse relationship with competitive advantage. The study recommended that, firms should employ experts in the field of fleet management to give them advice on how to implement fleet management practices to enhance service delivery hence giving them an edge over competitors.
Though the relationship between business and society has been widely studied for decades, there are varying perspectives in the literature of a corporation’s responsibility to society, and many corporate managers have struggled with the issue of a corporation’s responsibility to a broader range of stakeholders beyond its shareholders. Contemporary advocates of corporate social responsibility (CSR) argue that business organizations have a responsibility not only to their respective shareholders but also to other stakeholders, such as, employees, customers’ suppliers, and the community in general, among others. However, a conservative view of corporate social responsibility (CSR) suggests that the only true purpose of a corporation is to generate maximum profits and promote the interests of its shareholders within the law by responding effectively to market demand through the production of goods or services. Though there is no singular universally accepted definition of CSR in the literature, in this descriptive and theoretical research paper, I synthesize the literature and identify many different forms of definitions of CSR from the point of view of various researchers. In this paper, I also attempt to further the theoretical debate about corporate social responsibility (CSR) by highlighting the main components and theories of CSR in the literature. Thereafter, I articulate the business case for CSR or the justification why business executives may be motivated to allocate resources to engage in CSR activities. I conclude this paper by outlining its contributions.
Theoretical Perspectives on the integration of Human Resource Management and Strategic Human Resource Management (Published)
This is a descriptive study based on secondary data collected from various research papers and articles. This study theoretically evaluated the links between human resource management (HRM) practices and strategic human resource management (SHRM) and how such integration can enhance overall organizational performance and result in organizational attainment of sustainable competitive advantage. It is a fact that people, not products, markets, cash, buildings, or equipment, are the critical differentiators in the success of an organization. All the assets of an organization, other than organizational workforce are inert; they are passive resources that require human application to generate value. People and how they are managed are becoming more important because many other sources of enhanced profitability and competitive advantage are less powerful than they used to. The key to improved performance and achieving and sustaining a profitable organization is through the productivity of an organization’s workforce, therefore drawing on the Human Resource Management (HRM) and Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) literature, I built on the Resource-Based-View of the firm to theoretically articulate how organizations can be more productive and achieve sustainable competitive advantage through the effective management of people. Specifically, I attempted to further the theoretical development of Human Resource Management (HRM) and Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) by defining, summarizing and synthesizing the literature on the measurement and integration of HRM and SHRM. I also identified gaps in the literature on the relationship and integration of HRM and SHRM and developed research questions which can be tested empirically in future research and proposed several research methods which can be employed to answer the identified research questions.
Analysis of Sustained Competitive Advantage of Palm Cooking Oil Company in Indonesia Using Resource-Based View Approach (Case Study at Pt. Xyz) (Published)
Indonesia is the biggest crude palm oil (CPO) exporter in the world. CPO export gave Indonesia the highest foreign exchange compare to the other sector. The current competition level of pam cooking oil in Indonesia added by the limitation of opening new field urge companies to survive by searching for the source of competitive advantage. The aims of this study are to identify company resources and capabilities and analyse them to obtain the source of sustained competitive advantage for the company. This study uses literature review, in-depth interview and questionnaires to gather the opinion of experts. Data analysis using descriptive qualitative method using Value Chain Analysis (VCA) and Valuable, Rareness, Inimitability, Organization (VRIO) framework as tools. The results showed that there are 16 resources and 15 capabilities identified using VCA. One resource pass the VRIO analysis and become the source of sustained competitive advantage for the company. Four resources and capabilities pass the V, R and O variable and gave temporary competitive advantage to the company. Two capabilities do not fulfil the O variable and gave the company competitive disadvantage. Strategy developed combine several resources and capabilities to produce new resource and capability which are unique and inimitable.
The operation of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) has awakened the interest of experts globally due to the varied challenges from low market share, poor sales growth, and dwindling profit. These have made them less competitive, market/product failure, and sub-optimal performance, and at times closures. Hence, this study investigated the effect of managerial roles on competitive advantage of SMEs in Lagos State Nigeria. Cross sectional survey research design was adopted using structured questionnaire. The target population comprised 460 owner- managers of the selected SMEs in manufacturing, real estate, agricultural and services sector in the five main divisions of the State (Ikeja, Badagry, Ikorodu, Lagos Island, Epe). Multistage sampling technique was used. Pilot study was carried out to establish the validity and reliability of the research instrument. Cronbach’s Alpha coefficients for the constructs ranged from 0.790 and 0.946. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Statistically and significant relationship was established between managerial roles and competitive advantage with adjusted R2 0.61, F-stat (4,450)=183.13, p<0.05. In addition, marketing (β = 0.529, t = 8.523, p<0.05), people management (β = 0.610, t = 13.055, p<0.05) significant affected competitive advantage while communication and negotiation exhibited insignificant effect on competitive advantage of SMEs in Lagos State. This study recommended that SMEs should actively invest in marketing and human resources to ensure competitive advantage.
Entrepreneurial Marketing Practices and Competitive Advantage of Small and Medium Size Enterprises in Nigeria (Published)
Entrepreneurial marketing practices and competitive advantage of small and medium size enterprises in Enugu State was studied to examine the effect of entrepreneurial marketing dimensions on competitive advantage of small and medium size enterprises in Enugu state. The study applied descriptive research design with the aid of survey method in obtaining the data needed. The sample size of the study was 356 owners/managers of small and medium-sized enterprise in Enugu state. Descriptive Statistics and multiple regressions analytical tool were used to analyze the data. Findings reveal that proactiveness has no significant relationship with competitive advantage. Opportunity focuse has statistically significant relationship with competitive advantage. Risk- taking has no significant relationship with competitive advantage. Innovativeness has statistical significance relationship with competitive advantage. Customer intensity has no statistical significance relationship with competitive advantage; resource leveraging has no statistical significant relationship with competitive advantage. Value creation has significant relationship with competitive advantage. We conclude that SMEs operators should emphasis on innovativeness, opportunity focus, and value creation, this will enable them compete favorably.
Consumer Purchase Behavior: Potential Markets in Argentina for Brazilian E-Book Retailers (Published)
Traditional teaching materials, especially books and academic texts, fail to keep up with the increasing demands of the newly hyperconnected students in Latin America. It could represent an opportunity for retailers and publishers, in order to reposition their brands, through innovative strategic offers of digital products and services. This research considered the Argentinian macro-environment and characteristics of the sub-section of academic publishers. The structural factors of the proposed product in the subsegment supply chain, as well as the proposed positioning and potential competitive advantages in the microenvironment. Corresponding aspects to the adoption potential and usage continuity of the product (e-Book or e-Textbook) for the proposed subsegment. Primary data was gathered from a survey conducted with undergraduate and graduate students. This work provides a knowledge framework, so that companies – based on the proposed study, might develop action plans destined to position their brands in the identified subsegment in Argentina, solidifying the positioning next to the academic consumer. Discussion, research limitations, and future research compile this work.
The Impact of a Sustainable Competitive Advantage on a Firm’s Performance: Empirical Evidence From Coca-Cola Ghana Limited (Published)
Current organizations turn to many standard techniques to achieve competitive advantage, and if they are sustainable, then the organization benefits from the competitive advantage. As markets grow more saturated, only the organization with the highest sustainable competitive advantage will benefit the most. The primary objective of this study is to ascertain the impact of a sustainable competitive advantage on firm’s performance using evidence from Coca-Cola Ghana limited. The population included employees of Coca-Cola Ghana Limited in the four main regional capital cities and affiliated stakeholders. The data collected from 356 respondents were analyzed with Smart PLS statistical software. The results from the Structural Equation Model (SEM) revealed that sustainable competitive advantage is positively related to organizational performance. Resources and competitive environment have a moderating effect on firm’s strategy. It also established that resources and competitive environment are directly related to firm’s performance. Finally, it confirmed the relationship between human resource strategy and firm’s performance as positively related. The study concludes that the effects of the firm’s strategy, resources and competitive environment and human resource strategies on sustainable competitive advantage are undeniable and they have numerous impact on firms’ performance.
Assessment of Market Practices and Organizational Competitiveness of Sheba Leather Industry (Plc) (Published)
Ethiopian leather development strategy has put the shoe industry on the forefront position to accelerate the development of the sector. The study focuses on the assessment of market practices and organizational competitiveness of Sheba leather industry. The main purpose is to find the factors that allow and prevent the company from coping up with competitive pressures and to find out the competitive advantages enjoyed and disadvantages faced by the company. A concept of competitiveness and parameters for measuring it has been discussed. The porter diamond model has been chosen to analyse the company’s competitiveness. As source of data four department managers and the general and deputy manager of the company were contacted by the researcher. The result depicts the low level competitiveness of the company. All determinants of competitiveness (factor conditions, home demand condition, related and supporting industries, and firm strategy, structure and rivalry) are found to be insignificant with the exception of natural resource endowment of the country in hides and skins and low labour cost availability. Lack of strong existence of related and supporting industries and factor conditions like scarcity of skilled labour, unavailability of raw materials (chemicals and shoe accessories) are the factors that limit the company from utilizing its cost advantage in raw hides and skins and sustaining its market share on domestic and international market. The study forwarded the diversification of the company’s product destination into large bases and the establishment of distribution outlets in different part of the country to base the company’s market on strong domestic demand.
Business Process Reengineering (Bpr) and Competitive Advantage in a Recessed Economy. A Study of Selected Brewing Firms in Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)
The economic condition in Nigeria has thrown up a lot of issues that are disturbing and constitute threat to the very existence of businesses. This necessitated this study to examine how organizations will implement reengineering so as to stem the tide of recession and remain competitive. Specifically, the study sought to examine the type of relationship that exists between management commitment and innovative strength of the studied firms in a recessed economy. The study population consisted of 872 staff of Life Breweries Plc and SABMiller Plc while the sample size was 274. Data were collected using questionnaire and analysed with the use of Correlation Analysis using Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Findings indicated that there was a significant positive relationship existing between management commitment and innovative strength with a correlation coefficient of .975 and a p-value of .000. The study recommended among other things that management of the focused firms should lead the change processes by example so as to motivate their followers to buy into the idea.
Intellectual Capital Impact on Competitive Advantage Achievement in Jordanian Financial Companies (Published)
This study aims at investigating the impact of intellectual capital on achieving competitive advantage in Jordanian financial companies. The study population consists of all companies operating in financial sector: banks, insurance companies and shareholding companies listed in Amman financial market amounting 100 companies. The researcher used convenient random sample from the said companies amounting 80 companies that is (80%) of the study population. The questionnaire was distributed to HR managers or their representatives in these companies. 80 questionnaires were distributed, 76 questionnaires were collected that is 95% .All questionnaires were valid for analysis, To achieve study objectives a questionnaire was developed to measure intellectual capital dimensions, which are believed to influence competitive advantage achievement in these companies. The study concluded a set of results; the most important is that there is a positive relationship between intellectual capital dimensions with its five variables and achieving competitive advantage in Jordanian financial companies. This confirms the importance of intellectual capital in achieving competitive advantage in these companies. The results also showed that Jordanian financial companies have interest in intellectual capital, since there was sufficient interest in attracting intellectual capital, focusing on customers and activating intellectual capital. The results also showed that these companies have less interest in making intellectual capital and maintain the same. Finally, the study recommended a set of recommendations, the most important of which is the need for top management in Jordanian financial companies to continue paying attention to all intellectual capital dimensions as important variables that contribute to these companies competitive advantage which enhance their position in the market.
Aceh is a western province of Indonesia, located on the Sumatera Island. This study aims to describe economic conditions in the Aceh Province. The economic phenomenon is described using the Esteban-Marquilas modified shift-share analysis. The results show that most of the economic sectors in Aceh Province do not have a competitive advantage but still specialize compared to the same sector at the national level. Nevertheless, there are still two sectors that have a competitive advantage and specialize, namely the water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities sectors; and accommodation and food service activities sector. This is due to the decrease in the contribution of primary and secondary sectors in the formation of gross regional domestic product in Aceh. Earlier Aceh’s economy depended on the primary sector. This indicates a structural change in the economy.
The Relationship between Research and Development Alliance and Competitive Advantage of the Kenya Commercial Bank, Eldoret Branch (Published)
Strategic alliance relationship continues to be one of the leading business strategies. It is driven majorly by increasing competition in the global market. It is also increasingly becoming popular in the business world. The research sought to establish the relationship between strategic alliances and competitive advantage at the Kenya Commercial Bank. Based on the study, this paper explores the extent to which research and development alliance influences competitive advantage at the KCB. The rationale for carrying out the research was to provide evidence-based practice for KCB and other banks as they engage in strategic alliances. The study adopted a correlational survey research design. It targeted a population of 75 respondents. The sample size comprised 63 respondents selected using random sampling technique. Data was collected using a questionnaire. The data obtained from the questionnaires were coded, organized and analysed using descriptive statistics specifically employing frequency and percentages to analyse closed-ended questions while mean and standard deviation was used to analyse the five point Likert questions. Hypotheses were tested to determine the relationship between research and development alliance and competitive advantage of KCB. The research results revealed that that there was a significant relationship between research and development alliance and competitive advantage (p=0.000). The study concluded that the Kenya Commercial Bank has gained competitive advantage as a result of entering into research and development alliances with various partners across different industries. Therefore, the study recommended that KCB should continue partnering with other commercial banks and organizations through research in order to increase its market share. The paper is significant as it identifies ways in which banks can exploit research and development alliance to provide customers with quality needs-based services and achieve competitive advantage in the banking industry.
Effect of Collaborative Awareness on Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya (Published)
Global competition within firms has forced most manufacturing industries to become more innovative and strategic in their supply chain practices. One way of achieving this is through Supply Chain Agility. The study focussed to assess the Effect of Collaborative Awareness on Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetic Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya. Relational View theory, Resource Based View Theory and Stategy, Structure and Performance Theory was adopted in the study. Cross-sectional survey research design was used in the study. The target population of the study was 714 employees working in the Cosmetic Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi, Kenya. A sample of 256 was selected from the target population using a Multi Stage Sampling Technique. Both descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse the collected data. The results of the study reveal that collaborative awareness contributes positively to supply chain agility of cosmetics manufacturing firms in the County Government of Nairobi.Generally, majority of the respondents agreed that Collaborative Awareness contributes positively to Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms in the County Government of Nairobi. The results also indicates that there is a positive and statistically significant correlation between collaborative awareness and supply chain agility (r=0.505, p<0.001). This implies that collaborative awareness enhances supply chain agility of cosmetics manufacturing firms in the County Government of Nairobi. As evidenced from the results it can be concluded that collaborative awareness positively affects the Supply Chain Agility of Cosmetics Manufacturing Firms and as such the firms should constantly be in collaboration with their partners since it one of the strategies employed by firms to deal with uncertainties. Interesting findings might be obtained from studies that explore integral relationship strategies in other industries or settings.
The purpose of this research is to determine Lebanese tourism industry’s competitiveness compared to its major rivals, i.e. Jordan, Egypt and Turkey. First of all, Lebanese tourism industry was evaluated through obtained information from secondary sources (i.e. bank reports, Ministry of Tourism reports). Then, the Travel & Tourism Competitiveness Report (2015) is used to compare the global rankings of Egypt, Jordan, Turkey and Lebanon. And finally, questionnaire analysis was carried out to understand people’s perception towards these countries. Findings revealed that the tourists’ inflow to Lebanon has witnessed a constant decrease since the emergence of the Arab Spring while it demonstrated its second annual upturn in 2015. However, overall ranking in the globalised world showed that Lebanon is in the last position compared to its rivals. Findings also indicated that despite having worse results compared to its rivals in factors like business environment, human resources, labour market and ICT readiness, Lebanon confirmed a better standing in health and hygiene and performed better than Egypt in safety and security matters. It was also proven by this study that Lebanon is performing either similarly or better in factors like mild climate, image, leisure attractions, educational and multilingual workforce, regional competition and environment protection. However, conversely, it demonstrated either bad or worse performance in factors like eco-tourism, world class hotels and airports, natural environment, cost of accommodation and natural heritage. Moreover, the results of the research showed that the competitive position of Lebanese tourism is not the same in different international markets.
The Role of Financial Capital Resource Capabilities in Improving Employee Performance in Courrier Companies in Kenya (Published)
Financial capital in organizations is a key form of asset that exists in various sources and characteristics. Financial capital commonly refers to assets needed by a company to provide goods or services, as measured in terms of money value. The most important sources of financial capital are debt and equity. Debt represents credit from a lender, also known as creditor, and is created when a creditor agrees to lend a sum of assets to a debtor (borrower). It is imperative that firms source for financial resources that will enable purchase of tools and other equipment required by employees in discharging their duties. Equity on the other hand is direct investment into an organization. The initial equity is financed by the principal owner and the start-up team, then equity is obtained for their successive growth from high net worth family members, friends called angel market. This paper is an assessment of the role played by financial capital resource capabilities of a firm to improve employee performance. The study used a target population of 2800 from which a sample of 339 respondents was obtained using Cochran’s formula. Simple random sampling and employed explanatory research design were also used.. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Correlation and moderated regression analysis were used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that financial capital resource capabilities had a great influence on employee performance, thus played the key role in organization’s performance.
Human Resource Management Practices and Competitive Advantage: The Mediator Role of Person-Organization FIT (Published)
Competitive advantage has been viewed as an essential tool for organizations to compete in the current business environment. Kuwaiti manufacturing companies strive to cope with new changes and adopt competitive advantages to survive and continue in the global economy. The purpose of this study is to examine the direct relationship between human resource management (HRM) practices and competitive advantage for Kuwaiti manufacturing companies, as well as the indirect relationship between HRM practices and competitive advantage by means of person-organizational (P-O) fit. The respondents were employees working in sixty-three manufacturing companies. The findings indicate that HRM practices have a significant positive impact on competitive advantage. In addition, the P-O fit has a mediation impact on the relationship between HRM practices and on competitive advantage. Our results showed that only eleven of twenty HRM practices were found to have effects on competitive advantage. These results are consistent with previous research, which suggested that there is lack of consensus in the existing literature on which HRM practices are best. A discussion of the study’s findings and limitations are provided.
The Relationship between Premium Beer Brand Attributes and Brand Loyalty – An Exploratory South African Study (Published)
This paper reports the findings of an exploratory study conducted among a convenience sample of 300 premium beer consumers selected from two major cities in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. South African Breweries (SAB), the largest brewery in South Africa has been struggling to compete in the premium beer market as a result of more brands competing in the premium beer market which is the most attractive segment of the beer market. This paper aimed at exploring the factors that attract consumers to premium beer brands. It was ascertained that the crispiness of the beer, superior, unique taste and, the price of the beer brand ate important factors.The implications of the above for the SAB, is that premium beer market is a highly competitive market hence, marketing strategies should take into consideration the factors which attract the consumers to a brand. For the SAB to gain a competitive advantage, it needs to design marketing strategies that will differentiate its premium beer brands on the basis of the important factors that attract consumers, namely price, beer quality, crispiness and taste.