Tag Archives: Community

Influences of parental guidance towards sex education among teenagers in Sama and Ilelema communities, Asari-toru Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

Sex is an important part of human life to which many people desperately seek answers, with its knowledge and attitude being very significant that humans are to seek it from any available source. However, most parents, even the educated ones and those in civilized climes find it difficult to discuss it with their children and wards. To this end, the later seek it from different sources, some of which may be detrimental to them. The study ascertained the influence of parents towards the sexual behavior of their teenage children. A cross-sectional aimed at measuring the influences of parental guidance towards sex education among teenagers in Sama and Ilelema communities, Asari-Toru Local Government Area of Rivers state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the results presented as frequencies and percentages. The results revealed that about half of the respondents, 136(45.4%) are 17-19 years old, with the least, 71(23.6%) been 10-13 years. More females, 162(54.0%) participated, with most, 272(90.7%) been single while 28(9.3%) are married. Most, 253(84.3%) have secondary education and most are also students, 269(89.7%). Almost all the respondents, 294(98.0%) knew that sex education can reduce the problem of sexually transmitted diseases. 273(91.0%) agreed that correct information about sex education will prevent premarital sex, while 278(92.7%) agreed its early knowledge will not corrupt the children. 206(68.7%) have heard of sex education, with most hearing about it more than 6 times, 84(40.8%), of which 54(22.2%) heard it from peer groups/friends. About half, 167(55.7%) have had boy/girlfriend, with most of the former having between 1-3 boy/girlfriends. One hundred and seventeen (39.0%) have not had sexual intercourse, while 193(64.3%) waiting until they are married before having sex. Similarly, 247(82.3%) did not have pressure to have sex, with friends being most cause of pressure in 43(81.1%). 212(70.7%) are into serious relationship, with 66(22.0%) expecting the relationship to get to marriage. 92(82.9%) employed a means of preventing pregnancy during intercourse, of which 46(30.0%) and 33(35.9%) used condoms and withdrawal methods respectively. The respondents are aware of sex education and the effects of indulging in early sex, but peer groups/ friends pressure militate against their will to abide by tenets of safe sex. Vigorous enlightenments should be carried out by religious bodies, parents and other organizations, on the importance of sex education and the risks of early and unprotected sexual relationships. Sex education should, thus be given early to avoid children seeking information from peers, which may not be accurate. Doing this will give them a clearer perception and better future.

Keywords: Community, Pressure, Sex Education, indulgence, teenage

Community Development and Mother Values (Published)

Values as principles about what is right and wrong, or ideas about what is important in life can never be divorced from community development and even the whole life. Because values are those factors upon which balance is struck, equilibrium is maintained and the circumstance and context are made peaceful. Values are the other main component and segment of development, particularly communal development, in addition to material component, that have to be joined together with the material. Hence if the joining together is not done, the development will be incomplete, inconsistent and weakened. Despite this status, significance and importance the values have naturally, brilliantly and elaborately, it has been observed that values have been neglected and relegated to the background in community development discourse, theory and practice. The material aspect is more pronounced, promoted, projected and protected to the detriment of the values as an inevitable key factor in the issue of development practices. This makes most of our writings in community development discourse centred around the material like poverty eradication, job creation, and infrastructural development and so on. Therefore, it is in view of this that this paper tries to present values as an important variable in community development discourse, theory and practice for it to be reflected, incorporated, promoted, protected and projected in community development project. This would help tremendously in yielding better outcomes and maintaining equilibrium.

Keywords: Community, Development, Mother, Values

Community Participation as a Tool for the Promotion of Sustainable Community Development (Published)

The paper examined community participation as a tool for the promotion of sustainable community development. The paper explored the concept of community participation and sustainable community development.  The paper identified areas of community participation in sustainable community development to include community needs assessment, community development planning, community mobilization among others. The highlights of the benefits that accrue from community participation in sustainable community development are community empowerment, promotion of meaningful change, community participation as a mechanism to address community problems and provision of learning opportunities. The highlights of the recommendations based on the issues discussed are: There is an obvious need to strengthen the level of awareness creation in people for community participation in sustainable community development, relevant stakeholders in community development projects should embark on sustainable mobilization for effective community participation in community development among others.

Keywords: Community, Community and Development, Participation, Promotion, Sustainable, Tool

Traditional Boarding School Education Seulimum Aceh Besar (Published)

This research is a qualitative research which aims to obtain various information and actual data about people’s perceptions of traditional pesantren education development in Aceh provision, as well as to explore information and ideas of the community towards the pesantren learning system, community opinion on the policies and support of the Aceh government and big aceh to pontren-pontren in Seulimeum aceh sub-district is big, and at the same time to explore and study internal and external factors that become supporters and inhibitors in conducting guidance on traditional pesantren educational institutions. The results of the study can show that: With the assistance program for the development of pontren development carried out by the Aceh government, the pontren education institutions can reorganize the formation of pesantren education in accordance with the expectations of society, so that traditional pesantren can progress according to the demands of the times. Learning that is done in pontren and life-long education conducted in traditional pesantren, Seulimeum subdistrict, can realize the intelligence and maturity of thinking of students. The various policies and support that the Aceh government has given to pontren, this can be motivated by the community to set up huts and prayer halls. With the availability of sufficient teaching staff in the Pontrenia and the establishment of good relations between the pesantren institutions and the Aceh government and the big Aceh and the good socio-economic conditions of the students, these conditions can support the formation of traditional mentoring education. Especially with regard to the lack of available facilities for some pontren in the big Seulimeum Aceh district and the weak condition of some socio-economic santri can hamper the formation of the pontren in question.

Keywords: Community, Perception, traditional pesantren

Community Participation in Rural Finance Institutions Management: Evidence from Nigeria (Published)

The study is institutional, focusing on an appraisal of the participation of Community Development Association (CDA) in the management of community banks in Nigeria. Thirty nine (39) regulators of the programme, drawn from the National Board for Community Banks; the then supervising agency, were the respondents. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on the roles and depth of involvement of the CDA in the banks management. Also the success of such roles and the challenges faced were examined. Simple and multiple percentages as well as chi-square (X2) were the statistical tools used in data analysis.  The study found that even though the acquisition of the controlling equity by the CDA, as statutorily provided, was not fully successful, they were however involved in the banks management. Notable challenges such as the difficulty of using CDA when conflict exits in the host community, the presence of unfit CDA representatives in the banks board and tussles for board membership among the villages or communities owning the banks were evident.

Keywords: Bank Regulators, Community, Community Banks, Community Development Association, Community Participation

Water Development Shortages in Urbanising Communities of the Western Highlands in Cameroon (Published)

Exploring and using water resources provided by nature for alternative purposes has been an age-old human enterprise. Though water is perpetually renewable and ubiquitous, its utilisation is a sustainable challenge for quality and quantity. This study probes into the water development transition from village community status of the 1980s to that of an ever increasing cosmopolitan status recently accelerated by an upshot of educational establishment-pulled stakeholder population in the second decade of the 21st century. Primary and secondary data collected and processed indicate a devastating pressure on the current water development constructions of the communities in Tubah that have been startled by the population inflow which the village water schemes did not project nor consider at the outset. Water consumption has become number and option-altered triggering water scarcities that past and present developments cannot adjust to. Current and even future trends in water shortage and quality degradation hold no hope for this community destined to develop thanks to the diversification of its educational offers. Averting this hopelessness is not discretionary but obligation in this irreversible development drive that must hand-stretch for succour mindful of intrinsic flaws.

Keywords: Community, Population Influx, Tragedy of the Commons, Tubah, Village Water Scheme, Water Shortage

Professionalization of Community Development: Challenges and Prospects in Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper is on professionalization of community development with its challenges and prospects in Nigeria. The paper explored the concept of professionalization as a process by which any trade, work or occupation transforms itself into a profession of high standards, integrity and competence in human environment. The paper identified the characteristics of professionalization to include educational and professional qualifications, training, area of specialization, formal certification, code of conduct, establishment of professional body, self regulatory association among others. The paper identified lack of professional culture, lack of interest to promote professionalization of community development, weak professional association, lack of control entry among others as the challenges which militate against professionalization of community development in Nigeria. The paper identified establishment of appropriate educational qualifications, appropriate professional body, self regulatory association, code of conduct, employment of community development professionals and issuance of operational licence to community development professionals as some of the prospects of professionalization of community development in Nigeria. The paper recommends among other things a policy framework to enact a law to make the practice of community development an exclusive domain of community development professionals to practice their profession, entrenchment of professional values and issuance of operational licence to only qualified community development professionals to practice community development as a profession in Nigeria.      

Keywords: Community, Development Challenges, Professionalization, Prospects

Contributions of Various Kenyan Personalities in Communicating Change For Transformative Community (Published)

In spite of relatively stable governance and a hard working population, Kenya is rated among the countries with wide income disparities. Extreme and chronic poverty has not been eliminated even after fifty years of development efforts, that is, since the country gained its independence in 1963. In mitigating the adverse effects of these inequalities, communication is considered an essential tool for transformation through which essential thoughts in the minds of the people aimed at transformation are nurtured and shared. The purpose of this study was to identify the contributions made by various Kenyan personalities whose life experiences are shared in this paper, in communication change for a transformative society. The study displays how the select Kenyans engaged with the people and got them involved in transforming their community. A qualitative research design was adopted to select ten Kenyans to share their life experiences through in-depth interviews that were used by the author to gather data. Data analysis focused on the participants’ narratives on the aspect of their personal contributions and how they got the community working towards sustainable change. The study also recommends development of an African Communication Theory on what motivates communicative acts that lead to societal transformation.

Keywords: Change, Community, Contributions, Kenya, Transformation, communication

African Traditional Socio-Political Ideals, Democratic Values, and the Development of African States (Published)

The democratic socio-political formation of modern African states can be seen as a bold step in quest for a better human society. However, particular existential problems part of which arises from the composition of these states in Africa pose potent dangers to political stability, peace, well-being of the polity, and development of these states. This paper proposes authentic route out of this unwholesome situation that gets worse by the day notwithstanding immense human and natural resources of African states. It argues that a constructive synthesis “harmonious integration” of African traditional socio-political communitarian ideals with the time-tested-and-proven guiding provisions of democratic values would help solve many socio-political problems of African states and advance their needed sustainable development and flourishing. To this effect, it maintains that mass education using of all avenues of public enlightenment should be upheld therein; it specifically advocates that effective ethical leadership education should be introduced as a course and given emphasis in the curriculum of educational institutions in African states; and then enjoins conscious positive attitudinal change of the citizenry so as to bring about the needed result.

Keywords: African Traditional Socio-Political Ideals, Community, Democratic Values, Development, Harmonious Integration

Interventions by Government and Non-Governmental Organizations towards Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and the Attitude Portrayed By the Pokot Community on Repressing FGM (Published)

In the efforts to terminate Female Genital Mutilation globally, in the recent years some religious authorities have openly opposed the continued practice of Female Genital Mutilation, at least the most radical operations. The paper aims at identifying some of the interventions by the government and non- governmental organizations undertaken to reduce the practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Kenya. It also seeks to examine the attitude of the West Pokot Community towards the measures taken by these organizations in stopping FGM. Focus was made in Sook Division of West Pokot County which was selected randomly out of the four locations in the District. A descriptive cross-sectional, qualitative research design was used due to the nature of the study as it inquired about people’s attitudes and feelings on FGM practice and interventions against it. The study considered 63 participants for interviews, all above 18 years; 9 key informants and 54 members of 7 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with between 6-10 participants. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. The study revealed divided opinions about Female Genital Mutilation among the Pokot. Most of the community members seem to be in favour of the practice, while others are against it. Government and the World Vision Organization are intervening against the practice in the region and most participants seem to have negative perception on the anti FGM measures laid down by the Government and the Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs). To help the community understand and change these cultural practices, there is need to involve other stake holders concerned with the FGM, these include the girls, parents, old women, men, traditional circumcisers with whom the government and Non- governmental organizations should work with.

Keywords: Community, Female Genital Mutilation, Government, Non-governmental Organization, attitude

A Proposal for the Role of the Family in Promoting Community Awareness of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (Published)

The present study is an attempt to identify the role of the family in promoting community awareness of Sustainable Development goals. The study sample covered several books and websites as well as UN 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The descriptive method was utilized to achieve the study objectives. The study concluded that the Sustainable Development goals are considered a developmental project that seeks to improve the life of peoples, but the entire goals include unfamiliar terms and issues that in turn break down the family and community; therefore, the community awareness of these issues should be raised through the educational institutions, and the family role played through the three balanced dimensions of the development: social, economic and environmental dimensions. The study recommended that the developmental plans should not be unified without identifying the real needs of the countries, whose requirements must be taken into account. The study confirmed the significant role played by Neighborhood Centers in promoting the community awareness of Sustainable Development goals.

Keywords: Community, Goals, Sustainable Development, community awareness, the family role

Interventions by Government and Non-Governmental Organizations towards Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and the Attitude Portrayed By the Pokot Community on Repressing FGM (Published)

In the efforts to terminate Female Genital Mutilation globally, in the recent years some religious authorities have openly opposed the continued practice of Female Genital Mutilation, at least the most radical operations. The paper aims at identifying some of the interventions by the government and non- governmental organizations undertaken to reduce the practice of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) in Kenya. It also seeks to examine the attitude of the West Pokot Community towards the measures taken by these organizations in stopping FGM. Focus was made in Sook Division of West Pokot County which was selected randomly out of the four locations in the District. A descriptive cross-sectional, qualitative research design was used due to the nature of the study as it inquired about people’s attitudes and feelings on FGM practice and interventions against it. The study considered 63 participants for interviews, all above 18 years; 9 key informants and 54 members of 7 Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with between 6-10 participants. Interviews and focus group discussions were used to collect data. The study revealed divided opinions about Female Genital Mutilation among the Pokot. Most of the community members seem to be in favour of the practice, while others are against it. Government and the World Vision Organization are intervening against the practice in the region and most participants seem to have negative perception on the anti FGM measures laid down by the Government and the Non-Governmental Organization (NGOs). To help the community understand and change these cultural practices, there is need to involve other stake holders concerned with the FGM, these include the girls, parents, old women, men, traditional circumcisers with whom the government and Non- governmental organizations should work with.

Keywords: Community, Female Genital Mutilation, Government, Non-governmental Organization, attitude

Issues Related To Urban Sprawl in South 24 Parganas with Special Reference to Diamond Harbour Municipality, West Bengal, and India (Published)

Urban sprawl outside large cities expands the city itself and brings the demand for extending infrastructure and several towards adjacent municipality and panchayat areas. There are several issues or issues related easily adopted in this area physically and socially with the urban sprawl in this municipal area.so, this study deals with issues related to urban sprawl in this area ad suggests the sustainable use of land to conserve environment. It also tries to make some strategies to ensure planned expansion of urban areas. The present study focuses on the nature of urban expansion in Diamond Harbour Municipality.Urban growth is a worldwide phenomenon. It is not only a haphazard physical explosion of urban population but also manifests a disorderly and discontinuous development of urban place. Urban growth is a process slowly or rapidly to occupy the adjacent land of city or town. The attraction and the benefits of every one having a lawn, trees and big house, people are beginning to recognize the negative consequences of this land development patter. The negative effects that sprawl can have on a community its people and its resources help demonstrate why land-use planning is so important.

Keywords: Community, Municipality., Urban Sprawl, land-use planning, negative effects, rapidly, urban expansion

Nomadic Education in Nigeria: Using English to Foster Communal Peace and Enhance the Education of the Herdsmen (Published)

The importance of nomadic education cannot be over-emphasized. The neglect of any segment of the population as experience has shown in the Niger Delta Region of the country is a potential time bomb. If they contribute significantly to the nation’s economy, only time can fuel discontent and ignite their agitation. Education is the birth right of any Nigerian child and this right has been enshrined in the nation’s constitution. This paper address the importance of the nomadic education in the country, their contributions to the nation’s economy, the importance of English language in the promotion of mutual understanding, reduction of communal clashes between nomads and their host communities and the enhancement of the National Policy on Nomadic Education.

Keywords: : Nomadic Education, Community, English, Lineage, Nigeria, Peace

Determinants of Community Participation in Planning HIV and Aids Interventions under National Multisectoral Strategic Framework in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (Published)

This paper is based on a research which was conducted in Mtwara Region, Tanzania, to assess determinants of community participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions under the National Multisectoral Strategic Framework (NMSF) on HIV and AIDS. The findings indicated that 69.0% of the respondents were not aware of NMSF interventions; 77.0% had unfavourable attitude towards the interventions; and 81.8% did not participate in planning the interventions. Furthermore, using ordinal logistic regression, it was found that community awareness of (p ≤ 0.001) and attitude towards HIV and AIDS interventions (p ≤ 0.005), access to planning information (p ≤ 0.001), education level (p ≤ 0.05), and community satisfaction with involvement in planning (p ≤ 0.001) had significant impacts on the chances of participating highly in planning the interventions. The results substantiate a need for decentralisation in order to address obstacles which constrain participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions.

Keywords: Community, HIV and AIDS, NMSF, Participation, Planning

Determinants of Community Participation in Planning HIV and AIDS Interventions under National Multisectoral Strategic Framework in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (Published)

This paper is based on a research which was conducted in Mtwara Region, Tanzania, to assess determinants of community participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions under the National Multisectoral Strategic Framework (NMSF) on HIV and AIDS. The findings indicated that 69.0% of the respondents were not aware of NMSF interventions; 77.0% had unfavourable attitude towards the interventions; and 81.8% did not participate in planning the interventions. Furthermore, using ordinal logistic regression, it was found that community awareness of (p ≤ 0.001) and attitude towards HIV and AIDS interventions (p ≤ 0.005), access to planning information (p ≤ 0.001), education level (p ≤ 0.05), and community satisfaction with involvement in planning (p ≤ 0.001) had significant impacts on the chances of participating highly in planning the interventions. The results substantiate a need for decentralisation in order to address obstacles which constrain participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions.

Keywords: Aids, Community, HIV, NMSF, Participation, Planning

Translation and Community Integration (Published)

This paper deals with the Translation and Community integration; and it highlights the increasing need for translation. In most virtual communities, language is at the heart of communication. When we extend these communities to the international stage, we are faced with challenges in interaction. Cross-lingual communication between academic communities is a matter of some urgency. The growth of the Language Technologies field in recent years, with increasing public, political, and industrial recognition, has meant that there are now major business players engaged in technology integration and product development, leading to a multiplicity of systems and solutions available on the market. Therefore, translation and community are very crucial in our daily life.

Keywords: Community, Diversity, Language, translation

The Influence of Drama and Its Repercussions on the Vulnerable Community (Published)

This study sought to discover the Influence of Drama and its Repercussions on the vulnerable communities. Drama represents an ideal method of work if Dramatists want to put the meaning for people into a sizeable context. Unlike in guided practice, people are involved in real communication while they activate language to communicate real meaning, rather than just practicing language and thus develop their communicative competence in a natural way, using body language, making pauses and interruptions, showing emotions, and creating relationships. Drama techniques have the singular merit of directly engaging People’ feelings and, as a result, often making them aware of the need to be able to express them appropriately.

Keywords: Community, Drama, Drama Techniques, Language, communication

Spatial Inequality in Development: A Case Study of Anambra State, Nigeria (Published)

This work examined the spatial inequality of development in the twenty one Local Government Areas of Anambra State. To determine the extent of the inequality in state’s development service, Gini co-efficient procedures, factor analysis and cluster analysis procedures were employed. The data used were collected on 17 variables indexing various aspects of development for the 21 Local Government Areas. From the Gini co-efficient analysis, using the 17 original development indicator variables, the result shows that there are inequality in health, M.D.G water, and transportation variables. With the composite standard deviate, several patterns of inequality were revealed. Development is found to be continuous in scale among the areas, and the areas can be categorized into different groups; but on the basis of the technique of analysis adopted, a structure of privileged and under privileged areas were revealed. Eleven out of the 21 Local Government Areas were privileged while 10 areas were deprived. Six variables with eigen-value greater than unity were extracted from the factor analysis. Six variables explained about 78.16 percent of the variation in the original variables. It shows that 4 Local Government Areas have a comprehensive development while many other areas are deprived in terms of development. Conceptually, development is seen in terms of social and economic opportunities available to a community for its welfare and progress. The principles of equity and social justice therefore form the bases of determining the relative privilege or under-privilege of a unit area in the overall development of the study area. From the cluster analysis result, it shows that while the privilege group exhibits random pattern, the underprivilege group has some tendency towards clustering.

Keywords: Community, Development, Nigeria, Social Justice, Spatial Inequality

Communities – Company Relation in Limestone Mining Region of Southwest Nigeria: The Ewekoro Socio-Economic View (Published)

A study to assess the socio-economic impacts of limestone quarrying and processing operations at Ewekoro, South-Western Nigeria has been carried out. Data were collected through the use of well structured pre-tested questionnaires and oral interview in order to assess the socio economic impact of quarrying and processing of limestone on the inhabitants of the community and the workers. The finding shows that limestone exploitation has both positive and negative effects on the host community and the workers. It also shows that the benefits derived by the host community like employment, good roads, schools and hospitals are insignificant when compared with the negative effects of the exploitation on the community which includes reduction in crop production, negligence of education by students, overcrowding and high competition for little-available social amenities. Besides, the socio-economic inputs of the company are not well felt by the communities due to politicizing of the executions. Appropriate recommendations were made to ameliorate these negative socio-economic effects.

Keywords: Community, Exploitation, Impacts, Limestone, Socio-Economic