Tag Archives: Community

Women Empowerment: A Veritable Tool for Sustainable Urban Water Development (Published)

Women are mostly hit by environmental issues, especially water scarcity. This is because the responsibility of sourcing for water for family use is on the women folks and they use the water most at home for cooking, bathing, washing and other household chores. This study therefore selected Agbadagbudu Community in Ibadan for the study. This community is in the core of Ibadan city and is characterized by water scarcity as the Water Corporation of Oyo Service (WCOS) does not service the area regularly, hence there is inadequate water supply in the community. The coordinate of the water project site was established with the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) which was located on the Google Earth Map of Ibadan. 500 meter radius was taken around it and the number of buildings within the 500 meter radius was counted, given 1,999. 5% of the building, that is 100 buildings, were randomly selected as the sample size for the study. Findings among others revealed that the women cherished the water project in the community. This makes them to take g

Keywords: Community, water scarcity, water supply and women

Volunteerism as a Strategy for Community Development in Nigeria (Published)

Community development remains a key concern in Nigeria. Despite frantic efforts of the government and non-government organizations to improve the socio-economic wellbeing of rural communities in Nigeria, there are indicators of under development in the areas. This study examines volunteerism as an effective strategy for developing rural communities in Nigeria. It adopts qualitative research method. The study relied on the secondary sources of information, such as journals, textbooks, the internet, and newspaper. Concerned with the challenges of prevalence poverty in the country and success stories of volunteerism as a viable strategy, the study advocates for the involvement of more Nigerian in delivering selfless services for the benefit of others and their immediate communities.

Keywords: Community, Poverty, Socio-economic development., Volunteerism

Rural Strategies for Flood Resilience: Analysis of Community Actions in Narayani River Basin, Nepal (Published)

In the context of Nepal, the most devastating disaster is flood in terms of the number of human causalities, livestock, livelihoods losses and damages. There are structural, soft structural, and nonstructural methods to reduce flood risks. In addition to these methods, there are also community actions being used for several years in the rural communities to mitigate, respond, and recover from the impacts of floods. The main objective of the research is to present an analysis of such community actions in the Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) cycle, livelihood capitals, and Early Warning System (EWS) and then to summarize the conclusion.  Accordingly, research was carried out in two communities, Kudiya and Paklihawa of Narayani river basin at Susta Rural Municipality, Nawalparashi-west, Nepal. The paper illustrates overall rural strategies adopted by community people to cope, withstand, and recover from the impacts of flood. The paper also includes an effective and efficient holistic approach to explain community-level empirical evidence. The paper illustrates the overall findings about community actions contributing to flooding resilience and these empirical evidences are found relevant, realistic, practical, and durable solutions in reducing the flood risks in the rural context of Nepal.

Keywords: Community, Flood, Livelihoods, Resilience, actions, capitals

Influence of Community Transmission of Covid-19 on School Management in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated influence of community transmission of COVID-19 on school management in Enugu State, Nigeria. Three research questions were formulated. The research design used was descriptive survey. The sample of the study was 334 respondents selected from the study area using simple and accidental random sampling techniques. The instrument used for the study was 16-items, modified rating scale questionnaire titled “Community Transmission and School Management Rating Scale (TSMRS)” was used for data collection. This instrument was duly validated by experts and its reliability estimate was established at .86 using Cronbach Alpha reliability method. Simple percentage, statistical technique was used for the study. The results showed that the provision of nose masks, hand washing soap and alcohol based sanitizers for the schools were above average in the study area. Based on the results, recommendations were made, among others, that the government should engage media organisations and the citizenry on media literacy to fight against the spread of inappropriate and infections information and government should endeavour tot structure special and comprehensive palliative programmes for citizens as alternatives.

Citation: Elechi Catherine Nkiru, Ukwuaba, Loretta Chika, Ph.D & Ekpenyong David Oboqua (2021) Influence of Community Transmission of Covid-19 on School Management in Enugu State, Nigeria, British Journal of Education, Vol. 9, Issue 10, pp.1-9,

Keywords: Community, School Management, Transmission, corona virus disease

Influences of parental guidance towards sex education among teenagers in Sama and Ilelema communities, Rivers state, Nigeria (Published)

Sex is an important part of human life to which many people desperately seek answers, with its knowledge and attitude being very significant that humans are to seek it from any available source. However, most parents, even the educated ones and those in civilized climes find it difficult to discuss it with their children and wards. To this end, the later seek it from different sources, some of which may be detrimental to them. The study ascertained the influence of parents on the sexual behavior of their children. A cross-sectional aimed at measuring the influences of parental guidance towards sex education among teenagers in Sama and Ilelema communities, Asari-Toru Local Government Area of Rivers state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the results presented as frequencies and percentages.  About half of the respondents, 136(45.4%) are 17-19 years old, with the least, 71(23.6%) been 10-13 years. More females, 162(54.0%) participated, with most, 272(90.7%) been single while 28(9.3%) are married. Most, 253(84.3%) have secondary education and most are also students, 269(89.7%). Almost all the respondents, 294(98.0%) knew that sex education can reduce the problem of sexually transmitted diseases. 273(91.0%) agreed that correct information about sex education will prevent premarital sex, while 278(92.7%) agreed its early knowledge will not corrupt the children. 206(68.7%) have heard of sex education, with most hearing about it more than 6 times, 84(40.8%), of which 54(22.2%) heard it from peer groups/friends. About half, 167(55.7%) have had boy/girlfriend, with most of the former having between 1-3 boy/girlfriends. One hundred and seventeen (39.0%) have not had sexual intercourse, while 193(64.3%) waiting until they are married before having sex. Similarly, 247(82.3%) did not have pressure to have sex, with friends being most cause of pressure in 43(81.1%). 212(70.7%) are into serious relationship, with 66(22.0%) expecting the relationship to get to marriage. 92(82.9%) employed a means of preventing pregnancy during intercourse, of which 46(30.0%) and 33(35.9%) used condoms and withdrawal methods respectively.  The respondents are aware of sex education and the effects of indulging in early sex, but peer groups/ friends pressure militate against their will to abide by tenets of safe sex. Vigorous enlightenments should be carried out by religious bodies, parents and other organizations, on the importance of sex education and the risks of early and unprotected sexual relationships. Sex education should, thus be given early to avoid children seeking information from peers, which may not be accurate. Doing this, will give them a clearer perception and better fuure.

Keywords: Community, Pressure, Sex Education, teenage

A community-based prediabetes knowledge assessment among Saudi adults in Al-Ahsa region, 2018 (Published)

Diabetes is a major growing public health issue and prediabetes has been considered to be a reversible condition. The purpose of the present study was to assess knowledge of prediabetes and its risk factors for the community in the Al-Ahsa region. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in the Al-Ahsa region from mid-to-late December, 2018. Of the 812 respondents who gave consent to participate in the interview; 13.2% of the respondents reported that they had diabetes. Among the respondents, 87.1% had a high level of knowledge of prediabetes, while 12.9% had low-to moderate knowledge. Overall, there was a statistically significant association between age and prediabetes knowledge (𝑥2 = 5.006, 𝑝 = 0.025). Occupation also showed a significant statistical association with prediabetes knowledge (𝑥2 = 9.85, 𝑝 = 0.02). People in Al-Ahsa demonstrated a high level of knowledge regarding some risk factors for prediabetes. However, there were a number of deficiencies in the knowledge of prediabetes risk factors and preventive measures as well as in general knowledge of prediabetes, which may lead to a high prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes.

Keywords: Al-Ahsa, Community, Knowledge, Prediabetes, Saudi Arabia

Significance, Impact and Benefits of Mare Festival to the Community of Idanre, Ondo State Nigeria (Published)

Festivals are celebrations of important events that showcase the rich cultural heritage of the people in a particular community. This study is hinged on the need to explore significance, impacts and benefits of Mare Festival to the host communities of Idanre in Ondo-State, Nigeria. Data collection was through administration of structured questionnaires to 200 respondents and Key Informant Interview with the purposively selected Staff of Ondo State Ministry of Culture and Tourism; and High Chief Soore of Idanre. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21 and presented descriptively in form of tables and figures. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data collected through interview was carried out. Greater percentage of the participants are in the age range of 20-39 (65%) and male (55.5%)/ Mare festival has cultural (52%), social (56%) and historic (48.5%) significance as expressed by the respondents. Mare festival has impacted the respondents positively (67%) through additional sales of goods and services (64.5%). This study recommends collaboration and partnership with other relevant organisations in celebrating this event. The need for improved infrastructure facilities and incorporating cultural attributes if people of Idanre in Mare festival are emphasized.

Keywords: Community, Partnership, benefits. cultural heritage, celebration, festivals

Negotiating Racism and Sexism through Spaciotemporal Lens in Toni Morrison’s Paradise (Published)

Racism and sexism occupy a central space in the psyche of the African American in a nation where the culture of the dominant class determines the American way of life. In order to assess the place of African Americans in the larger nation space, their negotiating of racism and sexism must be placed in spacio-temporal matrix. For this purpose Lefebvre’s notion of “double illusion”, Homi K Bhabha’s concept of “hybridity”, and Edward Soja’s idea of “Thirdspace” have been applied to analyze Toni Morrison’s novel Paradise. The paper is an attempt to understand how Toni Morrison represents the community life of African Americans within the larger space of the American nation in the backdrop of their negotiation of racism and sexism in both national and community levels.

Keywords: Community, Negotiation., Racism, Sexism, nation, spacio-temporal

Infrastructure Capitals and Community Transformation in Tourism Destinations, Southwest Nigeria (Published)

The study analysed the influence of tourism infrastructure on community transformation in Southwest Nigeria. One most prominent tourism destination was purposively selected from each state of six; Oyo – Agodi Gardens, Ogun – Olumo Rock, Osun – Osun Osogbo Groove, Ondo – Idanre Hills, Ekiti – Ikogosi Warm Springs, and Lagos – National Theatre. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select thirty residents from each destination, giving a total of one hundred and eighty respondents. The results revealed social factors had Cronbach’s Alpha values of social (0.799) with variance 10.310%; political factors (.811) with variance 9.237%; natural factors (0.781) with variance 9.103%; economic factors (.614) with variance 10.117%; physical factors (.749) with variance 10.312%; human factors (.721) with variance 10.003%; and cultural factor (.611) with variance explained as 9.041%. The results further revealed that social capital (B = 0.164; p<0.05); physical (B = 0.174; p<0.05); human (B = 0.184; p>0.05); and natural capital (B = 0.159; p<0.05) showed significance with community transformation. While, economic capital (B = 0.113; p>0.05); political factors (B = 0.181; p>0.05); and cultural factor (B = 0.130; p>0.05) showed no significant prediction but all had t values greater 1. Infrastructure capitals (social, physical, and natural) were found to have significant relationship with community transformation. It is recommended that infrastructure capital should be set up as a ‘service industry’ to providing goods that meet customers’ demands in order to forestall irregularities and delay in supply for rapid and optimal sustainable transformation.

Keywords: Community, Tourism Destination, Tourism Development, community transformation, infrastructure capital

Economic Significance and benefits of Mare festival to the Community of Idanre, Ondo State (Published)

Festivals are celebrations of important events that showcase the rich cultural heritage of the people in a particular community. This study is hinged on the need to explore significance, impacts and benefits of Mare Festival to the host communities of Idanre in Ondo-State, Nigeria. Data collection was through administration of structured questionnaires to 200 respondents and Key Informant Interview with the purposively selected Staff of Ondo State Ministry of Culture and Tourism; and High Chief Soore of Idanre. Data was analyzed using SPSS 21 and presented descriptively in form of tables and figures. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data collected through interview was carried out. Greater percentage of the participants are in the age range of 20-39 (65%) and male (55.5%)/ Mare festival has cultural (52%), social (56%) and historic (48.5%) significance as expressed by the respondents. Mare festival has impacted the respondents positively (67%) through additional sales of goods and services (64.5%). This study recommends collaboration and partnership with other relevant organisations in celebrating this event. The need for improved infrastructure facilities and incorporating cultural attributes if people of Idanre in Mare festival are emphasized.

Keywords: Community, Partnership, benefits. cultural heritage, celebration, festivals

Concerns on Agriculture, Food and Nutrition Security in East Africa (Published)

This is a paper review of work presented at the Machakos University second International Conference in Kenya. Using library research and reflection, document and content analysis were used to generate data, The East African region covered in the paper is that of the six countries set up as the East African Community in 2000. Their economies are reliant on agriculture with low agricultural productivity demonstrating some inabilities in poverty reduction as the majority of the farmers are smallholder farmers engaging mostly women labor. Food and nutrition security are not assured. The agricultural commodities for exports are not so competitive because of the low agricultural value chain with little value addition. The countries are sliding into being net importers of food despite having a huge potential for agriculture and the natural resources possessed. A green revolution, alignment of research and value addition of agricultural commodities including better infrastructure and markets will better their economies.

Keywords: Agriculture, Community, Productivity, Value addition, food and nutrition security

Influences of parental guidance towards sex education among teenagers in Sama and Ilelema communities, Asari-toru Local Government Area, Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

Sex is an important part of human life to which many people desperately seek answers, with its knowledge and attitude being very significant that humans are to seek it from any available source. However, most parents, even the educated ones and those in civilized climes find it difficult to discuss it with their children and wards. To this end, the later seek it from different sources, some of which may be detrimental to them. The study ascertained the influence of parents towards the sexual behavior of their teenage children. A cross-sectional aimed at measuring the influences of parental guidance towards sex education among teenagers in Sama and Ilelema communities, Asari-Toru Local Government Area of Rivers state. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 and the results presented as frequencies and percentages. The results revealed that about half of the respondents, 136(45.4%) are 17-19 years old, with the least, 71(23.6%) been 10-13 years. More females, 162(54.0%) participated, with most, 272(90.7%) been single while 28(9.3%) are married. Most, 253(84.3%) have secondary education and most are also students, 269(89.7%). Almost all the respondents, 294(98.0%) knew that sex education can reduce the problem of sexually transmitted diseases. 273(91.0%) agreed that correct information about sex education will prevent premarital sex, while 278(92.7%) agreed its early knowledge will not corrupt the children. 206(68.7%) have heard of sex education, with most hearing about it more than 6 times, 84(40.8%), of which 54(22.2%) heard it from peer groups/friends. About half, 167(55.7%) have had boy/girlfriend, with most of the former having between 1-3 boy/girlfriends. One hundred and seventeen (39.0%) have not had sexual intercourse, while 193(64.3%) waiting until they are married before having sex. Similarly, 247(82.3%) did not have pressure to have sex, with friends being most cause of pressure in 43(81.1%). 212(70.7%) are into serious relationship, with 66(22.0%) expecting the relationship to get to marriage. 92(82.9%) employed a means of preventing pregnancy during intercourse, of which 46(30.0%) and 33(35.9%) used condoms and withdrawal methods respectively. The respondents are aware of sex education and the effects of indulging in early sex, but peer groups/ friends pressure militate against their will to abide by tenets of safe sex. Vigorous enlightenments should be carried out by religious bodies, parents and other organizations, on the importance of sex education and the risks of early and unprotected sexual relationships. Sex education should, thus be given early to avoid children seeking information from peers, which may not be accurate. Doing this will give them a clearer perception and better future.

Keywords: Community, Pressure, Sex Education, indulgence, teenage

Community Development and Mother Values (Published)

Values as principles about what is right and wrong, or ideas about what is important in life can never be divorced from community development and even the whole life. Because values are those factors upon which balance is struck, equilibrium is maintained and the circumstance and context are made peaceful. Values are the other main component and segment of development, particularly communal development, in addition to material component, that have to be joined together with the material. Hence if the joining together is not done, the development will be incomplete, inconsistent and weakened. Despite this status, significance and importance the values have naturally, brilliantly and elaborately, it has been observed that values have been neglected and relegated to the background in community development discourse, theory and practice. The material aspect is more pronounced, promoted, projected and protected to the detriment of the values as an inevitable key factor in the issue of development practices. This makes most of our writings in community development discourse centred around the material like poverty eradication, job creation, and infrastructural development and so on. Therefore, it is in view of this that this paper tries to present values as an important variable in community development discourse, theory and practice for it to be reflected, incorporated, promoted, protected and projected in community development project. This would help tremendously in yielding better outcomes and maintaining equilibrium.

Keywords: Community, Development, Mother, Values

Community Participation as a Tool for the Promotion of Sustainable Community Development (Published)

The paper examined community participation as a tool for the promotion of sustainable community development. The paper explored the concept of community participation and sustainable community development.  The paper identified areas of community participation in sustainable community development to include community needs assessment, community development planning, community mobilization among others. The highlights of the benefits that accrue from community participation in sustainable community development are community empowerment, promotion of meaningful change, community participation as a mechanism to address community problems and provision of learning opportunities. The highlights of the recommendations based on the issues discussed are: There is an obvious need to strengthen the level of awareness creation in people for community participation in sustainable community development, relevant stakeholders in community development projects should embark on sustainable mobilization for effective community participation in community development among others.

Keywords: Community, Community and Development, Participation, Promotion, Sustainable, Tool

Traditional Boarding School Education Seulimum Aceh Besar (Published)

This research is a qualitative research which aims to obtain various information and actual data about people’s perceptions of traditional pesantren education development in Aceh provision, as well as to explore information and ideas of the community towards the pesantren learning system, community opinion on the policies and support of the Aceh government and big aceh to pontren-pontren in Seulimeum aceh sub-district is big, and at the same time to explore and study internal and external factors that become supporters and inhibitors in conducting guidance on traditional pesantren educational institutions. The results of the study can show that: With the assistance program for the development of pontren development carried out by the Aceh government, the pontren education institutions can reorganize the formation of pesantren education in accordance with the expectations of society, so that traditional pesantren can progress according to the demands of the times. Learning that is done in pontren and life-long education conducted in traditional pesantren, Seulimeum subdistrict, can realize the intelligence and maturity of thinking of students. The various policies and support that the Aceh government has given to pontren, this can be motivated by the community to set up huts and prayer halls. With the availability of sufficient teaching staff in the Pontrenia and the establishment of good relations between the pesantren institutions and the Aceh government and the big Aceh and the good socio-economic conditions of the students, these conditions can support the formation of traditional mentoring education. Especially with regard to the lack of available facilities for some pontren in the big Seulimeum Aceh district and the weak condition of some socio-economic santri can hamper the formation of the pontren in question.

Keywords: Community, Perception, traditional pesantren

Community Participation in Rural Finance Institutions Management: Evidence from Nigeria (Published)

The study is institutional, focusing on an appraisal of the participation of Community Development Association (CDA) in the management of community banks in Nigeria. Thirty nine (39) regulators of the programme, drawn from the National Board for Community Banks; the then supervising agency, were the respondents. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain data on the roles and depth of involvement of the CDA in the banks management. Also the success of such roles and the challenges faced were examined. Simple and multiple percentages as well as chi-square (X2) were the statistical tools used in data analysis.  The study found that even though the acquisition of the controlling equity by the CDA, as statutorily provided, was not fully successful, they were however involved in the banks management. Notable challenges such as the difficulty of using CDA when conflict exits in the host community, the presence of unfit CDA representatives in the banks board and tussles for board membership among the villages or communities owning the banks were evident.

Keywords: Bank Regulators, Community, Community Banks, Community Development Association, Community Participation

Water Development Shortages in Urbanising Communities of the Western Highlands in Cameroon (Published)

Exploring and using water resources provided by nature for alternative purposes has been an age-old human enterprise. Though water is perpetually renewable and ubiquitous, its utilisation is a sustainable challenge for quality and quantity. This study probes into the water development transition from village community status of the 1980s to that of an ever increasing cosmopolitan status recently accelerated by an upshot of educational establishment-pulled stakeholder population in the second decade of the 21st century. Primary and secondary data collected and processed indicate a devastating pressure on the current water development constructions of the communities in Tubah that have been startled by the population inflow which the village water schemes did not project nor consider at the outset. Water consumption has become number and option-altered triggering water scarcities that past and present developments cannot adjust to. Current and even future trends in water shortage and quality degradation hold no hope for this community destined to develop thanks to the diversification of its educational offers. Averting this hopelessness is not discretionary but obligation in this irreversible development drive that must hand-stretch for succour mindful of intrinsic flaws.

Keywords: Community, Population Influx, Tragedy of the Commons, Tubah, Village Water Scheme, Water Shortage

Professionalization of Community Development: Challenges and Prospects in Nigeria (Published)

The focus of the paper is on professionalization of community development with its challenges and prospects in Nigeria. The paper explored the concept of professionalization as a process by which any trade, work or occupation transforms itself into a profession of high standards, integrity and competence in human environment. The paper identified the characteristics of professionalization to include educational and professional qualifications, training, area of specialization, formal certification, code of conduct, establishment of professional body, self regulatory association among others. The paper identified lack of professional culture, lack of interest to promote professionalization of community development, weak professional association, lack of control entry among others as the challenges which militate against professionalization of community development in Nigeria. The paper identified establishment of appropriate educational qualifications, appropriate professional body, self regulatory association, code of conduct, employment of community development professionals and issuance of operational licence to community development professionals as some of the prospects of professionalization of community development in Nigeria. The paper recommends among other things a policy framework to enact a law to make the practice of community development an exclusive domain of community development professionals to practice their profession, entrenchment of professional values and issuance of operational licence to only qualified community development professionals to practice community development as a profession in Nigeria.      

Keywords: Community, Development Challenges, Professionalization, Prospects

Contributions of Various Kenyan Personalities in Communicating Change For Transformative Community (Published)

In spite of relatively stable governance and a hard working population, Kenya is rated among the countries with wide income disparities. Extreme and chronic poverty has not been eliminated even after fifty years of development efforts, that is, since the country gained its independence in 1963. In mitigating the adverse effects of these inequalities, communication is considered an essential tool for transformation through which essential thoughts in the minds of the people aimed at transformation are nurtured and shared. The purpose of this study was to identify the contributions made by various Kenyan personalities whose life experiences are shared in this paper, in communication change for a transformative society. The study displays how the select Kenyans engaged with the people and got them involved in transforming their community. A qualitative research design was adopted to select ten Kenyans to share their life experiences through in-depth interviews that were used by the author to gather data. Data analysis focused on the participants’ narratives on the aspect of their personal contributions and how they got the community working towards sustainable change. The study also recommends development of an African Communication Theory on what motivates communicative acts that lead to societal transformation.

Keywords: Change, Community, Contributions, Kenya, Transformation, communication

African Traditional Socio-Political Ideals, Democratic Values, and the Development of African States (Published)

The democratic socio-political formation of modern African states can be seen as a bold step in quest for a better human society. However, particular existential problems part of which arises from the composition of these states in Africa pose potent dangers to political stability, peace, well-being of the polity, and development of these states. This paper proposes authentic route out of this unwholesome situation that gets worse by the day notwithstanding immense human and natural resources of African states. It argues that a constructive synthesis “harmonious integration” of African traditional socio-political communitarian ideals with the time-tested-and-proven guiding provisions of democratic values would help solve many socio-political problems of African states and advance their needed sustainable development and flourishing. To this effect, it maintains that mass education using of all avenues of public enlightenment should be upheld therein; it specifically advocates that effective ethical leadership education should be introduced as a course and given emphasis in the curriculum of educational institutions in African states; and then enjoins conscious positive attitudinal change of the citizenry so as to bring about the needed result.

Keywords: African Traditional Socio-Political Ideals, Community, Democratic Values, Development, Harmonious Integration