Changes in Livelihood: Do Universities Make any Difference in their Host Communities through Corporate Social Responsibilities in Nigeria? (Published)
In Nigeria, there has been an unprecedented increase in the number of universities. These universities most often are sited in outskirts of urban centres but over the years these communities have become fully urbanized. The question is how has the sitting of the universities contributed to community development and change in the livelihood of its host community through corporate social responsibilities (CSR). The paper argued that community service which is one of the core mandates of university constitutes part of its CSR to its host communities. This paper focuses on two universities host communities in Rivers State Nigeria. Drawing on interviews and focus group discussion, the paper examines the benefits host communities to University of Port Harcourt and Ignatius Ajuru University of Education derived and the negative impact of sitting the of the presence of the university in the communities. The findings suggest a range of positive benefits to the host communities. However, they also highlighted a number of problems that may negatively affect the livelihood of the host community. The benefits include employment of the indigenes, access to quality education, health care and increase economic activities. The negative impacts are increase crime rate and population growth.
The Role of Adult Education in Achieving Sustainable Community Development in Akamkpa Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated the role of adult education in achieving sustainable community development in Akamkpa local government area of Cross River State. Two research questions were formulated for the study. The design for this study was descriptive survey. The population of the study was four hundred and two (402) participants of adult education programme for sustainable community development in the study area, stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to draw the sample size of 201 respondents. Researchers developed questionnaire titled: Role of Adult Education Sustainable Community Development Questionnaire (RAESCDQ). The instrument for data collection was a 10 items questionnaire which was validated by research experts and tested with a reliability estimate of 0.87 using Cronbach alpha statistics. The data collected were analysed using frequency and percentages. The findings which emerged from the study revealed that lack of curriculum, content of adult education, research facilities, facilitators and insufficient budgeting allocation in Akamkpa local government area. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended among others that adult education study centres should be built and well equipped with learning facilities to attract learners and also non-governmental organizations should support government in funding, providing, learning and infrastructural needs that will make adult education programmes more effective for sustainable community development.
This paper examines indigenous adult education as a vital tool for imparting skills and techniques and instructing members of any society in the accepted values, norms and practices for achieving sustainable community development. Aims of indigenous adult education were highlighted and discussed. Indigenous adult education programmes were identified and their imperatives in achieving sustainable community development examined. The writers concluded that indigenous adult education has been a major source of peaceful co-existence among Nigerians but has been grossly neglected in favour of formal education system. The writers suggest that indigenous adult education should be promoted to complement the formal education system to reduce moral decadence in Nigerian society and attain sustainability in community development.
Every social action is perceived as a joint undertaking of’ people in their social settings to improve their living conditions in various communities in the society. Social development as an educational process stimulates consciousness among people in order to be aware of their capabilities to address prevailing situations and realities in various participating communities. Social development as a concept is used to stimulate awareness in people for the ultimate purpose of understanding their social realities ant their potentialities to promote development that will improve their living conditions in their various communities. The paper identified conscientisation strategy, communication strategy and group action strategy as strategies of social development in stimulating community development. Based on the issues discussed appropriate recommendations are made which include the urgent need to ensure that adequate information is made available to people through the instrumentality of conscientisation and communication as well as that social development should be driven by common vision and interest of the people of participating communities in Nigeria.
Entrepreneurship Education for Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Citizen Participation in Community Development Activities (Published)
Poverty has been identified as a major set-back to any economy. Poverty had become endemic to many nations of the world especially the less developed. To treat the scourge of poverty, proactive actions and plans, such as equipping citizens with entrepreneurship skills and knowledge must be put in place. This paper therefore, presents entrepreneurship education as a cure to poverty and its curriculum, a frame work for poverty alleviation programmes. The concepts of entrepreneurship education, poverty and participation are fully discussed. The objects of entrepreneurship, goal and the curriculum context of effective entrepreneurship education were also discussed. The relationship between poverty, entrepreneurship and participation were highlighted. The paper concludes that given the immense benefits crewing from entrepreneurship education, and its role enhancing community development activities, the nation should channel its efforts to improve the economy and better the lives of the citizens.
Every social action is seen as a catalyst to promote joint undertaking of’ people in their social settings to improve their living conditions in various communities in human environment. Social development as a process is employed to stimulates consciousness among people in order to be aware of their capabilities to address prevailing situations and realities in various participating communities. Social development as a catalyst is used to promote awareness creation in people for the ultimate purpose of understanding their prevailing social realities ant potentialities to promote development that will improve their living conditions in their various communities. The paper identified conscientisation strategy, communication strategy and group action strategy as areas of social development intervention in promoting community development. Based on the issues discussed appropriate recommendations are made which include the urgent need to see that adequate information is made available to people through the instrumentality of conscientisation, and communication as well as other areas of intervention of social development which should be driven by common vision and interest of the people of participating communities in Nigeria.
A Sociological Analysis of the Impact of Solid Minerals Mining On Community Development in Nasarawa State: A Study of Awe Local Government Area (Published)
Nigeria’s economic history shows that the solid minerals sector was a major player in the country’s economy before the discovery of oil, contributing about 12 per cent to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Generally, the exploitations of solid minerals always take place in communities where they are deposited. The activities involved in the process cannot be divorced from the social interactions and relationships between the miners and host communities. It has been observed that mining activities have great degrading effects on physical environment of the host communities, which can negatively affect the socio-economic development of the mining communities and cause serious health hazards for the members of the communities. The thrust of this research is to examine the impact of mining activities on the development of the host communities particularly, now that the economic policies of Nigerian government is focusing more on mining as a better alternative source of revenue for government. This study employed survey research design approach to analyze causal explanation. For the purpose of this study, three mining communities in the study area were selected using cluster sampling, namely Abuni, Azara and Mairago. The principal methods of data collection used are closed-ended questionnaire, in-depth interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD). Based on the research questions, the analysis of data is both quantitative and qualitative. The study revealed that mining sector has the potential for creating jobs, greater GDP and huge exports but a greater amount of Nigerian miners are artisanal small scale operators, who conduct explorations of minerals without adequate equipment. The study discovers that there has been cordial and harmonious relationship between the host communities and mining companies in the area under study. The study concludes that mining companies has contributed to community development in the area according to their capacity. It therefore recommends among others that the potential of solid mineral sector notwithstanding, there is the need for environmental impact assessment of the host communities before any mining activity to reduce environmental hazards. Establishing and maintaining mutual trust between people and the mining companies should be the main goal of the community partnership. The mining companies should always recognize the need for cooperation with the community and to encourage members of the community to be involved in their own development.
The paper focused on Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and assessment of needs in community development. Abraham Maslow as a renowned researcher in the study of human needs and motivation, came up with his famous hierarchy of needs theory with a proposal that people are motivated by five levels of needs namely: (1) Physiological needs (2) Safety needs (3) Love and belonging needs (4) Esteem and prestige needs (5) Self-actualization needs. Two additional levels of needs namely: (6) Understanding needs and (7) Aesthetic needs were later included in Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. The focus of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is now on motivation of people by seven (7) levels of needs in human environment. The emphasis on Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is that there are certain basic needs which must be met before other needs can, indeed, be considered in human environment. Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs further focus on exploration of human desire to address people’s needs in order to improve their living conditions in human environment. No man is an island unto himself in the society. Social groupings, associations, affiliations and belongings which are based on love are needed to enhance harmonious human co-existence in various social settings. This gives people the courage and confidence to contribute to community development to improve their living conditions. This article helps to equip people with a better understanding of Abraham Maslow’s hierarchy of needs and its application to real life situations assessment of needs in community development in the society.
After over 54 years of the discovery of oil and gas in over 500 communities in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, the people are still “poor, neglected, under-developed and backward” resulting from suffocation occasioned by the Nigerian State, and the hazards and conflicts associated with oil and gas exploration / exploitation. This was followed closely by the prolonged, unfruitful peaceful negotiations that the people, spearheaded by the youths, have in recent times resorted to violent disruption of oil installations, kidnapping, hostage-taking and militia activities in the region. This paper is focused on the appraisal of the efforts of the Federal Government’s interventionist Agencies over the years with specific emphasis on the Niger Delta Development Commission (NDDC) between 2001 and 2010. This appraisal is imperative since the mandate of NDDC is to “resolve conflict and build peace” thereby restoring the confidence of the people in the region. It is the conviction of the author therefore that, the paper is significant in several respects and the findings and recommendations will to a significant extent forestall the looming war which in turn will guarantee peace and sustainable Community Development in the region.
Community Development and Preservation of Heritage Resources in Igbo Area of Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)
Many heritage sites abound in the shores of Nigeria with enormous tourism potentials. Heritage sites do not only depict the cultural and historical transmutation of a people but also functions in the image design and promotion of a locality. This reveals the unique role of heritage sites to structural development of an area. Heritage sites have of recent been a victim of degradation and social abuse arising from seasonal ignorance; hence minimizing its potentials to the socio-economic development of an area. Previous studies have worked on sustaining and preserving heritage sites both for posterity, culture and identity promotion, and tourism through various means including legislations, policies, architectural design, etc. This paper is emphasizing on the adoption of community development approaches in heritage preservation in Igbo area. Its modalities, applications, challenges and prospect were discussed. Such understanding will serve as a catalyst in aiding general restoration and preservation of heritage sites in Nigeria and other African states.