Communication Audit of Cable News Network (Cnn) Online Reports on Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria (2012-2016) (Published)
Previous studies on conflict reportage in Nigeria had accused Western media of inclinations for feeding the people with inaccurate and contradictory reports. This study was predicated on the need to investigate the patterns and trends of the Cable News Network (CNN’s) online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria over a period of five years, 2012-2016. The study adopted the content analysis method of research and conducted a census of 58 online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria as obtained from Cable News Network website (http://edition.cnn.com/text=boko+haram). While direction of reports, sources of report, prominence, balance and report genre provided content categories for the study, the Cronbach Alpha test was adopted for inter-coder reliability. The study found high prominence on CNN’s online reports of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. There was high level imbalance in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found low level of objectivity in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. It was also established that CNN made use of only one source of information in her reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found out that the straight news genre dominated CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Finally, the study showed that CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria did conform to the allegation of information distortion leveled against Western Media. The researchers then recommended diversification of information sources, combination of report genres and fortification of conflict reporters as measures that would enhance accuracy, objectivity and fairness in conflict reportage.
Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:” Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.
The term ‘sign’ as used in this work, in relation to road architecture, refers to the nonlinguistic symbols used as linguistic landscape to communicate intended information in form of instructions, warnings, directions, etc. to road users. The study of signs in semiotics is all encompassing, involving the inference of meaning from signs and symbols using interpersonal, cultural, contextual and personal experience. Semiotics’ preoccupation is the study of all that can be taken as sign. It is noted that in spite of the use of the road signs in the Nigerian cities and suburbs, many road mishap are still being recorded. This study, guided by semiotics principles, and using gestalt theory of visual perception, examines the communicative effectiveness of road signs in Nigeria, using Akure metropolis as case study. Thus, the paper examines the effectiveness of road signs as linguistic landscape (information agent) for road users in Nigeria using the Akure metropolis in Ondo State as the case study. Through a survey research method, the study, interviewed 260 respondents who were mainly made up of: commercial drivers, private drivers and pedestrians in order to obtain their opinions, attitudes, feelings and dispositions towards road signs as linguistic landscape. The study reveals that most road accidents were due to the flagrant disobedience of the road and traffic signs by the motorists and pedestrians. The incessant road mishap calls for serious questions on the effectiveness of the road signs as a vehicle of information dissemination to road users.
With the diffusion of social network sites and applications, social media have become one of the most popular Internet (communication) services. Most of the information exchange that occurs on these social networking sites is not only personal information or entertainment, but also new ways to stimulate citizen engagement in politics because of the fast flowing of videos and news reports. They are incorporating more political issues and public affairs into these social media platforms. The ‘Umbrella Movement’, which triggered global attention, is a typical case that illustrates the importance of social media in the social movement. During the entire 2014 campaign, social media and social media platforms played a key role in providing students a new way to obtain immediate information from different perspectives and allowing some student leaders to announce strategies or directions to other students or participants in the movement. In an era when students’ time and attention are increasingly directed towards social media and social media platforms such as Facebook and YouTube, these platforms allow students to obtain political information without needing the intermediate role of mass media. Reactions, feedback and conversations generated online are stimulating and facilitate social participation.
A Perspective on the Co-Involvement of the Provider and the Recipient in the “Production” of Educational Services (Published)
The way in which the recipient of goods or services can be determined to engage in the production activity (which includes different stages such as design, production, delivery and advertising) is one of the points of interest for marketing researchers. The present study analyses the favourable conditions for this to happen, taking into account factors such as physical and emotional presence, communication or enthusiastic connection to the objectives proposed jointly by the provider and the recipient. The research consists of applying a questionnaire to the educational services sector. Constructs are analysed in terms of their reliability and validity before using linear regression to estimate how the variables are connected one to other. The results indicate that, among the indicators with which co-involvement has significant correlations, the indicator Didactic methods used in the classes influence the teacher-student communication remains significant, therefore it has an explanatory character. The involvement of the provider and the recipient in achieving the same objectives is, in the end, co-involvement, i.e. the pursuit of performance by achieving the proposed objectives. The analysis of the results shows that, by his behaviour, the provider influences the recipient’s decision to get involved or not in co-production.
Improving Teaching of English Language through ICT for National Curriculum Consciousness: Limitations of Teachers in Nigeria (Published)
In Nigeria today, almost all human endeavours have imbibed the culture of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to boost the process of activities, but education sector is yet to optimally utilize the multidimensional opportunities inherent in computer use in pedagogy as it is done mostly in the western world. This review has identified the use of computer by developing software to teach English language contents. Teachers’ motivation has also been located as one of the indices that can improve teachers’ utilization of ICT facilities to achieve the pedagogical goals. Lack of existing localised programme and software plus dearth of computer in Schools, coupled with insufficient knowledge of computer use among practitioners have been identified as limiting factors to the use of ICT by Teachers. It is recommended that the training and retraining of teachers on ICT is very pertinent in achieving optimal goal of ICT utilization among teachers in Nigerian Schools.
African Union and Conflict Management in Africa: The Role of Communication in the Effectiveness of Future Interventions (Published)
As a continent with all kinds of existing and emerging conflicts, Africa needs to invest hugely in conflict prevention, resolution and management in order to move towards the desired goal of integration, political stability and economic growth. Without peace and stability, it is impossible for development to occur. Since the end of colonial rule, the retrogression of many African countries has been traced to conflicts and the failure of extant resolution mechanisms to address the root causes of discontent, injustice and socio-political exclusion. The fact that conflicts now assume transnational and international dimensions has elevated the need for greater collaboration and cooperation among countries in conflict management, especially through the platforms provided by international organizations such as the United Nations (UN) and the African Union (AU). The African Union has been particularly instrumental not only in the identification, resolution and management of intrastate and cross-national conflicts in Africa, but also in the provision of a framework for multilayer co-operation, partnership and integration between governments and multinational actors across the continent. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the performance of the AU in the management of conflicts across the continent. To this end, the interventions of the AU in the conflicts in Burundi and Sudan were used as case studies. Specifically, this paper is of the opinion that indigenous conflict management techniques built upon traditional communication systems should be incorporated in a new approach to conflict management, if the African Union is desirous of impacting meaningfully on regional peace and security.
Language of oral is always important role in the politics and journalism foreign is used to describe people, jobs and activities to countries that are not the country of the person or government concerned process of learning. Oral proficiency in something that you show ability or skill at it are also a basic role in the language of foreign. The strategy of communication is important to oral ability. This study focus the students to communicate with each other using the target or result that you are trying to achieve in the classroom. This research focus the advantage of Direct Method to give instruction how to communicate in the language of target.
Somatic Countertransference Experiences Of Nurse Therapeutic Touch Practitioners: A Content Analysis. Part 1: Body (Published)
This qualitative study describes somatic countertransference (SCT) experiences of nurse Therapeutic Touch practitioners. Defined by Orbach and Carroll (2006), SCT is “the therapist’s awareness of their own body, of sensations, images, impulses, and feelings that offer a link to the client’s healing process” (p. 64). Use of purposeful sampling recruited eight experts. Audiotaped sixty-minute face-to-face in-depth interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide with six open-ended questions. Sandelowski’s (2010) preferred method of latent content analysis produced codes and subcategories grounded exclusively in the saturated data (Krippendorff, 2004). Ten subcategories and three categories were inductively generated. Consensus on coding and data analysis led to the emergent theme, “A Language for Healing Trauma.” Consistent with social science communication research (Krippendorff, 1989), SCT was found to be a factor in the healing of trauma, experienced during the verbal and nonverbal communication of one group of nurse TT practitioners in interaction with traumatized clients.
Communication and Advocacy Strategies on Adolecents’ Reproductive Heath: Case Study of Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the relationship between communication and advocacy strategies on adolescents’ reproductive health in Ekiti State University, Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria.
The study was a descriptive survey research. The sample for the study was 200 respondents which were randomly selected among regular undergraduate students from all faculties using cluster random sampling technique. The instrument used was questionnaire which was constructed by the researcher and corrected and approved by research expert. The instrument was tagged “Communication and Advocacy Strategies on Adolescents Reproductive Health” (CASARH). The data collected was analysed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation. All the hypotheses generated were tested at 0.05 level of significant. It revealed that communication and advocacy strategies affect adolescent’s reproductive health, that is, there is perfect relationship between the two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. This study further recommended that proper and adequate enlightenment programmes and campaigns should be made available by the government, non-governmental organizations and private individuals to empower the adolescents with required skills, knowledge and capabilities to function efficiently and effectively in all sectors of the society, and this is by organizing seminars, workshops, conferences and other public talks.
Cartoon Application in Communication and Social Mobilization in Nigeria’s Bring Back Our Girls: The way Forward (Published)
There is no doubt that art is an effective way to communicate messages. Pictures and cartoons cover for a shortfall of issues which cannot be wholly captured in words. The visual nature of cartoons gives it the ability to evoke emotions and cause people to act and react in a certain manner. The concern of this work is to investigate the potency of the cartoons used in the Bring Back Our Girls campaign, between May 2014 and January 2015. The study adopts the pragmatic theory as a framework. Using content analysis the study collated and analysed cartoons published on local and international websites on BBOG campaign, to gain accurate insight, 126 respondents from Calabar Municipality graded all 35 cartoons on their social mobilization content. Analysis of the data revealed active cartoon publications on the campaign, also a larger percent of the respondents indicated that the cartoons were potent for social mobilization. The paper recommends that in regard to the effectiveness of cartoons in communication, more NGOs, Governments and the active public should employ cartoons as a means of commenting on the challenges bedevilling the society.
An Investigation into Undergraduates’ Errors in the Use of the Indefinite Article at Omar Al-Mukhtar University (Published)
The purpose of this study was to examine the use of English articles as well the errors made by the students at Omar Al-Mukhtar University. The research objectives consists of : To identify the types and sources of errors made by Libyan EFL Undergraduates at Omar Al-Mukhtar University in the use of the indefinite article during their written composition, To determine the major types of errors in which larger numbers of errors have been committed by the students in their written composition. Based on previous studies, A qualitative method of data collection represented by an essay-writing composition is implemented in this study. Moreover, they were asked to write essay writing composition of the following topics “Discuss The Problems You Face In Learning English Language?” The results provide of this study, reporting the information collected from Compositions and analyzed by using descriptive statistical percentages in terms of errors numbers and percentages of errors occurrences under their major types, which enabled the researchers to put these in an order of their occurrences. In other words, data were organized using categories given to each of these errors. Regarding the length of compositions, a total of (2194) English words were written by the students across their university levels. Freshmen wrote a total of (1193) words which represents (54.37%) whereas sophomores wrote (1001) words which represents (40.62%). These research also suggest that there is a significant and negative impact of the use of English Articles. Since majority of students agreed that the English Articles are important, and we should look at the importance of English language as well as how students improve their proficiency in English articles towards mastering the use of English language.
Uses of Information and Communication Technology in Teaching and Learning of Clothing and Textiles in Ebonyi State University (Published)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the uses of information and communication technology in teaching and learning. Clothing and textile in Ebonyi State University Abakiliki, Nigeria. Two specific objectives with two null hypotheses guided the study. Design of the study was a survey. The population consisted of 106(10 staffs and 96 students of Home Economics Education). There was no sampling because the population was manageable. Questionnaire was used for data collection while frequency and mean statistics where used to analyze the data. Result revealed that I.C.T such as computer and projectors are not used in the teaching and learning of clothing and textile in Ebonyi State University Abakiliki. There is no significant difference between mean level of staff and students of Home Economics education on the uses of computer and projector in teaching and learning of clothing and textile in the area of study. It was recommended among others, that there should be at least one computer and data projector in each classroom and the entire classrooms should be equipped with smart boards.
Mechanism for Improving the Managerial Communication Skills of School Principals for Effective School Administration in Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the mechanism for improving the managerial communication skills of school principals in Anambra State of Nigeria. Two research questions and two null-hypotheses guided the study. Survey research design was adopted for the study. The population of the study was 269 school principals. The entire population were studied. The instrument was a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire was validated by three experts in Educational Administration Ebonyi State University. The reliability was determined using Conbach Alpha to determine the consistency which yielded 0.75 alpha coefficient. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation while the hypotheses were tested using t-test statistics. The findings revealed that application of listening skills: verbal and non-verbal skills, written skills and feedback skills in communication can improve the managerial communication skills of school principals. It was recommended that Ministry of Education should organize seminar, workshop and conferences on communication skills for principals to acquire skills for the management of their schools.
An Analysis of Speech Communication Skills Strategies of Effective Public Relations Management for Organizational Growth in Nigeria (Published)
The papers stands to advocates that effective knowledge of speech communication is necessary in discharge of public relations functions or duties, and is very vital for a public relations practitioner to be conversant with the principles of effective speech communication skills and strategies, as its job is based on establishing mutual line of communication between the organization and its publics for organizational growth and national development. The paper also poses that the key to successful employer and employees relation `is based on adequate information which can only be achieved through public relations effective two-way communication for harmonious existence and mutual understanding. Furthermore, it employs purposive sampling technique, and structured interview guide as a research instrument to elicit information from 65 final students of Public Relations and Advertising in Babcock University. The finding authenticates that effective communication is an anchor for any organizational harmony and development. And recommended that all sphere of life require effective communication to exist, survive and to grow.
The Complexities Of New Media: Can The ‘Web Media’ Completely Erase Traditional Media From The Communication Industry (Published)
Over the years, there has been a popular outcry among investors and operators in the communication industry that the advent of new Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) will affect the survival and mode of operation of the traditional media, especially newspapers and magazines. Although it is not in doubt that these technologies pose serious challenges to the survival of mainstream media. This has generated controversies as to whether the ‘web media’ will completely erase or overshadow the conventional media. This and other issues surrounding the convergence of new and mainstream media, is the thrust of this paper.
This paper investigates the Technicality of Translation Appears in the Competence of the Translator. Technicality of Translation Appears in the Competence of the Translator. A competency is a set of defined behaviors that provide a structured guide enabling the identification, evaluation and development of the behaviors in individual employees. Translators always risk inappropriate spill-over of source-language idiom and usage into the target-language translation. Terminology can be considered the surface appearance of relevant domain concepts. Candidate terminological expressions are usually captured with shallow techniques that range from stochastic methods to more sophisticated syntactic approaches.
This study is framed within a competence-oriented model which provides the target text (TT) receiver with communicative clues. These clues allow inference to be optimally captured. Hence, this approach looks at translation as an example of communication mainly based on the cost and effect model of inferencing and interpretations. Strategies adopted in this paper are determined by context-specific consideration of relevance, with special reference to cultural aspects. Applied to translation, one of the most appropriate strategies is to re-produce the cognitive effect intended by the source text (ST) communicator with the lowest possible effort on the part of the TT receiver. This study concludes that when there is a lack of isomorphism or symmetry between the cultural contents of the two languages, the translator will have to opt for content-cognitive effect or cultural transplantation. The translator would have to assess the relevance of content and form in a specific context in order to achieve the same effect in the TT. It has been emphasized, however, that translation as a special instance of human communication leads to the conclusion that various methods may be justified in their own right, if we take into consideration the differences in the text-types, the intention of the author, readership, and the purpose of translation. In a nutshell, however, translation remains a craft which requires not just training and skill but also continually renewed linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge, considerable imagination as well as intelligence and common sense, and most of all talent
A large number of people have wondered how a language could absolutely exist without grammar. Most of them thought that people might communicate with each other by a language without grammar rules or forms. Even after communicative methodology appeared in the 1970s, researchers of grammar had indicated that the grammar should be ignored in teaching language. However, recent studies showed that grammar instruction within communicative contexts could let learners gain high proficiency level, both in accuracy and fluency. Ellis & Celce-Murcia (2002) claimed that learners should be provided authentic discourse samples of the contextually dependent grammatical rules. Florez (1999) emphasized that learners could not speak accurately and fluently without any grammar instruction. Clearly, grammar plays an important role in the progress of language acquisition. In this paper, a report on the application of some ways to teach English grammar for communicative purposes will be fully described. Moreover, the role of grammar instruction in language classroom should be discussed in this paper.
This study sought to discover the Influence of Drama and its Repercussions on the vulnerable communities. Drama represents an ideal method of work if Dramatists want to put the meaning for people into a sizeable context. Unlike in guided practice, people are involved in real communication while they activate language to communicate real meaning, rather than just practicing language and thus develop their communicative competence in a natural way, using body language, making pauses and interruptions, showing emotions, and creating relationships. Drama techniques have the singular merit of directly engaging People’ feelings and, as a result, often making them aware of the need to be able to express them appropriately.