Tag Archives: Commercialization

Factors Influencing Commercialization of Farmers’ Cooperatives under Commercial Agriculture Development Project in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study analyzed the factors influencing commercialization of farmers’ cooperatives under Commercial Agriculture Development Project in Cross-River State, Nigeria. The extent of commercialization by the cooperatives was ascertained, and factors influencing commercialization as expressed by the marketed and marketable surpluses of the cooperatives analyzed. Data collected from 219 purposively sampled cooperatives using CADP list were analyzed using marketed and marketable surplus analyses and the Ordinary Least Square Multiple Regression Technique. The result indicated medium scale operation; with equal value for marketed and marketable surpluses (₦23,354,321,602.00). While marketed surplus was influenced among others by farm size (t = 4.7064) and access to export market (t = 2.9713) marketable surplus was influenced among others by age of cooperative (t = -2.8102) and expenditure on seed (t = -3.4931). Extension education campaign to encourage cooperative societies’ formation and enlistment, and considering the identified variables as valuables for intervention and advocacy were recommended.

Keywords: CADP., Commercialization, Factors, Farmers’ Cooperatives, Marketable Surplus, Marketed Surplus

Impact of Okra Gum Encapsulation on Some Physicochemical Attributes of Yam Flour (Published)

Okra gum samples were prepared by two methods – The Conventional Method and by encapsulation. For encapsulation, okra gum solution made from 239.4g okra pod was thoroughly mixed with 303.4g of yam flour and then dried for 12 hours at 60oC using cabinet dryer. The dried product (encapsulated gum) was marked – CG1. CG1 was repeatedly employed to cumulatively carry gum samples extracted from okra pods of known weights. This way, CG2 to CG5 were made. The weights and bulk densities of each of CG1 to CG5 were recorded. The viscosity, water holding capacity (WHC) as well as moisture content (MC) of CG5 was compared with those of pure okra gum and gum Arabic. Infrared spectroscopy was done on the pure okra gum at 0.5mm path. Results showed that the 303.4g yam flour, encapsulating gum extract from a total of 904.4g okra pod weighed 217g. In other results, pure gum, encapsulated gum and gum Arabic had 0.245, 0.317 and 1.22Nm-2 respectively for viscosity. For (WHC), they had 12, 12.60 and 16.00%., MC): 10, 7 and 46%. The infrared scan on pure okra gum showed strong C-CL stretching vibration, a difference from the work of other researchers.

Keywords: Commercialization, Composition Encapsulation, Extraction, Okra Gum

Value Chain Analysis of Maize in Mahabubnagar District of Telangana State, India (Published)

India is the sixth largest producer of maize in the world, and contributed about 2 per cent to the global maize production of 855.72 million tonnes (Mt) in 2012-13. Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh are the corn belts from South where Karnataka alone occupies 12% of the total area (one million ha) and contributes nearly 16% of its total production. Nearly ¾ of the produce is being processed as animal feed and remaining for human consumption and industrial use. There is a huge demand for maize and maize products because, it is rich in lysine, tryptophan, amino acids and low fat content and it is a good product for diabetic and obese disorders. Now a days there is a more demand for maize value added products in urban and peri-urban areas, indicating a vast scope for fortification as nutritional supplementation at all the stages right from farmer’s field to consumer’s plate. The rich nutri-maize is available in abundance to the consumers at relatively cheaper price (compared to other cereals) can be further commercially exploited for nutritive health foods by value addition and making available them at affordable price for the advantage of vulnerable groups and other consumers at large. The main objective of the study was to carry out value chain analysis of maize in Mahabubnagar district and environs with a view to identify potential production, demand and supply, value chain, value additions, key sector constraints and opportunities and appropriate interventions.

Keywords: Cereals, Commercialization, Consumer, Good agricultural practices, Maize, Market Channels, Value Additions., Value Chain

Perceptions on the Commercialisation of the Malu: A Case of Samoa (Published)

The art of Samoan tattooing or Tatau has been widely researched by scholars. Most scholarly, medical and artistic studies examine Samoan tattooing with greater interest on the male tattoo (pe’a) while the female tattoo (malu) is insignificantly explored. Traditionally, the malu was reserved for the taupou, (the daughters of high chiefs). Today, no such reservation seems to be in place and pretty much any woman or girl, Samoan, part Samoan or non Samoan may receive a malu provided they can afford the costs and tolerate the pain. Perceptions on the commercialisation of the malu are deeply debated and vigorously contested on social media and online discussion forums. Perceptions on the commercialisation of the malu from Samoans and non Samoans residing in Samoa are nonexistent in academia. This research paper presents the results of a small scale study that investigated the perceptions of Samoans, part Samoan and non Samoans living in Samoa on the commercialisation of the malu. The paper intends to highlight similarities and differences in perceptions amongst participants living in Samoa and bloggers residing outside of Samoa. The paper presents a number of interesting themes drawn from the study on the commercialisation of the malu.

Keywords: Commercialization, Malu, Online Discussion Forums, Perceptions, Samoan Tattooing, Social media, Tatau

Fuel Wood Commercialization and Households Welfare in the Northern Region of Ghana: An Implications for Rural Livelihood Improvement (Published)

Several national forestry policies in Ghana meet resistance and or failure; particularly issues of natural and environment resources use within communities. This is because of the highly dependent nature of people on the environment for sustenance and welfare improvements. This paper examined the major facts which motivate households’ decisions to engage in commercialization of fuelwood; determined the most preferred fuel wood species, and availability of income inequality among sampled districts and establish fuelwood, commercialization and households’ welfare by the travel cost method.  The study sampled six districts in the Northern Region based on poverty and rural dependence mode. The paper used the simple random sample along with a structured questionnaire to illicit information from respondents. The results showed that, increased in travel cost and cost of access to forested sites impact negatively on the number of visits for fuel wood. The study further revealed that, benefits from fuel wood commercialization in terms of reducing income inequality differ from district to district. The study recommended that, government and international organizations should facilitate the cultivation forest sites solely for fuel wood harvest to ensure environmental sustainability. In addition, fuel wood harvesters must be taught forest management and conservation strategies in the Northern Region.

Keywords: Commercialization, Fuel Wood, Inequality, Livelihood, Welfare, households

Perceptions on the Commercialisation of the Malu: A Case of Samoa (Published)

The art of Samoan tattooing or Tatau has been widely researched by scholars. Most scholarly, medical and artistic studies examine Samoan tattooing with greater interest on the male tattoo (pe’a) while the female tattoo (malu) is insignificantly explored. Traditionally, the malu was reserved for the taupou, (the daughters of high chiefs). Today, no such reservation seems to be in place and pretty much any woman or girl, Samoan, part Samoan or non Samoan may receive a malu provided they can afford the costs and tolerate the pain. Perceptions on the commercialisation of the malu are deeply debated and vigorously contested on social media and online discussion forums. Perceptions on the commercialisation of the malu from Samoans and non Samoans residing in Samoa are nonexistent in academia. This research paper presents the results of a small scale study that investigated the perceptions of Samoans, part Samoan and non Samoans living in Samoa on the commercialisation of the malu. The paper intends to highlight similarities and differences in perceptions amongst participants living in Samoa and bloggers residing outside of Samoa. The paper presents a number of interesting themes drawn from the study on the commercialisation of the malu.

Keywords: Commercialization, Malu, Online Discussion Forums, Perceptions, Samoan Tattooing, Social media, Tatau