Tag Archives: Commercial

Cognitive Effects of Dialogic In-Vehicular Music Communication on Driving Behaviours: Emerging Facts among Commercial Motorists in Southeast Nigeria (Published)

This study explored Cognitive effects of dialogic in-vehicular music communication on driving behaviours: emerging facts among commercial motorists in South-East, Nigeria. The study was orchestrated by the steady rise of road traffic accidents and deaths statistics in Nigeria. 416 participants whose ages ranged from 27 to 59 years with a mean age of 39.50 years and standard deviation of 5.40 were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. Anchored on Distraction theory by Mitchell and MacDonald (2006), four research questions were answered using mixed method design while Pearson correlation statistics, thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized to analyze survey, interview and observational data respectively. The result indicated that the prevalence of dialogic in-vehicular music communication is high at 68.4% whereas the awareness of the dangers posed by dialogic in-vehicular music communication is low at 45.2% among commercial motorist in South-East, Nigeria. Whereas dialogic in-vehicular music communication positively and significantly correlated hazard prone driving behaviours at r(1, 321) = .39, p < .01, awareness of the dangers posed by dialogic in-vehicular music communication negatively and significantly correlated hazard prone driving behaviours at r(1, 321) = -.20, p < .01. The findings were also supported by the themes which emerged from the analysis of the in-depth interview and descriptive analysis of the observational schedule. Considering the dangers of the low awareness level of dialogic in-vehicular music communication among commercial drivers, there is the need to deepen education and sensitization of the public regarding the associated hazards.

Keywords: Commercial, Dialogic in-vehicular music communication, Distraction., Drivers, Transportation, driving, hazard prone behaviour

The Validity of International Commercial Arbitration Agreement (Published)

The Arbitration Agreement constitutes the relinquishment of an important right to have the dispute resolved judicially and creates others rights. The rights it creates are the right to establish the process for resolving the dispute. In their arbitration agreement, the parties can select the rules that will govern the procedure, the location of the arbitration, the language of the arbitration, the law governing the arbitration, and frequently, the decision-makers, whom the parties may choose because of their particular expertise in the subject matter of the parties’ dispute. The parties’ arbitration agreement gives the arbitrators the power to decide the dispute and defines the scope of that power. In essence, the parties create their own private system of justice. The parties’ arbitration agreement is frequently contained in a clause or clauses that are embedded in the parties’ commercial contract. The agreement to arbitrate is thus entered into before any dispute has arisen, and is intended to provide a method of resolution in the event that a dispute will arise. However, if there is no arbitration clause in the parties’ contract, and a dispute arises, at that time the parties can nonetheless enter into an agreement to arbitrate, if both sides agree. Such an agreement is called submission agreement. In light of the important rights that are extinguished when the parties agree to arbitration, this paper aims to examine the question of the validity of arbitration agreement. In others words what are the characteristics of a valid arbitration agreement? What does a valid arbitration agreement imply as legal effects? Arbitration is a creature of consent, and that consent should be freely, knowingly, and competently given Therefore, to establish that parties have actually consented, many national laws, as well as the New York Convention, require that an arbitration agreement be in writing

Keywords: Arbitration Agreement Validity, Commercial, Competence-Competence, International


Commercial production of tobacco in Kenya has been going on for about a century and since its introduction, its production and use have been issues of great controversy.Tobacco production in Kenya has created a class of growers that have long been ignored by historians. A growing number of scholarly works available on the theme have basically been of scientific and agronomical nature. In a wider context, a lot of literature on social relations on the recent agrarian intensification in Africa does exist, though lack of systematic studies on the relationship between tobacco production and socio-economic impact as well as employment on tobacco farms still remains a yawning gap in the historiography of Kenya. This paper is a focus on a historical examination of tobacco growing peasantry and its impact on employment trends in Sirisia, Bungoma West District of Kenya following concerted efforts by the British American Tobacco Kenya Limited (BAT) to commercialise agricultural production. The study used observation method and interviews in data collection. Archival and documentary sources were also used for secondary data. This study serves a purpose of informing key stakeholders in the government and non-government sectors about the relevant policies to improve rural livelihood in Sirisia and other tobacco producing areas. The study demonstrates the view that the peasant sector occupies a central role in African economic development.

Keywords: Commercial, Development, Employment Trends, Peasantry, Socio-Economic, Tobacco Cultivation, history