Functions of Code Switching in the English Language Teaching Classroom Discourse: Perspectives of Lecturers and Students (Published)
In the bilingual classrooms of higher education institutions of Pakistan, instructors and learners of English language tend to apply two or more than two languages alternatively and competently for diverse reasons and multiple functions. The study aimed at exploring the functions of code switching between English to Urdu languages, employed by English instructors and students in the English Language Teaching (ELT) classrooms’ discourse. In the present quantitative study, survey research method was brought into play. Simple Random Sampling was used. The study unearthed the fact that majority of students alter language code to overcome their incompetence in English language, whereas instructors utilized code switching strategy to deal with students’ language incompetence and to explicate concept that does not have an equivalent match in English language. The study recommended formulating explicit policies for the proportionate switch between Urdu and English languages at all diverse levels of education in the higher institutions.
Studies in language and gender are barely known in Jordan and the Arab-Islamic world at large. This paper highlights the empowering use that Irbid females make of the languages available to theme. The .importance of this use is enhanced by the fact that Jordanian is a multilingual country where languages do not have the same social and political status and where the choice and use of a language is part and parcel of negotiating the power related to gender-making and gender-creating in Jordanian society. Mono- or bilingual women use oral genres to help themselves and literate (often multilingual) women use code-switching for the same goal.
Code-Switching With Arabic: A Case of the Hindi/Urdu Mother Tongue Speakers of the Expatriate Community Working In Saudi Arabia (Published)
In a multilingual setting, speakers of more than one language use alternately the linguistic items of languages available to them while interacting with each other. A situation of language amalgam provides a conducive atmosphere for language alternation. Cod-switching is a dominant and striking feature of a language contact situation. Code alternation, a cover term for the phenomena of code-switching and code-mixing occurs in a language contact situation whereby more than one language play a significant role in the speech of an individual or their group. The present paper takes into account as how the expatiate employees from the Indian subcontinent working in Saudi Arabia sharing Hindi/Urdu as their tongue switch over to Arabic and incorporate linguistic items from Arabic into their native language. The paper begins with a brief introduction about the phenomenon of code-switching and code-mixing. It also presents some definitions of the terms code-switching and code-mixing and throws light on social motivation and functions of code-switching. The paper reviews a considerable portion of literature on linguistic alternation in terms of ‘code-switching and code-mixing’. An overview of the research methodology adopted in carrying out the study along with the results of the investigation are also documented. In the present paper an effort has made to prepare, present and analyze an exhaustive list of Arabic linguistic items and expressions used in the process of exchange and alternation by Hindi/Urdu mother tongue speakers working in Saudi Arabia.
The Effects of Code Switching On English Language Teaching and Learning at Two Schools in Sibbinda Circuit (Published)
Code-switching is mostly used by different language users, this diversion from the language of instruction to the language that accommodates is said to have certain effects on learning and teaching. Though code-switching has been discouraged, little is known whether it has negative or positive effects on English language learning and teaching. This study mainly focused on the effects that code-switching has on English teaching and learning. This study was guided by the following research questions: What impacts does code-switching have on the learning and teaching of English? What perception do learners and teachers have towards code-switching at the selected school? And how does the society influence code-switching at the selected school? A qualitative research design was used for this study. The population consisted of two schools (one primary school, and a secondary school, but it focused on upper primary grades only). The sample consisted of grade 5-7 learners and teachers. Nine learners and four teachers were selected to participate in this article. Data was collected using interviews and observations. Code-switching has positive effects on English language learning and teaching. It helps learners to understand difficult aspects of the lesson taught and therefore are able to follow the instructions given. When the teacher explains what was said in mother tongue, it helps learners to participate especially those with English learning difficulties. It also helps them to express themselves if they do not know how to say certain things in English. Furthermore, code-switching helps teachers manage their classrooms.
Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. These speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcome of the linguistic contact is code switching. The work discusses the nature of code switching in Igbo- English bilinguals speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code switching, and explains the typology of code switching and its manifestation in Igbo- English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code switching is functionally motivated and can be triggered by various conversational contexts.