A Public Officer Convicted Of Breach of the Code of Conduct for Public Officers in Nigeria Cannot Be Granted Amnesty: A Legislative Overkill (Published)
Paragraph 18(7) of the Code of Conduct for Public Officers, contained in Part I Fifth Schedule of the 1999 Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as amended and section 23 (7) of the Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal Act, Laws of the Federation of Nigeria (LFN) 2010 provide that a public officer who is punished for breach of these laws cannot be granted pardon under prerogative of mercy. Most of these prohibited acts under the two laws appear civil in nature or at most quasi-criminal such as failure to declare assets or doing so late, combining public service job with another job save farming, accepting gratification while in office, maintenance of foreign accounts etc. Curiously, under the same constitution, people who are convicted of heinous crimes such as murder, armed robbery, kidnapping, even coup plotting etc. enjoy state pardons on regular basis during national festivities. The same constitution provides against discrimination of any kind in section 42. This paper argues that though this provision of the constitution on pardon is aimed at stopping corruption in the country that time has come for the removal of this discriminatory provision so that all convicts in Nigeria like in most jurisdictions in the world can enjoy presidential or gubernatorial amnesty as the case may be.
Job Dissatisfaction in the Bangladesh Ready-made Garment Sector: To what Extend HR/IR Practices can Grow Exhilaration of RMG Workers? (Published)
The Readymade Garments (RMG) industry of Bangladesh has been the key export industry and a main source of foreign exchange for the last 25 years. The sector rapidly became important in terms of employment, foreign exchange earnings and its contribution to the national economy. Currently the industry provides employment to about 3 million workers of whom 90% are women (EPB, 2007; BB Report, 2008). Notwithstanding the impressive success of the RMG sector, poor working conditions in the factories and the lack of Social compliance are serious concerns which have, since 2006, led to labour unrest and damage to institutions and properties. Indeed, working conditions in the RMG sector is substandard, and do not meet the Codes of Conducts (Qudus and Uddin, 1993). Recruitment policies are highly informal compared to western standards and there are no written formal contracts and appointment letters (Dasgupta S., 2002). Therefore they are vulnerable to losing their jobs at any time. Garments workers are embarrassed with long working hours or double consecutive shifts, personally unsafe work environment, poor working conditions, wage and gender discrimination (Kumar A., 2006). Long working hours without leave with breaks and compulsory overtime are common problems in this sector. Workers can be fired for refusing overtime. The level of wages is the most significant source of dissatisfaction for workers in the RMG industry. RMG owner often deny that they have the power to improve the wages or conditions of workers. Without full payment or being paid on time, worker often worry and are anxious about the future. This results in low work productivity and job dissatisfaction (Morshed, 2007). On the other hand, prospects of promotion in the RMG industry of Bangladesh are rare. The research suggests that there are many benefits from the introduction of modern HR and IR activities through the establishment of HRM or personnel management unit in the RMG sector. The government needs to pay much more attention to monitoring compliance. A modified Code of Conduct and an effective Compliance Monitoring Cell (CMC) are also required.