Tag Archives: Co-infection

Cytomegalovirus IgM Antibody Detection and Hepatitis B and C Coinfections among HIV Patients in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria (Published)

Opportunistic viral infections such as Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) are often prevalent in HIV patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART) thereby shortening the life span of infected patients. The co-infection of CMV, HBV and HCV among HIV positive patients attending ART clinics across hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria, were studied. Ninety-two (92) blood samples from HIV positive individuals (males, pregnant females and non-pregnant females) were collected and serologically screened for CMV antibodies (IgM) using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while HBV and HCV surface antigen were determined using standard test kit. The viral loads were determined using COBAS® AmpliPrep / COBAS® TaqMan® systems. The occurrence of single or coinfection of HIV-patients with respect to their sampling class were also determined and expressed in percentage. Of samples screened, the total positive occurrence rates of 23.16±1.78%, 11.20±1.46% and 30.21±2.67% were observed for CMV, HBV and HCV while 35.43±1.85% of total respondents tested negative to all the viruses screened in this study. The total viral loads were 10184 copies/ml for CMV, 5679 copies/ml for HBV and 12678 copies/ml for HCV. For the coinfections, respondents with HBV+HCV had a total occurrence of 31.80±2.25% (13294 copies/ml) while HCV+CMV had total occurrence of 44.40±3.18% (51783 copies/ml), CMV+HBV had total occurrence of 19.25±1.67% (8679 copies/ml) and CMV+HCV+HBV had a total occurrence of 9.50±1.35% (586 copies/ml). This high prevalence rate of CMV with Hepatitis co-infection among these HIV positive individuals further support the role of viral reactivation in immunocompromised patients.

Keywords: CMV, Co-infection, ELISA, HBV, HCV, HIV, qPCR


The co-infection of hepatitis B and C viruses with HIV accelerates disease progression and also has an effect on the management of patients infected with HIV. The prevalence of HIV co-infection with hepatitis viruses varies widely. This study is planned to determine and evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C co-infection among HIV patients accessing healthcare at federal Medical Center Keffi, Nasarawa State, Nigeria. A total of 200 sero- positive HIV patients participated in the study at the ART clinic of which blood samples collected from the patients were screened for HBV and HCV on the basis of the presence of HBsAg and anti-HCV markers. Socio-demographic information was collected by the use of a questionnaire. The study population comprises of 54(27%) males and 146 (73%) females, of these, 11% (22/200) were positive for HBV, 13.5% (27/200) were positive for HCV and 5% (10/200) were co-infected. The prevalence rates of hepatitis B and C co-infection among the HIV patients was insignificantly different (P>0.05) statistically for sex, ART status, Educational status, Marital status, Age, Occupation, CD4 Count, and socio-demographic factors. The prevalence rates of HBV and HCV co-infection are increasing in patients with HIV. Having acquired knowledge on the effect of HBV/HCV co-infection, it is essential that all HIV infected patients be screened for HBV and HCV infection.

Keywords: Antiretroviral, Co-infection, Hepatitis B Virus, Hepatitis C virus, Seropositive