Poverty Decomposition For High And Low Users of Climate Smart Agricultural Techniques in Northwest Nigeria (Published)
Climate change projections estimate that developing countries who are least prepared for the changes in climate will be the most affected. Meanwhile, the already existing poverty in Nigeria is alarming and climate change threatens food security and poverty to a large extent. It was on this note that the study measured poverty levels for high and low users of climate smart agricultural practices of small holder farming households in North-West Nigeria. The study employed primary data using questionnaire instruments and focus group discussion in the North West region of Nigeria. The FGT Index model, Equally Distributed Equivalent (EDE) FGT, watts index, Sen, Shorrocks and Thon index were employed to decompose the monetary dimensions of poverty while Chakravarty et al (1998) technique, extended watts, extended FGT and Alkire and Foster were employed to decompose the non-monetary dimension. The findings show that poverty rate was higher for low-users of climate smart agricultural practices than for high-users for all dimensions under consideration and for all the decomposition techniques. This implies that farmers should make conscious efforts to practice climate smart agriculture regardless of their poverty status due to the fact that poverty resides more with low-users. It could be as a result of the fact that high-users make their production sustainable by practicing CSA and consequently high yields that might in turn reduce their poverty status. There is need for significant empowerment of the farmers, given that some of the climate smart agricultural practices have cost implications and require extra money to fund.
Assessment of Secondary School Science Teachers’ Knowledge of Climate Change in the South East Nigeria, For Inclusion in the Secondary School Curriculum. (Published)
The study assessed the Secondary School Teachers’ knowledge of climate change in the SouthEast Nigeria, for its inclusion in the Secondary School curriculum. The study adopted a survey design with a sample size of 1100 respondents drawn from the five states of the South East Nigeria. Five research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing sixty one (61) items, which was subjected to reliability test using Cronbach Alpha statistics. It yielded a coefficient index of 0.83. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while t-test statistics was used to test the hypothesis. The results of the findings showed that the secondary school science teachers in the SouthEast Nigeria possess high level awareness and knowledge of topics on climate change, it effect on human beings, animals, plants, environment and the causes. Also there was unanimous agreement by the Secondary School Science teachers that climate change studies should be included in the secondary school curriculum. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made: Nigeria Government should develop syllabi on climate change and include it in the secondary school curriculum, train and retrain Secondary School Science Teachers, and develop Teachers’ guide books. The researchers equally recommended that Government of Nigeria can adopt or adapt the contents of Climate Change highlighted in this study.
Evaluation of Courtyard Usage and Its Design Requirements in Residential Buildings in Nigerian Hot-Dry Climate (Published)
The courtyard is an element that is mostly used in buildings in all the climatic regions due to its passive tendencies for low energy consumption. But studies on evaluating its usage and design requirements in Nigerian hot-dry climates are very few. It is on this note that this study evaluates courtyards usage in residential buildings in Gusau metropolis. A specification list was developed for the survey of Fifty two (52) courtyards in fifty two residential buildings. Courtyard design requirements such as; configuration, orientation of courtyard, aspect ratio, vegetation, water pond and shading device were documented. The study shows that the courtyards were not innovatively designed to maximise their passive potentials for improved eco-friendly performance. The study concluded by recommending future studies on courtyard functions and its design variants in building typologies in Nigerian hot-dry climate and this study has provided a starting point to support further investigations in this regard.
Over the years the world has been detecting and monitoring the increase in surface temperature. The vast majority of scientists have named it the phenomenon of global warming resulting in climate change. The Metropolitan Region of the State of Rio de Janeiro, in recent years, accompanied the increase in air pollution by the transport sector and concluded that the sector contributes to these climatic phenomena in local and global levels. Many strategies have been developed to minimize the impacts of this and other sources of emissions to the environment. New research and technological advances must be deployed immediately to try to mitigate the adverse effects of climate on Earth and prevent natural disasters, such as happens quite often nowadays. This study draws attention to another type of pollution, extremely dependent on air pollution: impacts of the use and occupation. Nevertheless, it highlights the importance of monitoring the temperature of the earth’s crust, to confirm that surface temperatures and below increased proportionately. The porous pavements, even in small patches, are important to contribute to the balance of the ecosystem but the quality of air we breathe is both harmful to health on the ground that receives it. So educate the public about the harmful effects of air pollution unimaginable is the bottleneck for the replacement of traditional waterproof decks for porous pavements and as a consequence, facilitate the exchange liquid and gas, so necessary in the process of cleaning up and slowing global warming.