Tag Archives: Climate Change

Climate Change and Social Conflict: Migration of Fulani Herdsmen and the Implications in Nigeria (Published)

The paper is on climate change and social conflict: Migration of Fulani Herdsmen and the implication on the Nigerian state. Climate change on the North-East has triggered migration of Fulani Herdsmen, with several negative impact on short and long- term. The principle target of the investigation is to inspect the level of environmental change, asses the level of migration as it affect grazing area in parts of Nigeria. The study employed descriptive qualitative content analyses, basically on secondary sources of data and the internet was consulted, using conflict theories as a theoretical tool for analysis. One major finding is that violent herdsmen conflict is mainly due to emigration of herdsmen from the North-East. We therefore recommend governments to set aside land for effective ranching.

Keywords: Climate Change, herdsmen and migration

Economic Opportunities of Climate Change to Rural Communities in Nigeria (Published)

Discussions on climate change have focused mainly on the negative impact on the environment and how to mitigate these and adapt to, different mitigation and adaptation measures available today, which are economically potential as proposed by IPCC. This paper looks at potentials that can be harnessed from increase in rice husk generation in Ebonyi State due to provisions of improved rice seedling by the present government of the state as an adaptation strategy to climate change. The paper establishes that to properly harness the economic potential of adaptation strategies of climate change among rural farmers, these farmers need to be educated because majority of them are illiterate and are ignorant of the consequences of their actions, and that the educator should adopt conscientization strategy as mode of facilitating learning.

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Conscentisation, Economic Potential, Environmental Adult Education, Rice Husk, Rural Economy

Climate Change and Its Impact on Sustainable Development in Arab Countries (Published)

Human activities represented in industrial and technological revolution led to the increase of emissions of warming gases and their concentrations in the atmosphere. This increase caused the phenomenon of greenhouse gases and the rise of earth temperature over its natural rates as a result of the increase of absorption rate of infra-red rays, which led to the climate change of the earth. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (PFcs ,HFcs, and SF6. Many studies dealt with natural and reviving environment and its relation with climate change. These studies have increased much in the last 5 years and they led to more confidence in the relation between warning phenomenon and its impact on the national economies. They confirmed that there is a high degree of certainty for the present regional changes in temperatures. The impact of these changes was quite clear on many physical reviving systems because of warming phenomenon. This research dealt with studying the different impact of climate on sustainable development in the Arab world. It set up a policy for adaptation to or mitigation of climate changes to achieve sustainability in development, through which we can preserve the environment and achieve development. The research is based on the realistic and Descriptive analysis to identify the nature of the relation between climate change and sustainable development in the Arab world. Besides, the research used the adjusted net saving rates which reflect the variability of sustainable development used by the World Bank to show environment deterioration and depletion in addition to the use of sustainability of development in the Arab world. we could find out that some countries achieved recent positive values and others achieved recent negative values. This shows that climate changes have negative impact on sustainable development operation in the Arab countries.

Keywords: Arab Countries, Climate Change, Environment, Sustainable Development

Environmental Externalities and Reality of CSR Practices (Environmental) in Bangladesh (Published)

Owing to the on-going exhaustion of the natural environment and its consequences on the society, the present environmental state of Bangladesh, a populated country with inadequate resources, has become enormously alarming. The human health, ecosystems and economic growth are threatened by severe environmental pollutions and encroachments. Bangladesh is facing several natural catastrophes such as floods, cyclones, and tidal-bores every year because of the environmental externalities which cause severe socio-economic and ecological damage. Thus, this study aims to highlight various ecological difficulties that Bangladesh is currently facing and that pose obstacles to implementing environmental CSR for sustainable development. The review of the literature reveals that several environmental pollutions, climate change and the loss of biodiversity are continuously degrading the natural environment of Bangladesh and its resources. Consequently, these detrimental impacts are threatening the socio-economic growth of Bangladesh and its environment. Hence corporate social responsibility (particularly environmental) can play a significant role to control the current environmental degradation of Bangladesh. The government should, at the same time, undertake several initiatives to protect environmental degradation, foster the environmental CSR activities within all the business sectors and increase environmental awareness which is mandatory to attain sustainable development.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Corporate Social Responsibility, Environmental CSR, Environmental Pollution

Assessing Climate Change Related Events on the Rights of Subsistence in the Rural Coastal Communities of Ghana (Published)

From the perspective of international human rights law, people are in no case be deprived of their own means of subsistence. However, weather and climate change pose both direct and indirect threat to a wide range of universally recognised human rights, by depriving millions of people of their rights of subsistence. This study looks at climate change and its effects on rights of subsistence in the rural coastal communities. The following research questions guided the study: (1) what are the climate change related effects on the right to adequate clean water?  (2) what are the climate change related effects on the right to food?; and (3) what are the climate related effects on the right to adequate housing? The population for this study included the residents in the two coastal communities, namely, Ampenyi in the Central Region and Anlo Beach, close to Shama in the Western Region. Mixed method approach with a sequential design was employed. Triangulation was used to test the consistency of findings obtained through different instruments used. Purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting the two communities and the respondents. Instruments for the data collection were questionnaire, interviews and observation. The quantitative data was analysed into simple percentages, whilst the qualitative data was done by interpretative technique whereby the outcomes were put into thematic areas based on the research questions. It was revealed from the study that, climate change related events have directly or indirectly affected rights of subsistence of the residents in the study areas. The study therefore, recommended that, rights-based approach should be applied in effective coastal planning and resiliency building to help the affected communities cope and adapt to living in a dynamic climatic environment.

Keywords: Climate Change, Coastal Communities, Rights of Subsistence, Rural Coastal Communities.

Investigating the Influence of Cosmic Rays on the Climate of South-East and South-South Regions of Nigeria Using Sunshine Hours and Relative Humidity. (Published)

There is a rising concern about the agents and mechanisms of climate change. The contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gases to global warming has long been accepted by most scientists, however, the impacts of some natural factors such as cosmic rays, sunspot and geomagnetic activities are yet to be established. This study investigated the effects of cosmic rays on the climate of south-east and south-south parts of Nigeria from 5 meteorological stations in the regions for a period of 48 years (1965-2012). Sunshine hours and relative humidity were used as weather parameters. No particular trend was found in the value of cosmic rays during the period; similarly, the sunshine hours and the relative humidity also produced very irregular patterns. A very low but positive correlation coefficient of 0.3 was found between cosmic rays and sunshine hours with almost no correlation (r = 0.1) between cosmic rays and relative humidity.  

Keywords: Climate Change, Cosmic Rays, Relative Humidity, Sunshine Hours

Climate Smart Aquaculture: A Sustainable Approach to Increasing Fish Production In The Face Of Climate Change in Nigeria (Published)

As the global population increases, demand for food, most especially protein will increase. Production from fisheries is crucial for food security in the face of current population increase.  Despite the reliability on fisheries and aquaculture to supply the animal protein needed by the world population, climate change has significantly reduced production and increase instability in the sector. In order to achieve food security and fisheries development goal, climate smart aquaculture which is an adaptation to climate change and lower emission intensities per output will be necessary. This review therefore discusses climate smart aquaculture as veritable approach to increasing fish production in the face of climate change trend in Nigeria. A number of changes already evident can be attributed to climate change; drastic change in weather condition, reduction in water levels, changes in hydrological regimes of inland water, heavy wind storm, excessive sunshine, increased incidence of flooding and drought. The effects of these changes have resulted in changes in ocean fish productivity, fish disease infestation and reduction of production from inland and aquaculture systems. Climate smart adaptation and mitigation strategies has helped to increase the resilience and adaptive capacity of communities and ecosystems, examples of such strategies include adopted strategies in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria where about 80% of fish farmers were reported to have adopted strategies such as use of tarpaulin/tank ponds during dry weathers, about 70% have adapted by adjusting time of stocking while 60% stocked fish species that can better adapted to climate change impacts. Other adaptations strategies include erection of cover/shades over ponds, digging boreholes/wells to supply water during dry weathers and well-structured drainage system to guide against flooding. Integrated aquaculture is also an important adaptive measure which has gained huge popularity in Nigeria. The use of low carbon producing energy source in the production and processing of product from aquaculture is a viable means to mitigate against climate change, example include the use of gas or electricity rather than charcoal in fish smoking. Aquaculture waste water treatment before discharge is also a good mitigation practice been recently developed. Climate change will have significant impacts on fisheries and aquaculture in Nigeria. Climate smart aquaculture will respond to these changes by boosting adaptive capacity and resilience both of communities and the ecosystems on which they depend. It is important therefore to ensure adaptation and mitigation in response to climate change so as to safeguard sustainable fish production and food security improvement.

Keywords: Climate Change, Fish production, Food Security, Sustainable Aquaculture

Perceived Effect of Waste Generation on the Climate among Rural Households in Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the perceived effect of waste generation on climate change among rural households in Oyo state, Nigeria.  Two local government areas were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts in Oyo state from which five villages each were randomly selected. A total of 15 households across the selected villages were randomly selected to give a total sample size of 150 respondents. Data were collected through the use of interview schedule and analyzed using frequencies and percentages to present the descriptive analysis, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Chi- Square were used for inferential analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the average age of the respondents in the study area was  37 years, as majority (75.0%) were married  and had no formal education (63.2%).  Majority (90.0%) were farmers, had small farm size (86.1%) of range 1-5 acres. Kitchen waste (94.7%), crop waste (88.8%) and animal waste (65.3%) were the major waste generated within the households in the study area. Most (92.0%) of the respondents disposed their wastes making use of sacks (83.3%) 62.0% and 74.7% dispose their waste into drainage channels (62.0%) and flowing stream (74.7%) respectively. Few (14.7%) obtained information on waste management practices through the radio. Majority (78.2%) had low knowledge level on waste management practice and wrong perception (79.2%) of the effects of waste generation to climate change. Level of education (2 = 9.273, sources of information on waste management practices (r = 0.325) and knowledge on waste management practices (r = 0.276) have influence on the perceived effect of waste generation to climate change. There is the need to create awareness on the environmental effect of waste and inappropriate waste management practices among rural households.

Keywords: Climate Change, Knowledge on Waste Management, Perceived Effect of Waste, Waste Generation, Waste Management, Waste.

Linkages between Green Energy Policies and Climate Change Law and Challenges towards a Greater Coherent Policy (Published)

All over the world, national governments and policy makers have been strong in their stance on the fight against global climate change due to human-made factors.  Climate change law and green energy policy were critical in the movement for using green or renewable energy sources in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, therefore, slowing down the process of change in the earth’s climate.  The aim of this study is to understand the basics of climate change and green energy and to identify and understand the relationship between the two regulatory efforts.  It also aimed to identify the challenges in coming up a single, cohesive policy for the two regulatory efforts.  Through scanning literature, discussion on the basics of climate change and green or renewable energy were presented.  The study highlighted the aspects that established the linkages between the two regulatory efforts, which include (1) most of the green energy policies and climate change laws around the world were leaned towards the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and (2) the incentive-levy system to encourage the use of green energy sources.  Challenges facing the establishment of a cohesive policy for the two regulatory efforts include (1) difficulty of establishing a single framework for supporting green energy technologies that addresses both clean energy generation and climate change in a wider context, (2) challenges relating to process management of energy services, and (3) compatibility of the two regulatory efforts.

Keywords: Climate Change, Law, Linkages, coherent policy, green energy policies

Challenges of Climate Change and Industrial Sector Experience: A Review of Evidence from Nigeria (Published)

The world climate pattern has continued to generate serious concern in the recent times especially with the increasing effect of human activities on the global environment. Nigeria, as an integral part of the world also had its own share of the evolving challenges of the climate change phenomenon (such as flood, rising sea level and extreme weather events, drought and excess rainfall, temperature rise and precipitation among others)especially its effect on sensitive agricultural resources and production.Therefore,with relative few studies and dearth of information on climate change activities towards industrial sector especially in Nigeria, the study  decided to explore the literature and review various challenges of climate change vis-à-vis the experience of Nigeria’s industrial sector.  Based on the reviewed studies, the industrial activities had negative experience with  challenges of climate change in Nigeria, with many of the climate-sensitive productive materials and critical infrastructure such as agriculture and coastal resources, pipelines, road networks and power plants among others,(that were agents of industrial production) negatively affected. Hence, this reduces the total output of the sector. However, a comprehensive adaptation process of mitigating the negative effect of climate change on Nigeria’s industrial sector is sacrosanct.

Keywords: Adaptation Measures, Climate Change, Green House gasses, Industrial Sector, Nigeria

Carbon Footprint Reduction Strategies for Different Sectors of the Economy (Published)

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing mankind. Carbon dioxide, Methane and other greenhouse gases are responsible for climate change which results in global warming. It is estimated that about 37 billion tonnes of carbon dioxides are produced every year from the burning of fossil fuel alone whilst about 7 billion tonnes are produced from deforestation. If the emission of greenhouse gases continues unabated due to anthropogenic activities, the average global temperature will also continues to increase and eventually results to severe weather disruption, rise in sea levels and changes in land use patterns.Hence, this paper aims to highlights the various strategies that could be adopted in a bid to reduce global carbon footprint from anthropogenic activities. The paper employed the use of journals and other scholarly publications to provide insight into possible techniques that could be used in the transportation, manufacturing and housing sector. The paper found that adequate house insulations, low carbon vehicles, renewable energy projects such as small wind turbines, solar water heating system and biomass energy plant are possible steps that could be taken to reduce the carbon footprints of various sectors.

Keywords: Climate Change, carbon footprint, global warming

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Mainstreaming Adaptation, Policy And Development, Sustainable Food Security

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Development, Food Security, Policy

Climate Change Images in Kenya’s News Photographic Representations (Published)

Visual symbolic forms dominate today’s communicative landscape. Climate change is a topical issue in societies and its debates are not solely confined to linguistic representation, but also evident in visual symbolic forms. The communicative strategy for symbolic forms enhances our understanding of climatic changes, which consequently would initiate appropriate action to counter adaptation deficit often experienced in many regions of the world. Drawing reference from the Kenyan media context, this paper focuses on news photographic representation to answer the question “Can society see the climate changing?” This paper highlights specific visual symbolic form modalities used in News broadcasts to effect the understanding of climate dynamics in Kenya. The study found out that pictorial representation in Kenya’s media triumphs in use of crisis metaphors. It found that visual forms often take lesser roles when accompanied by written texts in climate change reporting. It acknowledges that visual constructions of climate change issues in Kenya appear in both local and international media reports. Nevertheless, the authors warn that the power of photographic representations in climate change interventions should not be underestimated.

Keywords: Climate Change, Media, Photographic Representation, Symbolic Form, Visual Communication

Perceived Effect of Waste Generation on the Climate among Rural Households in Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the perceived effect of waste generation on climate change among rural households in Oyo state, Nigeria. Two local government areas were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts in Oyo state from which five villages each were randomly selected. A total of 15 households across the selected villages were randomly selected to give a total sample size of 150 respondents. Data were collected through the use of interview schedule and analyzed using frequencies and percentages to present the descriptive analysis, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Chi- Square were used for inferential analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the average age of the respondents in the study area was 37 years, as majority (75.0%) were married and had no formal education (63.2%). Majority (90.0%) were farmers, had small farm size (86.1%) of range 1-5 acres. Kitchen waste (94.7%), crop waste (88.8%) and animal waste (65.3%) were the major waste generated within the households in the study area. Most (92.0%) of the respondents disposed their wastes making use of sacks (83.3%) 62.0% and 74.7% dispose their waste into drainage channels (62.0%) and flowing stream (74.7%) respectively. Few (14.7%) obtained information on waste management practices through the radio. Majority (78.2%) had low knowledge level on waste management practice and wrong perception (79.2%) of the effects of waste generation to climate change. Level of education (ᵪ2 = 9.273, sources of information on waste management practices (r = 0.325) and knowledge on waste management practices (r = 0.276) have influence on the perceived effect of waste generation to climate change. There is the need to create awareness on the environmental effect of waste and inappropriate waste management practices among rural households.

Keywords: Climate Change, Knowledge on Waste Management, Perceived Effect of Waste, Waste Generation, Waste Management, Waste.

Sustainable Development Strides in Nigeria: An Analysis of Climate Change Awareness and Environmental Sustainability (Published)

The paper x-rayed the sustainable development strides in Nigeria: An analysis of climate change awareness and environmental sustainability. It started by looking at the sustainable goals as enshrined in the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and narrowed it down to environmental sustainability. Furthermore, the paper examined man’s destructive interference in the environment; delicate nature of weather and climate with a critical look at the ozone layer. Subsequently, the nature, causes and consequences of climate change were properly reviewed and man’s efforts to create its awareness and how to mitigate the challenges of the change. Finally, the paper stressed the need for environmental sustainability for the future generations through climate change education and the way forward.

Keywords: Climate Change, Environmental sustainability, Nigeria, Sustainable Development, awareness

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate. This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework. More specific outcomes are (a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors (b) achievement of efficient national adaptation framework (c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and (d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Adaptation Framework, Agriculture, Climate Change, Policy Development

Climate Change and Perceived Climate Hazards: A Trend Analysis in Southeast Nigeria (Published)

Current global climatic trends show a deviation from historic trends and this has necessitated this study. The paper analysed climate change trend and the perceived climatic hazards in Southeast Nigeria. Proportionate sampling technique was used to select a sample of 260 food crop farmers for the study and 232 questionnaires were returned. Secondary time series data on mean annual climate variables for a period of thirty years (1984-2014) were collected from National Root Crop Research Institute Umudike and crop output data from National Bureau of statistics. Data were analysed using descriptive statistical tools like polygon/histograms and line graphs. Also, the extent of damage by climate hazards as perceived by respondents was obtained using likert scale. The rainfall volume variation showed a very unstable pattern with high volatility over years with slightly increasing trend in the study area. Result shows that temperature is significant at 1% level of significance while rainfall volume, rainfall days, relative humidity and sunshine duration were insignificant. Rain day was characterized by unsteady rise and fall trend pattern. The trend also indicated an unsteady change in the movements of the relative humidity and sunshine levels. The result for the occurrence of climate hazards as perceived by farmers show 86.2 %, 64.68%, 63.79%, 77.82% of the respondents perceived to a great extent the impact of flooding, sea level rise, longer period of dry spell and wind storm respectively. Based on the finding, it is concluded that the damaging and devastating effects of climate change is in the increase. It is recommended therefore that adequate adaptive measures and mitigations be put in place to cushion the effect of climate change.

Keywords: Climate Change, Climate Hazards, Rainfall, Relative Humidity, Sunshine Duration, Temperature

Climate Change and Pastoral Conflicts in the Middle Belt and South-East Nigeria: Implication on Human Resource of the Regions (Published)

This paper examined the relationship between climate change and pastoral conflicts as well as their effects on human resource of both the middle belt and south eastern Nigeria. It is ex-post-factor in nature and thus relied heavily on literature with qualitative data and descriptive method of analysis. The study revealed that the pastoralists migrate due largely to extreme and unfavourable weather conditions occasioned by climate change. In the main, Deprivation, frustration and aggression theory was employed to anchor the study. The paper noted that the strength of a nation lies in her resources; however, pastoral conflicts occasioned by climate change has had a far reaching negative consequences on resources of these regions, ranging from waste to absolute destruction and depletion of both human and material resources. The paper recommended that active and sincere government intervention through the establishment of Grazing corridors or ranches in the regions, funding of research and development and establishment of regulatory frame work will help stem the tide

Keywords: Climate Change, Human Resources, Middle Belt, Nigeria, conflicts.

Climate Change Awareness and Institutional Management Strategies by Principals of Secondary Schools in Anambra State (Published)

One of the basic issues of the present century is Climate change. In the light of this, the study investigated the extent to which secondary school principals in Anambra state consider climate change and its effects in the selection of their institutional management strategy as well as in the preparation of their school time table and curriculum. Two research questions as well as two hypotheses were raised and formulated respectively to guide the study. Questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection while one sample t-test was adopted for the data analysis. The study revealed that secondary school principals in Anambra state are aware of the existence of climate change in Nigeria. However, they perceived it as a national issue which relatively have no significant relationship with school management and therefore do not significantly consider it in the selection of their institutional management strategy and in the preparation of their school timetable and curriculum. To this end, the study recommended among others the urgent need for climate change awareness programmes to be organized for school principals by Government to sensitize them on the dangers of climate change and its effects if neglected and not duly considered in their various schools in addition to sanctioning school principals who fail to take cognizance of climate change or introduce strategies for curbing its effects in their respective schools.

Keywords: Climate Change, Education and Management strategy, awareness