Climate Change and Its Impact Worldwide Particularly On Pakistan and Measures to Control Its Effects (Published)
Quantitative and qualitative data analysis shows that revolutionary climate changes have been observed in recent decades in world history. The earth’s temperature is rising to the ever-alarming limits the world is facing the noticeable and direct impacts of climate change in the form of extreme weather events, irregular precipitation, reduction in water resources, formless average temperature trends, other damages to natural ecosystems and human health due to green-house gases and anthropogenic emissions. Pakistan is one of the most affected countries globally. Previous studies confirmed the direct relationship of climate changes with drought, migration, flooding, diseases, poverty, un-equality, agriculture, Land and soil devastation, diseases, gender, and the impeding effect on the economy of Pakistan. Comparative excerpts are highlighted and solutions proffered; highlighting climate change policy objectives (CCPOs) based on symmetric principles, i.e., energy, transport, urban and town planning, industry, and agriculture as criteria, with 17 sub-criteria in total and strategies included.
Debate regarding the contribution of Intellectual Property (IP) rights to lessening climate change is intensifying. On one side, IP optimists emphasize their function in encouraging investment in Research, Development and Commercialization. However, alternative view, principally associated with developing countries, sees the monopoly rights embodied in IP as a barrier to technology adoption and international transfer and this has led to a dilemma in IP rights ethically responding to global climate change.The role of intellectual property rights with regards to climate change has remained a divisive issue. Not only has no agreement been reached in this area, but even the path to a constructive and meaningful discussion seems elusive. Unless the role of intellectual property is addressed in a constructive and balanced manner, the potential for achieving sustainable and realistic outcomes from the climate talks could be compromised.This article explored the complex relationship between IP rights and climate change through technology-based reductions in emissions and with reference to sustainable development laws. It also considers the role IP rights can play in delivering technological change to abate the issues of climate change crisis by arguing that climate change is legally disruptive, with existing legal doctrines and frameworks forced to confront, respond, and perhaps even evolve to respond to climate change, beyond the application and incremental development of existing rules and doctrines written in the context of linkages between private international law and public international law.It concludes by outlining some plausible strategies that are necessary in resolving the dilemma associate with IP rights ethically responding to global climate change.
Citation: Kujo Elias McDave (2022) Intellectual Property Rights as Ethical Response to Global Climate Change Crisis, Global Journal of Politics and Law Research, Vol.10, No.3, pp.50-68,
Review on the Link between Technological Change, Climate Finance, and Market in Mitigating Climate Change (Published)
Global Climate change has a negative impact on all sectors of the economy, eco-regions, and social groups. Identifying the risk, the international community is working to reverse the movement. By considering the climate change impacts, the global community is driving an effort of their capacity to prevent the trend. To reduce the impacts of climate change through measures such as reduction of GHG emissions. Linking technological change, climate finance, and the market is a key element for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in climate-smart agriculture. The purpose of this review is to highlight that technological change is closely linked to climate finance and the market in mitigating climate change, the role of technological change in mitigating climate change, the role of climate finance and financing mechanisms in mitigating climate change, and the market perspectives in mitigating climate change.
Impact of Climate Change on Enset Production (Published)
Climate change and variability may be due to natural internal processes or external forcings, or to persistent anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere or in land use. Future climate change is expected to have a greater and global impact on people’s lives. Although Enset is among the climate resilient crops in the short term, it will be suffering from the long-term impacts. Climate variable interact with plant growth and yield. Climate change affects agriculture in a different way, including through changes in average temperatures, rainfall, and climate extremes. Climate change will affect developing countries like Ethiopia because of more dependence on rain-fed agriculture Enset is selected as “the tree against hunger” because it produces the highest energy output per time and area unit of crops grown in Ethiopia and because it remains green, saving many lives when cereals wilt before harvest or collapse due to untimely rain This aimed at investigating the possible and anticipated impacts of climate change and variability on productivity and distribution. Simulations within the horizons 2040s and 2070s showed a situation of an overall increase in temperatures that reaches 1.1, 1.2 and 1.2°C under RCP (2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) during 2040s and 1.2, 1.2 and 1.4°C under RCP (2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) scenarios during 2070s, respectively and a respective increase in rainfall of 29%, 28% and 27% under RCP (2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) during 2040s and 27%, 26% and 25% under RCP (2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) scenarios during 2070s, respectively. Therefore, the projected climate shows that the climate change and variability will have significant impacts on Enset production. Evaluation of potential climate change impacts of the future and selecting relatively more tolerant crop for adapting of climate change has no options
Adverse Effects of Climate Change on Small-Scale Agro-Industries in South-Western, Nigeria (Published)
Climate change impacts on agriculture are alarming despite several recommendations from research to tackle its effects. There is need for sustainable agriculture to meet the increasing demand of agro-industries for raw materials and food for the growing population in Nigeria. This study evaluated the adverse effects of climate change on small-scale agro-industries in Southwestern, Nigeria. Specifically, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of the agro-processors, identified subsectors of agriculture adversely affected by climate change, determined the perception of agro-processors towards the effects of climate change on small-scale agro-industries. A multistage sampling procedure was employed to select 238 agro-processors, while a structured interview schedule was used to collect data. The collected data were analyzed with frequency counts and percentages as the main statistical tools and PPMC was used to make inferences between the variables. The study revealed different types of agro-processing industries in the zone and subsector of agriculture adversely affected by climate change, as well as the agro-processors perception of the adverse effects of climate change on agriculture, environment and agro-industries. The study further revealed that age (r=0.457**; p≤0.000), educational status (r=0.744**; p≤0.000), level of operation (r=0.219*; p≤0.026) and awareness of climate change (r=0.249*; p≤0.011) respectively exhibited significant relationship with their perception of adverse effects of climate change on agriculture and agro-processing industries in the zone. The study, therefore, recommends that government at the Federal, State and Local levels should exercise greater responsibilities in providing policy measures that will reduce the effects of climate change on the subsectors of agriculture and most importantly agro-industries and develop specific policies for implementation to enhance sustainable agro-industrialization in South-west, Nigeria.
Citation: Ogunwale, A.B., Akintonde, J.O., and Ayansina, S.O. (2021) Adverse Effects of Climate Change on Small-Scale Agro-Industries in South-Western, Nigeria, International Journal of Small Business and Entrepreneurship Research,Vol.9, No.4, pp.1-10,
According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4°C during the 21st century, and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change. Soils are intricately linked to the atmospheric–climate system through the carbon, nitrogen, and hydrologic cycles. Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties, and at the same time, the soils themselves will have an effect on climate. Study of the effects of climate change on soil processes and properties is still nascent, but has revealed that climate change will impact soil organic matter dynamics, including soil organisms and the multiple soil properties that are tied to organic matter, soil water, and soil erosion. The exact direction and magnitude of those impacts will be dependent on the amount of change in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise and that this is particularly true of high latitude regions with currently permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water–CO2 level–temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and associated effects on soil organic matter dynamics is a critical need. There is also a great need for a better understanding of how soil organisms will respond to climate change because those organisms are incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.
Community Based Environmental Education a Strategy for Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change on Livelihood of Riverine Communities in Rivers State (Published)
This article offers a community participatory education strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change on livelihood activities of Riverine communities’ dwellers in Rivers State. Climate change impact is partly anthropogenic (human) factor, it is pertinent for human to participate in activities that will possibly mitigate the impact of the human action on the environment and regain their sources of livelihood. In order for riverine communities to actively participate in climate change mitigation, they need to be properly guided through community-based environmental education which is based on community participatory model which encompasses elements of community based, collaboration, information based, and action oriented
Nigeria is experiencing the reality of climate change more than ever with Sea level rise, coastal and riverine flooding; erosion and desertification as ‘clouds of witnesses’. People’s perception and experiences appears to be the core issues that will influence their climate change anxiety level, a potent factor behind climate action. The younger generation would have a larger share of this experience and propensity for the worst hit including women. This background necessitated the need for the development of a Climate Change Anxiety Instrument (CCAI) for secondary school students. This research attempts to develop and test a reliable and valid instrument that will assess students’ level of anxiety towards the changes that climate change brings to bear on humans and the environment in general. The development phase, patterned alongside Computer Anxiety Scale (CAS) developed by Okebukola and Woda (1993), first involved 50 senior secondary school students and the final phase involved 90 senior secondary school students. Results compared students’ learning outcomes using constructivism, pictorial/discussion and traditional techniques. Pedagogy significantly influenced students’ climate change anxiety. The Tukey analysis shows pictorial/discussion significant differences among the group on climate change anxiety. Location significantly influenced students’ level of climate change anxiety in favour of rural students.
The Thin Line between Climate Change Believers, Climate Change Sceptics and Climate Change Dismissives (Published)
This paper intends to reveal how the residents and professionals in Yobe State, Nigeria truly feel about climate change as a result of skeletal commitment by policy makers and suppression of ideas by administrators officially dedicated to its cause. A sample of the population that consists of academics, clerics, environmental enthusiasts, farmers, forest rangers, policy makers, traditional title-holders, women and youth groups were purposively selected and administered 450 structured questionnaires. Subsequently, correlation of the ‘Respondent Category’ and their ‘Educational Level’, frequencies, charts, correlation coefficient and QQ Plots were generated using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to emphasise on their perceptions. Key Informant Interview (KII) was also conducted with notable scholars and clerics on prohibitions of cutting down of trees, and encouragement for their planting. It was found out that; majority of the respondents have heard about climate change, understood its concept, believe their environment is changing and knew what is causing it. Although, more than half of them have not heard about the Conference of Parties (COP) annual meetings, the other half are nonetheless sceptical about the outcome of the meetings. They do not believe climate change is a propaganda tool, or whether the treaties and agreements are meant to slow the development of third world countries. Nevertheless, half of the respondents do not consider themselves as sceptics, the majority view themselves as believers. The findings of this research could serve as a subtle reminder to policy makers and administrators that; unless they come to terms with their beliefs about climate change, most policies formulated and programmes initiated could end up becoming a “white elephant” project, a subject that could only please the naysayers. It is the first research that categorised the residents of the study area based on their beliefs and scepticism of climate change.
Community Based Environmental Education a Strategy for Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change on Livelihood of Riverine Communities in Rivers State (Published)
This article offers a community participatory education strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change on livelihood activities of Riverine communities’ dwellers in Rivers State. Climate change impact is a partly anthropogenic (human) factor, it is pertinent for the human to participate in activities that will possibly mitigate the impact of the human activity on the environment and regain their sources of livelihood. For riverine communities to actively participate in climate change mitigation, they need to be properly guided through community-based environmental education which is based on community participatory model which encompasses elements of community-based, collaboration, information-based, and action-oriented
The effects of climate change on building design is a worrisome issue. Flooding, wind storm among others drastically affect buildings in the study area. This sometimes leads to building failures and in extreme cases, complete collapse. This research employed the use questionnaire and also sourced climate data from NIMET. The data collected were analyzed using percentages, Principle component analysis and regression analysis. The research found out that the respondents are knowledgeable about climate change and agree that it affects building designs, therefore must be factored into the design for proper ventilation and illumination as well as increased resilience and durability of the buildings in the study area. The likert table with a cluster means value of 4.01 > 3.0 and associated standard deviation of 0.65 indicates that the respondents perceived climate changes as contributing to changes in building designs. Bu ilding Designs in Enugu metropolis have changed over time. Component II recorded an eigen value of 1.486 and an additional variance of 16.512% bringing the cumulative explanation of respondents perception of climate influence on building designs to 88.183%. The research concluded that there are stages in the design of buildings whereby climate parameters are considered and that affects important decisions regarding the supposed building. The research recommends the need for building professionals to obtain basic climatic data from meteorological stations nearer to their proposed site and analyze such data for proper design of buildings.
Climate Change Implications for Agricultural Sustainability in Enugu in the Guinea Savanna Eco-Climatic Zone of Southeastern Nigeria: Input from Climate Change Proxies (Published)
Climate change poses debilitating effects for agriculture and food security in low technology countries such as sub-Saharan Africa. The trends and variations of some climatic variables that influence agriculture were analysed using integrated statistical techniques. The aim is to examine the possible effects of climate change on agricultural sustainability in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria using lessons drawn from trend analysis of historical time series of meteorological variables in monthly time step in the area. The area whose economy is largely agrigarian has continued to witness incidence of poor crop productivity. Significant long-term trends were identified in some of the variables and non-significant trends in others. Inferences were made with considerable support of evidence and high degree of confidence. The climate of the area is changing in a manner that concern for agricultural sustainability is on the front burner of the long-term resulting consequences. The need for pre-season and on-season climate information dissemination system is advocated to provide timely and accurate agro-meteorological information
Climate Change and Social Conflict: Migration of Fulani Herdsmen and the Implications in Nigeria (Published)
The paper is on climate change and social conflict: Migration of Fulani Herdsmen and the implication on the Nigerian state. Climate change on the North-East has triggered migration of Fulani Herdsmen, with several negative impact on short and long- term. The principle target of the investigation is to inspect the level of environmental change, asses the level of migration as it affect grazing area in parts of Nigeria. The study employed descriptive qualitative content analyses, basically on secondary sources of data and the internet was consulted, using conflict theories as a theoretical tool for analysis. One major finding is that violent herdsmen conflict is mainly due to emigration of herdsmen from the North-East. We therefore recommend governments to set aside land for effective ranching.
Discussions on climate change have focused mainly on the negative impact on the environment and how to mitigate these and adapt to, different mitigation and adaptation measures available today, which are economically potential as proposed by IPCC. This paper looks at potentials that can be harnessed from increase in rice husk generation in Ebonyi State due to provisions of improved rice seedling by the present government of the state as an adaptation strategy to climate change. The paper establishes that to properly harness the economic potential of adaptation strategies of climate change among rural farmers, these farmers need to be educated because majority of them are illiterate and are ignorant of the consequences of their actions, and that the educator should adopt conscientization strategy as mode of facilitating learning.
Human activities represented in industrial and technological revolution led to the increase of emissions of warming gases and their concentrations in the atmosphere. This increase caused the phenomenon of greenhouse gases and the rise of earth temperature over its natural rates as a result of the increase of absorption rate of infra-red rays, which led to the climate change of the earth. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (PFcs ,HFcs, and SF6. Many studies dealt with natural and reviving environment and its relation with climate change. These studies have increased much in the last 5 years and they led to more confidence in the relation between warning phenomenon and its impact on the national economies. They confirmed that there is a high degree of certainty for the present regional changes in temperatures. The impact of these changes was quite clear on many physical reviving systems because of warming phenomenon. This research dealt with studying the different impact of climate on sustainable development in the Arab world. It set up a policy for adaptation to or mitigation of climate changes to achieve sustainability in development, through which we can preserve the environment and achieve development. The research is based on the realistic and Descriptive analysis to identify the nature of the relation between climate change and sustainable development in the Arab world. Besides, the research used the adjusted net saving rates which reflect the variability of sustainable development used by the World Bank to show environment deterioration and depletion in addition to the use of sustainability of development in the Arab world. we could find out that some countries achieved recent positive values and others achieved recent negative values. This shows that climate changes have negative impact on sustainable development operation in the Arab countries.
Owing to the on-going exhaustion of the natural environment and its consequences on the society, the present environmental state of Bangladesh, a populated country with inadequate resources, has become enormously alarming. The human health, ecosystems and economic growth are threatened by severe environmental pollutions and encroachments. Bangladesh is facing several natural catastrophes such as floods, cyclones, and tidal-bores every year because of the environmental externalities which cause severe socio-economic and ecological damage. Thus, this study aims to highlight various ecological difficulties that Bangladesh is currently facing and that pose obstacles to implementing environmental CSR for sustainable development. The review of the literature reveals that several environmental pollutions, climate change and the loss of biodiversity are continuously degrading the natural environment of Bangladesh and its resources. Consequently, these detrimental impacts are threatening the socio-economic growth of Bangladesh and its environment. Hence corporate social responsibility (particularly environmental) can play a significant role to control the current environmental degradation of Bangladesh. The government should, at the same time, undertake several initiatives to protect environmental degradation, foster the environmental CSR activities within all the business sectors and increase environmental awareness which is mandatory to attain sustainable development.
Assessing Climate Change Related Events on the Rights of Subsistence in the Rural Coastal Communities of Ghana (Published)
From the perspective of international human rights law, people are in no case be deprived of their own means of subsistence. However, weather and climate change pose both direct and indirect threat to a wide range of universally recognised human rights, by depriving millions of people of their rights of subsistence. This study looks at climate change and its effects on rights of subsistence in the rural coastal communities. The following research questions guided the study: (1) what are the climate change related effects on the right to adequate clean water? (2) what are the climate change related effects on the right to food?; and (3) what are the climate related effects on the right to adequate housing? The population for this study included the residents in the two coastal communities, namely, Ampenyi in the Central Region and Anlo Beach, close to Shama in the Western Region. Mixed method approach with a sequential design was employed. Triangulation was used to test the consistency of findings obtained through different instruments used. Purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting the two communities and the respondents. Instruments for the data collection were questionnaire, interviews and observation. The quantitative data was analysed into simple percentages, whilst the qualitative data was done by interpretative technique whereby the outcomes were put into thematic areas based on the research questions. It was revealed from the study that, climate change related events have directly or indirectly affected rights of subsistence of the residents in the study areas. The study therefore, recommended that, rights-based approach should be applied in effective coastal planning and resiliency building to help the affected communities cope and adapt to living in a dynamic climatic environment.
Investigating the Influence of Cosmic Rays on the Climate of South-East and South-South Regions of Nigeria Using Sunshine Hours and Relative Humidity. (Published)
There is a rising concern about the agents and mechanisms of climate change. The contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gases to global warming has long been accepted by most scientists, however, the impacts of some natural factors such as cosmic rays, sunspot and geomagnetic activities are yet to be established. This study investigated the effects of cosmic rays on the climate of south-east and south-south parts of Nigeria from 5 meteorological stations in the regions for a period of 48 years (1965-2012). Sunshine hours and relative humidity were used as weather parameters. No particular trend was found in the value of cosmic rays during the period; similarly, the sunshine hours and the relative humidity also produced very irregular patterns. A very low but positive correlation coefficient of 0.3 was found between cosmic rays and sunshine hours with almost no correlation (r = 0.1) between cosmic rays and relative humidity.
Climate Smart Aquaculture: A Sustainable Approach to Increasing Fish Production In The Face Of Climate Change in Nigeria (Published)
As the global population increases, demand for food, most especially protein will increase. Production from fisheries is crucial for food security in the face of current population increase. Despite the reliability on fisheries and aquaculture to supply the animal protein needed by the world population, climate change has significantly reduced production and increase instability in the sector. In order to achieve food security and fisheries development goal, climate smart aquaculture which is an adaptation to climate change and lower emission intensities per output will be necessary. This review therefore discusses climate smart aquaculture as veritable approach to increasing fish production in the face of climate change trend in Nigeria. A number of changes already evident can be attributed to climate change; drastic change in weather condition, reduction in water levels, changes in hydrological regimes of inland water, heavy wind storm, excessive sunshine, increased incidence of flooding and drought. The effects of these changes have resulted in changes in ocean fish productivity, fish disease infestation and reduction of production from inland and aquaculture systems. Climate smart adaptation and mitigation strategies has helped to increase the resilience and adaptive capacity of communities and ecosystems, examples of such strategies include adopted strategies in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria where about 80% of fish farmers were reported to have adopted strategies such as use of tarpaulin/tank ponds during dry weathers, about 70% have adapted by adjusting time of stocking while 60% stocked fish species that can better adapted to climate change impacts. Other adaptations strategies include erection of cover/shades over ponds, digging boreholes/wells to supply water during dry weathers and well-structured drainage system to guide against flooding. Integrated aquaculture is also an important adaptive measure which has gained huge popularity in Nigeria. The use of low carbon producing energy source in the production and processing of product from aquaculture is a viable means to mitigate against climate change, example include the use of gas or electricity rather than charcoal in fish smoking. Aquaculture waste water treatment before discharge is also a good mitigation practice been recently developed. Climate change will have significant impacts on fisheries and aquaculture in Nigeria. Climate smart aquaculture will respond to these changes by boosting adaptive capacity and resilience both of communities and the ecosystems on which they depend. It is important therefore to ensure adaptation and mitigation in response to climate change so as to safeguard sustainable fish production and food security improvement.
Perceived Effect of Waste Generation on the Climate among Rural Households in Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined the perceived effect of waste generation on climate change among rural households in Oyo state, Nigeria. Two local government areas were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts in Oyo state from which five villages each were randomly selected. A total of 15 households across the selected villages were randomly selected to give a total sample size of 150 respondents. Data were collected through the use of interview schedule and analyzed using frequencies and percentages to present the descriptive analysis, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Chi- Square were used for inferential analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the average age of the respondents in the study area was 37 years, as majority (75.0%) were married and had no formal education (63.2%). Majority (90.0%) were farmers, had small farm size (86.1%) of range 1-5 acres. Kitchen waste (94.7%), crop waste (88.8%) and animal waste (65.3%) were the major waste generated within the households in the study area. Most (92.0%) of the respondents disposed their wastes making use of sacks (83.3%) 62.0% and 74.7% dispose their waste into drainage channels (62.0%) and flowing stream (74.7%) respectively. Few (14.7%) obtained information on waste management practices through the radio. Majority (78.2%) had low knowledge level on waste management practice and wrong perception (79.2%) of the effects of waste generation to climate change. Level of education (ᵪ2 = 9.273, sources of information on waste management practices (r = 0.325) and knowledge on waste management practices (r = 0.276) have influence on the perceived effect of waste generation to climate change. There is the need to create awareness on the environmental effect of waste and inappropriate waste management practices among rural households.