Tag Archives: Climate Change

Review on Climate change impact on soils: adaptation and Mitigation (Published)

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4°C during the 21st century, and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change. Soils  are  intricately  linked  to  the  atmospheric–climate  system  through  the  carbon,  nitrogen,  and  hydrologic cycles.  Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties, and at the same time, the soils themselves will have an effect on climate. Study of the effects of climate change  on soil processes and properties  is  still  nascent,  but  has  revealed  that  climate  change  will  impact  soil  organic  matter  dynamics, including  soil  organisms  and  the  multiple  soil  properties  that  are  tied  to  organic  matter,  soil  water,  and  soil erosion.  The  exact  direction  and  magnitude  of  those  impacts  will  be  dependent  on  the  amount  of  change  in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise and that this is particularly true of high latitude regions with currently permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water–CO2 level–temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and associated  effects  on  soil  organic  matter  dynamics  is  a  critical  need.  There  is  also  a  great  need  for  a  better understanding  of  how  soil  organisms  will  respond  to  climate  change  because  those  organisms  are  incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.

 

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Impact, Mitigation, Review, soils

Community Based Environmental Education a Strategy for Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change on Livelihood of Riverine Communities in Rivers State (Published)

This article offers a community participatory education strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change on livelihood activities of Riverine communities’ dwellers in Rivers State. Climate change impact is partly anthropogenic (human) factor, it is pertinent for human to participate in activities that will possibly mitigate the impact of the human action on the environment and regain their sources of livelihood. In order for riverine communities to actively participate in climate change mitigation, they need to be properly guided through community-based environmental education which is based on community participatory model which encompasses elements of community based, collaboration, information based, and action oriented

Keywords: Climate Change, Livelihood, climate mitigation, community-based environmental education

Development of a Climate Change Anxiety Instrument: What is Your Heartbeat Reading? (Published)

Nigeria is experiencing the reality of climate change more than ever with Sea level rise, coastal and riverine flooding; erosion and desertification as ‘clouds of witnesses’. People’s perception and experiences appears to be the core issues that will influence their climate change anxiety level, a potent factor behind climate action. The younger generation would have a larger share of this experience and propensity for the worst hit including women. This background necessitated the need for the development of a Climate Change Anxiety Instrument (CCAI) for secondary school students. This research attempts to develop and test a reliable and valid instrument that will assess students’ level of anxiety towards the changes that climate change brings to bear on humans and the environment in general. The development phase, patterned alongside Computer Anxiety Scale (CAS) developed by Okebukola and Woda (1993), first involved 50 senior secondary school students and the final phase involved 90 senior secondary school students. Results compared students’ learning outcomes using constructivism, pictorial/discussion and traditional techniques. Pedagogy significantly influenced students’ climate change anxiety. The Tukey analysis shows pictorial/discussion significant differences among the group on climate change anxiety. Location significantly influenced students’ level of climate change anxiety in favour of rural students.

 

Keywords: Climate Change, Critical Pedagogy, anxiety instrument, culturo-techno-contextual approach, secondary students; Nigeria

The Thin Line between Climate Change Believers, Climate Change Sceptics and Climate Change Dismissives (Published)

This paper intends to reveal how the residents and professionals in Yobe State, Nigeria truly feel about climate change as a result of skeletal commitment by policy makers and suppression of ideas by administrators officially dedicated to its cause. A sample of the population that consists of academics, clerics, environmental enthusiasts, farmers, forest rangers, policy makers, traditional title-holders, women and youth groups were purposively selected and administered 450 structured questionnaires. Subsequently, correlation of the ‘Respondent Category’ and their ‘Educational Level’, frequencies, charts, correlation coefficient and QQ Plots were generated using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) to emphasise on their perceptions. Key Informant Interview (KII) was also conducted with notable scholars and clerics on prohibitions of cutting down of trees, and encouragement for their planting. It was found out that; majority of the respondents have heard about climate change, understood its concept, believe their environment is changing and knew what is causing it. Although, more than half of them have not heard about the Conference of Parties (COP) annual meetings, the other half are nonetheless sceptical about the outcome of the meetings. They do not believe climate change is a propaganda tool, or whether the treaties and agreements are meant to slow the development of third world countries. Nevertheless, half of the respondents do not consider themselves as sceptics, the majority view themselves as believers. The findings of this research could serve as a subtle reminder to policy makers and administrators that; unless they come to terms with their beliefs about climate change, most policies formulated and programmes initiated could end up becoming a “white elephant” project, a subject that could only please the naysayers. It is the first research that categorised the residents of the study area based on their beliefs and scepticism of climate change.

 

Keywords: Climate Change, Yobe state, climate-change believers, climate-change dismissive, climate-change sceptics

Community Based Environmental Education a Strategy for Mitigating Impacts of Climate Change on Livelihood of Riverine Communities in Rivers State (Published)

This article offers a community participatory education strategy for mitigating impacts of climate change on livelihood activities of Riverine communities’ dwellers in Rivers State. Climate change impact is a partly anthropogenic (human) factor, it is pertinent for the human to participate in activities that will possibly mitigate the impact of the human activity on the environment and regain their sources of livelihood. For riverine communities to actively participate in climate change mitigation, they need to be properly guided through community-based environmental education which is based on community participatory model which encompasses elements of community-based, collaboration, information-based, and action-oriented

Keywords: Climate Change, Livelihood, climate mitigation, community-based environmental education

Influence of Climate Change on Building Design in Enugu South L.G.A of Nigeria (Published)

The effects of climate change on building design is a worrisome issue. Flooding, wind storm among others drastically affect buildings in the study area. This sometimes leads to building failures and in extreme cases, complete collapse. This research employed the use questionnaire and also sourced climate data from NIMET. The data collected were analyzed using percentages, Principle component analysis and regression analysis. The research found out that the respondents are knowledgeable about climate change and agree that it affects building designs, therefore must be factored into the design for proper ventilation and illumination as well as increased resilience and durability of the buildings in the study area. The likert table with a cluster means value of 4.01 > 3.0 and associated standard deviation of 0.65 indicates that the respondents perceived climate changes as contributing to changes in building designs. Bu ilding Designs in Enugu metropolis have changed over time. Component II recorded an eigen value of 1.486 and an additional variance of 16.512% bringing the cumulative explanation of respondents perception of climate influence on building designs to 88.183%. The research concluded that there are stages in the design of buildings whereby climate parameters are considered and that affects important decisions regarding the supposed building. The research recommends the need for building professionals to obtain basic climatic data from meteorological stations nearer to their proposed site and analyze such data for proper design of buildings.

 

Keywords: Building Design, Climate Change, Enugu south L.G.A, Nigeria

Climate Change Implications for Agricultural Sustainability in Enugu in the Guinea Savanna Eco-Climatic Zone of Southeastern Nigeria: Input from Climate Change Proxies (Published)

Climate change poses debilitating effects for agriculture and food security in low technology countries such as sub-Saharan Africa. The trends and variations of some climatic variables that influence agriculture were analysed using integrated statistical techniques. The aim is to examine the possible effects of climate change on agricultural sustainability in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria using lessons drawn from trend analysis of historical time series of meteorological variables in monthly time step in the area. The area whose economy is largely agrigarian has continued to witness incidence of poor crop productivity. Significant long-term trends were identified in some of the variables and non-significant trends in others. Inferences were made with considerable support of evidence and high degree of confidence. The climate of the area is changing in a manner that concern for agricultural sustainability is on the front burner of the long-term resulting consequences. The need for pre-season and on-season climate information dissemination system is advocated to provide timely and accurate agro-meteorological information

Keywords: Climate Change, Enugu, Nigeria, Trends, agricultural sustainability, climatic parameters, statistical techniques

Climate Change and Social Conflict: Migration of Fulani Herdsmen and the Implications in Nigeria (Published)

The paper is on climate change and social conflict: Migration of Fulani Herdsmen and the implication on the Nigerian state. Climate change on the North-East has triggered migration of Fulani Herdsmen, with several negative impact on short and long- term. The principle target of the investigation is to inspect the level of environmental change, asses the level of migration as it affect grazing area in parts of Nigeria. The study employed descriptive qualitative content analyses, basically on secondary sources of data and the internet was consulted, using conflict theories as a theoretical tool for analysis. One major finding is that violent herdsmen conflict is mainly due to emigration of herdsmen from the North-East. We therefore recommend governments to set aside land for effective ranching.

Keywords: Climate Change, herdsmen and migration

Economic Opportunities of Climate Change to Rural Communities in Nigeria (Published)

Discussions on climate change have focused mainly on the negative impact on the environment and how to mitigate these and adapt to, different mitigation and adaptation measures available today, which are economically potential as proposed by IPCC. This paper looks at potentials that can be harnessed from increase in rice husk generation in Ebonyi State due to provisions of improved rice seedling by the present government of the state as an adaptation strategy to climate change. The paper establishes that to properly harness the economic potential of adaptation strategies of climate change among rural farmers, these farmers need to be educated because majority of them are illiterate and are ignorant of the consequences of their actions, and that the educator should adopt conscientization strategy as mode of facilitating learning.

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Conscentisation, Economic Potential, Environmental Adult Education, Rice Husk, Rural Economy

Climate Change and Its Impact on Sustainable Development in Arab Countries (Published)

Human activities represented in industrial and technological revolution led to the increase of emissions of warming gases and their concentrations in the atmosphere. This increase caused the phenomenon of greenhouse gases and the rise of earth temperature over its natural rates as a result of the increase of absorption rate of infra-red rays, which led to the climate change of the earth. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide (PFcs ,HFcs, and SF6. Many studies dealt with natural and reviving environment and its relation with climate change. These studies have increased much in the last 5 years and they led to more confidence in the relation between warning phenomenon and its impact on the national economies. They confirmed that there is a high degree of certainty for the present regional changes in temperatures. The impact of these changes was quite clear on many physical reviving systems because of warming phenomenon. This research dealt with studying the different impact of climate on sustainable development in the Arab world. It set up a policy for adaptation to or mitigation of climate changes to achieve sustainability in development, through which we can preserve the environment and achieve development. The research is based on the realistic and Descriptive analysis to identify the nature of the relation between climate change and sustainable development in the Arab world. Besides, the research used the adjusted net saving rates which reflect the variability of sustainable development used by the World Bank to show environment deterioration and depletion in addition to the use of sustainability of development in the Arab world. we could find out that some countries achieved recent positive values and others achieved recent negative values. This shows that climate changes have negative impact on sustainable development operation in the Arab countries.

Keywords: Arab Countries, Climate Change, Environment, Sustainable Development

Environmental Externalities and Reality of CSR Practices (Environmental) in Bangladesh (Published)

Owing to the on-going exhaustion of the natural environment and its consequences on the society, the present environmental state of Bangladesh, a populated country with inadequate resources, has become enormously alarming. The human health, ecosystems and economic growth are threatened by severe environmental pollutions and encroachments. Bangladesh is facing several natural catastrophes such as floods, cyclones, and tidal-bores every year because of the environmental externalities which cause severe socio-economic and ecological damage. Thus, this study aims to highlight various ecological difficulties that Bangladesh is currently facing and that pose obstacles to implementing environmental CSR for sustainable development. The review of the literature reveals that several environmental pollutions, climate change and the loss of biodiversity are continuously degrading the natural environment of Bangladesh and its resources. Consequently, these detrimental impacts are threatening the socio-economic growth of Bangladesh and its environment. Hence corporate social responsibility (particularly environmental) can play a significant role to control the current environmental degradation of Bangladesh. The government should, at the same time, undertake several initiatives to protect environmental degradation, foster the environmental CSR activities within all the business sectors and increase environmental awareness which is mandatory to attain sustainable development.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Corporate Social Responsibility, Environmental CSR, Environmental Pollution

Assessing Climate Change Related Events on the Rights of Subsistence in the Rural Coastal Communities of Ghana (Published)

From the perspective of international human rights law, people are in no case be deprived of their own means of subsistence. However, weather and climate change pose both direct and indirect threat to a wide range of universally recognised human rights, by depriving millions of people of their rights of subsistence. This study looks at climate change and its effects on rights of subsistence in the rural coastal communities. The following research questions guided the study: (1) what are the climate change related effects on the right to adequate clean water?  (2) what are the climate change related effects on the right to food?; and (3) what are the climate related effects on the right to adequate housing? The population for this study included the residents in the two coastal communities, namely, Ampenyi in the Central Region and Anlo Beach, close to Shama in the Western Region. Mixed method approach with a sequential design was employed. Triangulation was used to test the consistency of findings obtained through different instruments used. Purposive sampling technique was employed in selecting the two communities and the respondents. Instruments for the data collection were questionnaire, interviews and observation. The quantitative data was analysed into simple percentages, whilst the qualitative data was done by interpretative technique whereby the outcomes were put into thematic areas based on the research questions. It was revealed from the study that, climate change related events have directly or indirectly affected rights of subsistence of the residents in the study areas. The study therefore, recommended that, rights-based approach should be applied in effective coastal planning and resiliency building to help the affected communities cope and adapt to living in a dynamic climatic environment.

Keywords: Climate Change, Coastal Communities, Rights of Subsistence, Rural Coastal Communities.

Investigating the Influence of Cosmic Rays on the Climate of South-East and South-South Regions of Nigeria Using Sunshine Hours and Relative Humidity. (Published)

There is a rising concern about the agents and mechanisms of climate change. The contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gases to global warming has long been accepted by most scientists, however, the impacts of some natural factors such as cosmic rays, sunspot and geomagnetic activities are yet to be established. This study investigated the effects of cosmic rays on the climate of south-east and south-south parts of Nigeria from 5 meteorological stations in the regions for a period of 48 years (1965-2012). Sunshine hours and relative humidity were used as weather parameters. No particular trend was found in the value of cosmic rays during the period; similarly, the sunshine hours and the relative humidity also produced very irregular patterns. A very low but positive correlation coefficient of 0.3 was found between cosmic rays and sunshine hours with almost no correlation (r = 0.1) between cosmic rays and relative humidity.  

Keywords: Climate Change, Cosmic Rays, Relative Humidity, Sunshine Hours

Climate Smart Aquaculture: A Sustainable Approach to Increasing Fish Production In The Face Of Climate Change in Nigeria (Published)

As the global population increases, demand for food, most especially protein will increase. Production from fisheries is crucial for food security in the face of current population increase.  Despite the reliability on fisheries and aquaculture to supply the animal protein needed by the world population, climate change has significantly reduced production and increase instability in the sector. In order to achieve food security and fisheries development goal, climate smart aquaculture which is an adaptation to climate change and lower emission intensities per output will be necessary. This review therefore discusses climate smart aquaculture as veritable approach to increasing fish production in the face of climate change trend in Nigeria. A number of changes already evident can be attributed to climate change; drastic change in weather condition, reduction in water levels, changes in hydrological regimes of inland water, heavy wind storm, excessive sunshine, increased incidence of flooding and drought. The effects of these changes have resulted in changes in ocean fish productivity, fish disease infestation and reduction of production from inland and aquaculture systems. Climate smart adaptation and mitigation strategies has helped to increase the resilience and adaptive capacity of communities and ecosystems, examples of such strategies include adopted strategies in the Niger-Delta region of Nigeria where about 80% of fish farmers were reported to have adopted strategies such as use of tarpaulin/tank ponds during dry weathers, about 70% have adapted by adjusting time of stocking while 60% stocked fish species that can better adapted to climate change impacts. Other adaptations strategies include erection of cover/shades over ponds, digging boreholes/wells to supply water during dry weathers and well-structured drainage system to guide against flooding. Integrated aquaculture is also an important adaptive measure which has gained huge popularity in Nigeria. The use of low carbon producing energy source in the production and processing of product from aquaculture is a viable means to mitigate against climate change, example include the use of gas or electricity rather than charcoal in fish smoking. Aquaculture waste water treatment before discharge is also a good mitigation practice been recently developed. Climate change will have significant impacts on fisheries and aquaculture in Nigeria. Climate smart aquaculture will respond to these changes by boosting adaptive capacity and resilience both of communities and the ecosystems on which they depend. It is important therefore to ensure adaptation and mitigation in response to climate change so as to safeguard sustainable fish production and food security improvement.

Keywords: Climate Change, Fish production, Food Security, Sustainable Aquaculture

Perceived Effect of Waste Generation on the Climate among Rural Households in Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the perceived effect of waste generation on climate change among rural households in Oyo state, Nigeria.  Two local government areas were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts in Oyo state from which five villages each were randomly selected. A total of 15 households across the selected villages were randomly selected to give a total sample size of 150 respondents. Data were collected through the use of interview schedule and analyzed using frequencies and percentages to present the descriptive analysis, while Pearson Product Moment Correlation and Chi- Square were used for inferential analysis. The findings of the study revealed that the average age of the respondents in the study area was  37 years, as majority (75.0%) were married  and had no formal education (63.2%).  Majority (90.0%) were farmers, had small farm size (86.1%) of range 1-5 acres. Kitchen waste (94.7%), crop waste (88.8%) and animal waste (65.3%) were the major waste generated within the households in the study area. Most (92.0%) of the respondents disposed their wastes making use of sacks (83.3%) 62.0% and 74.7% dispose their waste into drainage channels (62.0%) and flowing stream (74.7%) respectively. Few (14.7%) obtained information on waste management practices through the radio. Majority (78.2%) had low knowledge level on waste management practice and wrong perception (79.2%) of the effects of waste generation to climate change. Level of education (2 = 9.273, sources of information on waste management practices (r = 0.325) and knowledge on waste management practices (r = 0.276) have influence on the perceived effect of waste generation to climate change. There is the need to create awareness on the environmental effect of waste and inappropriate waste management practices among rural households.

Keywords: Climate Change, Knowledge on Waste Management, Perceived Effect of Waste, Waste Generation, Waste Management, Waste.

Linkages between Green Energy Policies and Climate Change Law and Challenges towards a Greater Coherent Policy (Published)

All over the world, national governments and policy makers have been strong in their stance on the fight against global climate change due to human-made factors.  Climate change law and green energy policy were critical in the movement for using green or renewable energy sources in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and, therefore, slowing down the process of change in the earth’s climate.  The aim of this study is to understand the basics of climate change and green energy and to identify and understand the relationship between the two regulatory efforts.  It also aimed to identify the challenges in coming up a single, cohesive policy for the two regulatory efforts.  Through scanning literature, discussion on the basics of climate change and green or renewable energy were presented.  The study highlighted the aspects that established the linkages between the two regulatory efforts, which include (1) most of the green energy policies and climate change laws around the world were leaned towards the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, and (2) the incentive-levy system to encourage the use of green energy sources.  Challenges facing the establishment of a cohesive policy for the two regulatory efforts include (1) difficulty of establishing a single framework for supporting green energy technologies that addresses both clean energy generation and climate change in a wider context, (2) challenges relating to process management of energy services, and (3) compatibility of the two regulatory efforts.

Keywords: Climate Change, Law, Linkages, coherent policy, green energy policies

Challenges of Climate Change and Industrial Sector Experience: A Review of Evidence from Nigeria (Published)

The world climate pattern has continued to generate serious concern in the recent times especially with the increasing effect of human activities on the global environment. Nigeria, as an integral part of the world also had its own share of the evolving challenges of the climate change phenomenon (such as flood, rising sea level and extreme weather events, drought and excess rainfall, temperature rise and precipitation among others)especially its effect on sensitive agricultural resources and production.Therefore,with relative few studies and dearth of information on climate change activities towards industrial sector especially in Nigeria, the study  decided to explore the literature and review various challenges of climate change vis-à-vis the experience of Nigeria’s industrial sector.  Based on the reviewed studies, the industrial activities had negative experience with  challenges of climate change in Nigeria, with many of the climate-sensitive productive materials and critical infrastructure such as agriculture and coastal resources, pipelines, road networks and power plants among others,(that were agents of industrial production) negatively affected. Hence, this reduces the total output of the sector. However, a comprehensive adaptation process of mitigating the negative effect of climate change on Nigeria’s industrial sector is sacrosanct.

Keywords: Adaptation Measures, Climate Change, Green House gasses, Industrial Sector, Nigeria

Carbon Footprint Reduction Strategies for Different Sectors of the Economy (Published)

Climate change is one of the greatest challenges facing mankind. Carbon dioxide, Methane and other greenhouse gases are responsible for climate change which results in global warming. It is estimated that about 37 billion tonnes of carbon dioxides are produced every year from the burning of fossil fuel alone whilst about 7 billion tonnes are produced from deforestation. If the emission of greenhouse gases continues unabated due to anthropogenic activities, the average global temperature will also continues to increase and eventually results to severe weather disruption, rise in sea levels and changes in land use patterns.Hence, this paper aims to highlights the various strategies that could be adopted in a bid to reduce global carbon footprint from anthropogenic activities. The paper employed the use of journals and other scholarly publications to provide insight into possible techniques that could be used in the transportation, manufacturing and housing sector. The paper found that adequate house insulations, low carbon vehicles, renewable energy projects such as small wind turbines, solar water heating system and biomass energy plant are possible steps that could be taken to reduce the carbon footprints of various sectors.

Keywords: Climate Change, carbon footprint, global warming

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Mainstreaming Adaptation, Policy And Development, Sustainable Food Security

Mainstreaming Adaptation to Climate Change into Policy and Development: Case Study on Agriculture and Sustainable Food Security in Bangladesh (Published)

Our proposed study set up a long-term national climate adaptation framework for Bangladeshi policy makers. Outcomes of this research absolutely lead to measure the public perception, attitudes and understanding of the level of knowledge and the aspirations and expectations of publics with regard to how they adapted to a changing climate.  This study also identify if there are significant relationship between public perceptions and attitudes of climate change and efficient adaptation framework and plans to introduce some ideas. and concepts on the challenges toward the perceptions and policies as tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.  More specific outcomes are a) understanding of public perceptions, attitudes towards climate change and their adaptation capacity in agriculture, industry and service sectors b) achievement of efficient national  adaptation framework c) enhanced knowledge on future climate change impacts and better capacity building on the long run integrated economic development and finally and d) recommendations and policy tools for achieving long-term solutions to climate change for the national policy framework.

Keywords: Agriculture, Bangladesh, Climate Change, Development, Food Security, Policy