Tag Archives: Clay

Potassium Supplying Capacity of Some Low Activity Clay Soils in Benue State (Published)

Laboratory, pot and field studies were conducted with some low activity clay Soils in Benue State to evaluate their potassium (K) supplying capacity using equilibrium parameters as measured by quantity, intensity and activity indices. The soils were Daudu, Tse-Kough, Tse-Agbakor and Mbachor. Farmers’ fields were used to verify the findings of these experiments. Routine soil analysis was done using standard procedures. Potassium fractions were estimated using standard procedure. The Total K content of the soils varied from 57.06 C mol Kg-1 at Daudu to 64.63 C molkg-1 at Mbachor with the non exchangeable K constituting 57.16%, 0.40% and 0.13%  respectively of the total K in the soils. The potassium buffer capacity (PBC) which measures the ability of the soils to maintain K intensity in solution ranged from 1.98 at Daudu to 3.56 at Mbachor indicating a slow release of K in these soils. The specifically bonded K which constituted the bulk of the labile K (KL) was generally low.  Response of Soybean (Glycine max merr. (L) to K application was observed in all the soils studied and the critical K value for optimum yield of the crop using  standard  procedure was determined to be 0.33 C mol Kg-1. It was concluded that response of Soybean to K application would be probable in the Daudu and Tse-Kough Soils while response to K application will not be probable with the Tse-Agbakor and Mbachor Soils.

Keywords: Benue State, Clay, Potassium, Supplying, soils

Production of Ceramic Candle Water Filters Using Saw Dust, Rice Husk As Burnt Out Materials (Published)

Water is a commodity that every family needs on a daily basis, but unfortunately most of the sources of water available to people in the developing nations is nothing to write home about as treated water is not easy to come by. There is no doubt therefore that there is an urgent need for small, affordable water treatment facilities that the people can easily access. This study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of rate of flow through ceramic candle filters when locally available raw materials such as hardwood sawdust and rice husk are used as burn out materials components in the production of water ceramic candle filters. Three different water candle filters were produced using Ekulu coal deposit clay as the major raw material. With sawdust in ratio of 2:8 with the clay and rice husk in the ration 2: 8 also as the combustible (burnout) materials. Water flow rate were measured for the ceramic candle filters produced by measuring the volume of filtrate. It was observed that the filter that had sawdust as burntout materials yielded a filtrate of 100ml in 2 hours, 900ml in 6 hours and 1,500ml in 12 hours and the candle filter with rice husk yielded a filtrate volume of 90ml in 2 hours, 120ml in 6 hours and 220ml in 12 hours. The low yield of the candle filter with rice husk was due to the inability of the husk to be burnt off at temperature 9000C and below

Keywords: Burnout Material, Ceramic Filter, Clay, Rice Husk, Saw Dust

The Geological Context of the Sand/Gravel Areas, Holderness Plain, Kingston upon Hull, England (Published)

The clay till are interspersed with layers and lenses of sand and gravels of varying extent. Both the predominance of clay tills and the changing depths and thickness of the sand/gravel were confirmed in the Holderness Till. The uniformity coefficients, the ratio of sand to silt, and the percentages of gravel, sand, silt, and clay were calculated for all the catchment samples. Firstly, to determine precisely the extent of the sand/gravel areas within the glacial till and secondly, to establish whether the sand/gravel and the clay areas of the catchment behaved in hydrologically distinctive ways. The results confirmed that the higher the ratios and uniformity coefficients are for the sand areas which contributes to the higher permeability and hydraulic conductivity and that the lower ratios and uniformity coefficients are associated with the areas of clay which contributes to the lower permeability and hydraulic conductivity. The effective size is an indicator commonly used in the application of particle-size distribution to hydrological and hydraulic study.

Keywords: Clay, Glacial, Gravel, Sand