Tag Archives: Classical

Classical Identification, 16s Rdna Sequencing, And Molecular Characterization of Bacillus Species from Convenience Foods (Published)

Identification of microorganisms is central to the study of microbiology at all levels of research. The methods employed are also important. It is however very pertinent that scientists the world over continuously improve on the method of microbial identification for greater efficiency. A study was conducted to isolate and identify Bacillus species from some ready-to-eat (RTE)/convenience food samples. The Bacillus species isolated were identified by using the classical method. The same isolates were further identified via use of the 16S rDNA sequencing method. The classical method identified all bacilli isolates as members of a precise species in the genus Bacillus, but with discrepancies observed in 3 out of 9 identified cases (33.3%) when comparison was made with PCR/sequencing method. PCR/sequencing method provided results which were in accordance with both classical and genotypical identification in more than 70% of cases. This study emphasized the presumptive nature of classical methods in identifying Bacillus species/strains, without additional sensitive and molecular methods. Identities from the PCR method hold greatest sway and are regarded as most reliable as it involves the analysis of genetic sequences of this group of microorganisms.

Keywords: Bacillus, Classical, Convenience Foods, Identification, PCR

Classical to Modern Organization Theory (Published)

Organization is a relatively young science in comparison with the other scientific disciplines. (Ivanko, 2013) Accounts of the growth of organizational theory usually start with Taylor and Weber, but, as Scott (1987) mentions, organizations were present in the old civilizations which goes back to Sumerians (5000, BC) and which experiences its maturation phase with Taylor, Fayol and Weber, continuing to come up to present with modern management methods and principles. The modern organization may be the most crucial innovation of the past 100 years and it is a theory which will never complete its evolution as the human being continues to exist. Understanding how organizations work has been the focus of scientists and scholars until the early part of the 20th century. Just as organizations have evolved, so to have the theories explaining them. These theories can be divided into 9 different “schools” of thought (Shafritz, Ott, Jang, 2005): Classical Organization Theory, Neoclassical Organization Theory, Human Resource Theory, or the Organizational Behavior Perspective, Modern Structural Organization Theory, Organizational Economics Theory, Power and Politics Organization Theory, Organizational Culture Theory, Reform Though Changes in Organizational Culture and Theories of Organizations and Environments. This introductory paper will concentrate on the classical to modern structural organization theory and is divided as follows: The introduction talks about the developments of the organization and organization theory from its early stages with detailed definitions. In section 2, theoretical roots in other words literature review on the subject will be presented. At further section, by looking at the perspectives of the 29 pioneering people, main principles of the classical to modern organization theory are presented one by one. Section 4 discusses and concludes the paper.

Keywords: Classical, Modern, Organization, Organization Theory.

Classical Organization Theory: From Generic Management of Socrates to Bureaucracy of Weber (Published)

Organization is a relatively young science in comparison with the other scientific disciplines. (Ivanko, 2013) Accounts of the growth of organizational theory usually start with Taylor and Weber, but, as Scott (1987) mentions, organizations were present in the old civilizations which goes back to Sumerians (5000, BC) and which experiences its maturation phase with Taylor, Fayol and Weber, continuing to come up to present with modern management methods and principles. The modern organization may be the most crucial innovation of the past 100 years and it is a theory which will never complete its evolution as the human being continues to exist. Understanding how organizations work has been the focus of scientists and scholars until the early part of the 20th century. Just as organizations have evolved, so to have the theories explaining them. These theories can be divided into 9 different “schools” of thought (Shafritz, Ott, Jang, 2005): Classical Organization Theory, Neoclassical Organization Theory, Human Resource Theory, or the Organizational Behavior Perspective, Modern Structural Organization Theory, Organizational Economics Theory, Power and Politics Organization Theory, Organizational Culture Theory, Reform Though Changes in Organizational Culture and Theories of Organizations and Environments. This paper will concentrate on the very beginning theory namely classical organization theory and is divided as follows. The introduction talks about the developments of the organization and organization theory from its early stages with detailed definitions. In section 2, theoretical roots in other words literature review on the subject will be presented. At further section, by looking at the perspectives of the 15 pioneering people (Socrates, Smith, Owen & Babbage, McCallum, Towne, Watt, Metcalfe, Fayol, Taylor, Gantt, Gilbreths, Barth, Weber, and Gulick) main principles of the classical organization theory are presented one by one. Section 4 mentions strengths and weaknesses of the classical organizational theory and section 5 discusses and concludes the paper.

Keywords: Classical, Organization, Organization Theory.