Burnout and the Job Satisfaction of Extension Studies Personnel in Kenya’s Christian Higher Education (Published)
This paper is an excerpt of my dissertation whose purpose was to explore the relationships among spirituality, work conditions, and job satisfaction of extension studies personnel in Kenya’s Christian higher education. The study employed a mixed method approach to answer questions on the perceptions of administrators and faculty of extension studies of the impact of spirituality and work conditions on their job satisfaction. This paper therefore sought to establish the extent to which those perceptions are impacted by the personnel’s sense of burnout? Further the author relates the burnout effect of administrators and faculty workers to job satisfaction based on a number of burnout sub scales, among them; Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalization and Personal Accomplishment. Data was collected, using a survey instrument, from 146 administrators and faculty of extension studies from 6 selected Christian universities in Kenya. Statistical tests carried out using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), included ANOVA/Kruskall Wallis, Tukey HSD/Mann-Whiteny U, t test, univariate, and regression analysis. The findings from descriptive statistics indicated that extension studies personnel had somewhat high levels of emotional burnout and depersonalization. However, they had scored high on personal accomplishment at their work. Administration faculty had higher mean ranks of burnout (U = 672.00, z = -2.48, p < .017, r = -.26) compared to their counterparts who had no administrative duties. However, the effect size was small. The results also indicated that global job satisfaction was more significantly and negatively correlated to emotional exhaustion (r2 = .13) than to depersonalization (r2 = .04), but was positively correlated to personal accomplishment (r2 = .08). Similarly, work satisfaction was more significantly and negatively related to emotional exhaustion (r2 = .10) than to depersonalization (r2 = .08), but was positively correlated to personal accomplishment (r2 = .03). Satisfaction with salary, coworkers, and supervisors were all significantly and negatively related to emotional exhaustion (r2 = .07, r2 = .09, and r2 = .04 respectively). These findings are important for both personnel and stakeholders of higher education institutions’ in burnout prevention and enhancement of job satisfaction.
The Relationship between Spirituality and Job Satisfaction of Distance Education Personnel in Kenya’s Christian Higher Education Institutions (Published)
This paper is an excerpt of a dissertation research whose purpose was to explore the relation of spirituality, work conditions and the job satisfaction of extensions study personnel in Kenya’s Christian higher education institutions. The paper however focuses on the relationship between spirituality, work conditions and job satisfaction. A mixed method approach to the study was employed. The perceptions of administrators and faculty of extension studies on the impact of spirituality and work conditions on their job satisfaction are sought. The study used the quantitative paradigm. Data was collected, using a survey instrument, from 146 administrators and faculty of extension studies from six selected Christian universities in Kenya. The causal-comparative design was applied and data were analyzed using the SPSS version 19. Overall, this study found that faculty members reported higher satisfaction with work itself compared to administrators (U = 792.50, z = -3.09, p < .01, r = -.31). Global job satisfaction scores were positively and significantly correlated to awareness of God scores (r = .28). There were differences in spirituality and job satisfaction related to some demographic factors such as gender, level of education, and years of as a Christian. Women had higher scores in awareness of God (U =1148.50, z = -3.41, p < .05, r = -.21) and integration of spirituality with work (U = 948.50, z = -2.21, p < .01, r = -.32) than men. Those with undergraduate level of education had higher scores in their emotional instability in their relationship with God (t = 2.254, p < .05, r = -21) compared to those with graduate level of education. Those who were Christians for less than 35 years had higher scores in their instability in their relationship with God (scores (U = 1098.00, z = -2.79, p < .01, r = -.26). Moreover, faculty and administrators reported differences in some aspects of spirituality. In relation to level of work involvement, faculty members reported higher grandiosity scores (U = 929.50, z = -2.42, p < .017, r = -.24) than administrators. In relation to job rank, administrators reported higher scores in the disappointment with God subscale (U = 1033.00, z = -2.595, p < .01, r = -.24) than faculty members. Findings of the study are useful to faculty members, administrators and Christian higher education leaders in Kenya for enhancing the spirituality and job satisfaction of distance education personnel.