Tag Archives: China

Impacting Nigeria’s Electricity Deficit: A Case Study Review of Enabling Solar PV Policies (Published)

This paper examines Nigeria’s dismal performance in electricity power generation and supply; it conducts a case study review is done of enabling Solar PV policies as a complementary alternative to effectively mitigating the effects of this challenge. Besides envisaging dire socio-economic implications in the event of a total national grid overhaul without alternative back-ups, this paper proffers the harnessing of the nation’s abundant solar energy sources as a leapfrogging strategy. In its analysis and discussion of the reviewed case studies, this paper posits that solar energy has the capacity to boost Nigeria’s electricity power generation and supply towards reducing current high levels of energy poverty. In backing its hypothesis, this paper conducts a case study review of two countries – United States of America and China – that have efficiently exploited their solar energy resources through deliberately conceptualised, designed and implemented policies, and in so doing facilitating a diversified, reliable and sustainable power generation and supply process. The paper concludes with recommendations put together based on inferences drawn from the case study reviews, as well as imputations made from an overarching analysis and discussion of these enabling policies.

Citation: Chinedu Okoye  and  Ibrahim Choji  (2022) Impacting Nigeria’s Electricity Deficit: A Case Study Review of Enabling Solar PV Policies, International Journal of Developing and Emerging Economies, Vol.10, No.1, pp.21-39

Keywords: China, Electricity, Enabling Policies, Renewable Energy Technology (RETs), United States of America (US), deficit, solar PV

Energy Security, China’s Strategy: A Guide for Nigeria (Published)

Energy Security has returned to the top of the international agenda in ways not seen since the oil embargoes of the 1970s. Energy security has emerged as a major object of the energy policy agenda and policy makers have engaged in a wide ranging debate over how best to address future energy requirements. Industrial powers like the United States are willing to devote considerable military, political, diplomatic, and economic means to access energy resources around the world. But they are no longer alone in this endeavour. Increasingly, industrializing states like China and India are willing to devote comparable resources to secure sufficient energy supplies to sustain their fast growing economy. In this work – Energy Security, China’s Strategy: a Guide for Nigeria, using a secondary data in a qualitative analysis has undertaken a comprehensive review of Energy security, looking at the global quest for energy, China’s energy security strategy, energy security from Nigeria’s perspective and the examples that the strategy can provide for Nigeria. We have identified three key areas of china’s strategy which equally provides lessons for Nigeria i.e. China has a credible and an efficient energy policy in place, Self-reliance and self-sufficiency in oil and other resources which they took great pride in, that could take care of their domestic needs and establishment of strategic oil reserves.

Keywords: China, Nigeria, Policy, energy security, energy security strategy, security of supply.

National Interest and Warfare Ecosystem 1: Global Balance-of-Power Strategies (Published)

Creating an institutional framework on a global scale to understand balance-of-power strategies is the crux of foreign policy today with United States superpower exceptionalism. ‘Altercating’ defence, diplomacy and development encapsulate the United States foreign policy in relation to national interests globally. Role theory applied in comparing the United States and Chinese grand strategies as case studies. The United States superpower statecraft’s clarity help superimposed any form of countervailing alliances globally; while China’s sociological pragmatist role currently could change based on ‘Power Transition Theory’ for hegemony power. Beijing is pursuing a grand strategy that combines both ‘internal balancing’ and external ‘soft balancing’, encapsulated as ‘warfare ecosystem construct’ as countervailing alliances for balance-of-power strategies with development of ‘Economic Corridors’ in East Asia ; and the United States ‘Globalization Agenda’ both executed as ‘mechanisms of power’ date back to their ‘hegemonic histories’ with adaptive construct for national interests.

Keywords: China, Foreign Policy, GVAR model, Liberalism, Realism, United States, grand strategy, national interest, pragmatism, spatial polysingularity, warfare ecosystem

One Belt – One Road” in the framework of strategic cooperation between Russia and China (Published)

The research subject is the analysis of international interaction between the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China since the late 20th century to the present time within the upcoming new prospects of long-term cooperation. The author makes a brief review of the recent history of interrelations between the two counties and forecasts their development for the nearest future within the adopted joint program “One Belt and One Road”. This project is based on the “complementarity” principle, i.e. the unification of advantages of China and Russia thus forming modern largescale “development partnership”. This study is based on a set of scientific methods, including the historical, institutional, system and comparative methods of scientific analysis. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that the political science problem under consideration reveals the new understanding of the vectors of development of relations of the two largest world powers. Particularly, the author considers the role of China in realization of the largest projects of the Eurasian Economic Union in the context of economic decline in Russia and other countries, close to Russia, caused by the Western sanctions. In the context of the possible narrowing of the EAEU’s potential, China’s project of “One Belt – One Road” can naturally compensate Russia’s demand for effective partnership. A special author’s contribution to the study of the topic is the conclusion that in the contemporary world, the alliance of Russia and China can define many vectors of development of world politics for the nearest decades. 

Keywords: China, Eurasia, Integration, National Interests, Russia, complementarity, national sovereignty, strategic cooperation, strategic partnership

One Belt One Road a Great project of Far-reaching Economic Development & Trend of Global modern Development Rules (Published)

The One Belt One Road project is a project initiated by China and officially launched in 2013 by Chinese President Xi Jinping, during his visit to Kazakhstan. The One Belt One Road project is a project of global dimension.  In order to approach such a complex and multifaceted subject a retrospective historical analysis in regards to this particular project’s origin and idea is required. This global project involves linking Asia, Europe, and Africa with new road and maritime infrastructures. Since its launch in 2013, this project is attracting financially and diplomatically many collaborators. Evermore frequent international conferences have been hosted by China but a particular high-profile summit on May 15, 2017, held in Beijing and was attended by twenty-nine heads of state, as well as numerous government officials. Sixty-Eight countries that were involved in the summit eventually closed with a “joint declaration” signed by thirty countries, followed by 270 cooperation agreements. The vision of the “New Silk Road”, better known today as the “One Belt, One Road” (OBOR) is determined to take a major step in leading the trend in globalization in the 21st century which can be seen by an injection of enormous means from various sectors in order to make this project a fruitful realization.  The main objective of this literary work is to make evident the ambitions of Beijing through the “OBOR” project and to make clear the strategies for implementing the project as well as its impact on global economic development exploiting different development sectors concerned.

Keywords: China, Economic Development, Modern Great Project, One Belt One Road, Rules, Trend of Global Development

Performance Evaluation of Chinese Companies across Various Sectors in Bangladesh Business and Built Environment (Published)

Bangladesh is a country with about 168million people with a GDP growth of 6.5% 2004. This is due to its market-based economy which is the 43rd largest in the world in nominal terms, and 30th largest by purchasing power parity. With its geographical location, economic and population fundamentals, it has attract foreign direct investment (FDI) allowing it full participation in regional and continental development partnerships with its neighbors especially China. China viewed Bangladesh as a crucial and vital partner to its regional development plans especially to its land locked western region. These led to Chinese companies entering the Bangladesh economic sectors to invest and execute projects. However, these Chinese companies must take (or have taken) into cognizance the labour laws, the available & the level of human capacity, the business terrain, the cultural ramifications of the Bangladesh workforce, also the priorities and dynamic government policies. These will influence the performances and overall success of collaborations across various sectors. The study evaluated the performances of Chinese Companies across Various of Bangladesh. It also provides a summary of the main findings in line with the research problem and the research aim. The literature reviewed led to identification of the twelve sectors. The evaluations and assessment show that the performance of Chinese companies across the twelve sectors varies accordingly and that they have a very good performance across eight sectors and satisfactorily / fair across four sectors. These performances are influenced by the levels of collaborations of Bangladeshi people, government and country towards the Chinese companies across various sectors. Altogether, and over some time will lead to better understanding of each other’s work habit, culture, barriers and differences that may will boost the performances of the Chinese companies in future collaborations.

Keywords: Bangladesh, Business, China, Collaborations, Development, Human Resources, Performance, Sectors

China’s Peaceful Development and its Interactions with Contemporary International Law (Published)

The question of whether China’s peaceful development is a threat to international peace and security (China threat theory), or not, continues to dominate the academic discourse. Nonetheless, China’s efforts, both in theory and practice, have ascertained that its development not only is peaceful in its nature, but also, is extended throughout the world in numerous ways.  This paper mainly investigates China’s peaceful development from the international law perspective and its interaction with international law. It examines the concept of peace in Chinese ancient philosophy, explores China’s peaceful development and its features and argues that it is harmonious with international law in various areas such as the purposes of the Charter of the United Nations, the Millennium Declaration, international human rights, etc. and can potentially contribute to development of international law through theory and practice.

Keywords: China, International law, Peaceful Development

The Mission in China: Historical Considerations for Twenty-First Century Churches of Christ (Published)

Jesus gave his followers a momentous task: to go and make disciples of all nations. China presents unique challenges to fulfilling the Great Commission. This essay explores three topics: 1) the origins of the Churches of Christ and their mission philosophy; 2) factors affecting Christianity in China; and 3) mission strategies available to the Churches of Christ in contemporary China. The aim is to help accomplish the church’s mission in China.

Keywords: China, Stone-Campbell, church of Christ, great commission

Most-Favoured-Nation Clause in Chinese Bilateral Investment Treaties (Published)

Bilateral investment treaty (BIT) programs were a natural response of capital-exporting countries in trying to protect the investments made by their nationals and corporations in the territories of developing states. In recent decades the role of BITs has risen in global economy for promoting foreign investments by guaranteeing that the rights of foreign investors are protected in the territory of the host state. Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) treatment is a commonly found treatment standard in investment treaties which guarantees equality of competitive conditions among foreign investors in a host country. The underlying notion behind the MFN clause is to eliminate the de facto and de jure discrimination based on the origin of foreign investment. This paper discusses the role of MFN clause in international investment law with a specific focus to Chinese BITs. Particularly, the paper examines the wording of MFN clauses in Chinese BITs, the stages of investments covered by the clause and its applicability to substantive and procedural treatment standards.  

Keywords: Bilateral Investment Treaties, China, Most-Favoured-Nation Treatment

The Elderly Problems and Policies in China: A Comparison with Japan (Published)

This research was conducted qualitatively through review, analysis, and comparison of Chinese and Japanese policies regarding elderly policy. The methodology used in this study was literature analysis. Data on elderly population were collected from World Bank website and elderly policy documents were from a government website. The study aimed to (1) find out about the aging problem in China, (2) compare the policies on the elderly in China and Japan, and (3) provide policy recommendations for the Chinese government. The results showed that China has three main aging problems: (1) an increasing of demand for medical treatment, (2) the empty-nest family problem, and (3) increasing pressure on long-term nursing services. Many elderly policies have long been implemented but are not efficient. Japan was selected to do a comparison because Japan is a super-aged country and it has good experience to cope with aging problems. Through combining the situation of China, the Chinese government should create the way which pay attention to the improvement of policies for the elderly and implement target measures for all levels of aging.

Keywords: Aging-Related Problem, China, Healthcare Policy, Japan, Old People

Us- China’s Disagreement over South China Sea Issues: A Race for Control? An Analysis through Realism’s Lens (Published)

This paper seeks to analyze the main reasons of the disagreement over the South China Sea between the USA and one of the claimants, China. We would go about it using the theory of Realism as a basis of our analysis. This theory claims that nations, as main actors of the international system, interact with each other on the basis of their own interests – military security, economic prosperity etc. In a world where there is no authority over the nations, the latter have to protect themselves on their own means. The disputes in South China Sea are fuelled by the value maritime space and the oceanic resources values. Actually, the nation that controls the sea, can hold any of the littoral countries to ransom. The dependence of China on imported oil and due to the fact that most of its oil imports are shipped through the South China Sea, pushes it to protect its sea lanes, secure its access to closer oceanic resources and protect its territory from potential attacks that could be launched from South China Sea. Being a transit lane for both regional and international trades, many countries are also concerned about the conflicts. One of them is the United States. The United States’ concern is strongly influenced by its will to maintain its own influence in the area.

Keywords: China, Realism, South China Sea, the USA

Ngos’ Advertising in South Africa and Implications for Ngos in China (Published)

In this paper, we discuss NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) and NPOs (Non-Profit Organizations) in general and focus on the advertising strategy NGOs should undertake. More specifically, we compare and contrast the NGO history in South Africa and China, its corresponding past advertising, and implications for advertising strategy for Chinese NGOs going forward.


Keywords: Advertising, China, NGOs, NPOs, South Africa.


The 21st century was started with the dawn of a new economic puzzle of China’s fast economic growth. It has surprised the economists. The Chinese constant upward growth has shifted economic paradigm and the axis of growth appear to have been shifted from the western hemisphere to the eastern hemisphere. Some economists term it a 21st century miracle. The author has determined to test this miracle through empirical framework. Main research question of this study to explore the answer of the question why China is recording consistent rapid economic growth? Is this growth in the same way as other developed countries experienced in the past or is it a new phenomenon-a shift in global economic paradigm.The objective of this empirical analysis is to investigate into the causes of fast economic growth of China in the context whether this growth pattern is a normal phenomenon or an indicator of shifting global economic paradigm.Our study is spread over a period starting from 1980 to 2011 because of the introduction of economic reforms and massive economic growth. We have collected data from different sources such as China Bureau of National Statistics, IMF, World Bank and relevant research Journals and books. The selected variables for this research paper are: labour productivity, investment, exports, Research and Development expenses, capital stock, open door policy, real exchange rate and US GDP. We used ordinary least square (OLS) model to measure change in the selected variables. Five tests were used to test the stability of the model. The Econometric results show that international trade and investment in capital stock and R&D expenses by Chinese Government are the major determinants, which are responsible for enhancing labour productivity and output in the long-run, Similarly, real exchange rate appears as an important determinant to explain change in output in the long-run

Keywords: China, Exports, Investment, Labour productivity, Open door policy, Output, R&D


In recent years, China has drawn a lot of attention, not only due to its rapid economic development and the WTO accession, but also due to its active attitude towards regional economic development. China, as the world’s leading producer, also looks for multiple markets to decrease the chances of any major setback of economy in future. In these lines, China has recently signed Free Trade Agreements with different nations. This study explores the impact of China’s Free Trade Agreement with other countries. APEC is the first step for this initiative, followed by bilateral trade agreements or regional trade agreements with other economies, mostly neighboring economies. China, a developing country, whose experience, would provide some insights for free trade agreements among other developing economies. This paper also explores the present situation and motives behind China’s FTA engagement through analysis of last five years and bilateral trade of China with other countries and FTA partners. A thorough analysis suggests that China has gained real benefits from FTAs which have helped China boost its exports to the world. This paper further explains that as a dominating partner in these agreements, China has obtained substantial advantage after signing these agreements. This study also suggests that China can establish win-win relationships in its targeted market by providing mutual benefits to its counterparts.

Keywords: Bilateral Trade Agreements, China, Free Trade Agreements, International Trade

Vol 2, Issue 5, October 2014 (Published)

Keywords: Bilateral Trade Agreements, China, Free Trade Agreements, International Trade


The study centred on China- Nigeria Relations. China-Nigeria Relation spans a wide spectrum of areas: politics, trade, investment, aid, technology, science, culture, education, health and military. The growing economic ties between China and Nigeria require detailed analysis to determine the prospects and challenges so as to ascertain the benefits on both sides. Qualitative analysis was the main anchor and its descriptive in nature, drawing largely from secondary sources from analytical standpoint. The prospects are: adequate infrastructure in Nigeria through China’s financial resources will improve investment climate in the country, ability to do quality work at a fast rate, simplification of their access to capital, strengthen infrastructure, revive the agricultural sector, china provide trade not aid, Nigerians could borrow from Chinese character of discipline, purposeful leadership and deliverability, China’s investment focus in agriculture, light industry, machinery, infrastructure, construction, information technology and tourism will be added impetus to Nigerian Economy. Nigeria may gain from technical assistance and scientific cooperation. The Challenges are: Domestic firms may lose as a result of lack of competitiveness, trade imbalance, stifles technological transfer, tax evasion, slave wages, poor working conditions, Economic inequality, uncoordinated leadership and policy. Strong pressure must be placed on Nigerian leaders to effectively balance Chinese engagement to maximize growth and opportunity.

Keywords: China, Economy, Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), Infrastructure, Nigeria, Relations, Trade


In recent decades, the potential contribution of military expenditure to economic growth has been a subject of much controversy among development economists. While some contend that military expenditure has an adverse effect on economic growth as it crowds out investment. Others are of the view that military spending improves economic performance as it tends to expand aggregate demand. Taking advantage of recent developments in time series econometric methods, this paper re-examines the relationships between military expenditure and economic growth in China, from annual data for the period 1980–2011. The study used autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) to test for the long-run and short run relationships while granger causality techniques used to examine the direction of causation. The results however indicate that there is an inverse relationship between economic growth and military spending in the short run while the long run results suggest that the correlation among the variables is inconclusive. Similarly, the granger causality tests revealed a unidirectional relationship running from GDP to military spending.

Keywords: China, Military expenditure; Economic growth; ARDL; Granger Causality

A Study on the functions of western cultural non-verbal behavior in English classroom in China (Review Completed - Accepted)

In China, English classroom is the main place of English language acquisition. Therefore, how to improve English classroom teaching effectively has become the scholars’ concern. This paper reports a study conducted at North China Electric Power University on the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom in China. Questionnaires with both close-ended and open-ended questions were distributed to the students. By means of quantitative and qualitative research methods, this paper analyzed the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom and found that:1) as a foreign language teacher you need not only to speak foreign language but also transmit cultural knowledge to students; 2) the nonverbal behaviors which reflect the western culture can have the positive effects on second language learning. 3) non-verbal behavior should be involved in the teaching and learning processes

Keywords: China, English Teacher, Functions, Nonverbal Behavior, Western Culture