Bilateral investment treaty (BIT) programs were a natural response of capital-exporting countries in trying to protect the investments made by their nationals and corporations in the territories of developing states. In recent decades the role of BITs has risen in global economy for promoting foreign investments by guaranteeing that the rights of foreign investors are protected in the territory of the host state. Most-Favoured-Nation (MFN) treatment is a commonly found treatment standard in investment treaties which guarantees equality of competitive conditions among foreign investors in a host country. The underlying notion behind the MFN clause is to eliminate the de facto and de jure discrimination based on the origin of foreign investment. This paper discusses the role of MFN clause in international investment law with a specific focus to Chinese BITs. Particularly, the paper examines the wording of MFN clauses in Chinese BITs, the stages of investments covered by the clause and its applicability to substantive and procedural treatment standards.
This research was conducted qualitatively through review, analysis, and comparison of Chinese and Japanese policies regarding elderly policy. The methodology used in this study was literature analysis. Data on elderly population were collected from World Bank website and elderly policy documents were from a government website. The study aimed to (1) find out about the aging problem in China, (2) compare the policies on the elderly in China and Japan, and (3) provide policy recommendations for the Chinese government. The results showed that China has three main aging problems: (1) an increasing of demand for medical treatment, (2) the empty-nest family problem, and (3) increasing pressure on long-term nursing services. Many elderly policies have long been implemented but are not efficient. Japan was selected to do a comparison because Japan is a super-aged country and it has good experience to cope with aging problems. Through combining the situation of China, the Chinese government should create the way which pay attention to the improvement of policies for the elderly and implement target measures for all levels of aging.
Us- China’s Disagreement over South China Sea Issues: A Race for Control? An Analysis through Realism’s Lens (Published)
This paper seeks to analyze the main reasons of the disagreement over the South China Sea between the USA and one of the claimants, China. We would go about it using the theory of Realism as a basis of our analysis. This theory claims that nations, as main actors of the international system, interact with each other on the basis of their own interests – military security, economic prosperity etc. In a world where there is no authority over the nations, the latter have to protect themselves on their own means. The disputes in South China Sea are fuelled by the value maritime space and the oceanic resources values. Actually, the nation that controls the sea, can hold any of the littoral countries to ransom. The dependence of China on imported oil and due to the fact that most of its oil imports are shipped through the South China Sea, pushes it to protect its sea lanes, secure its access to closer oceanic resources and protect its territory from potential attacks that could be launched from South China Sea. Being a transit lane for both regional and international trades, many countries are also concerned about the conflicts. One of them is the United States. The United States’ concern is strongly influenced by its will to maintain its own influence in the area.
In this paper, we discuss NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations) and NPOs (Non-Profit Organizations) in general and focus on the advertising strategy NGOs should undertake. More specifically, we compare and contrast the NGO history in South Africa and China, its corresponding past advertising, and implications for advertising strategy for Chinese NGOs going forward.
SHIFTING GLOBAL ECONOMIC PARADIGM (Published)
The 21st century was started with the dawn of a new economic puzzle of China’s fast economic growth. It has surprised the economists. The Chinese constant upward growth has shifted economic paradigm and the axis of growth appear to have been shifted from the western hemisphere to the eastern hemisphere. Some economists term it a 21st century miracle. The author has determined to test this miracle through empirical framework. Main research question of this study to explore the answer of the question why China is recording consistent rapid economic growth? Is this growth in the same way as other developed countries experienced in the past or is it a new phenomenon-a shift in global economic paradigm.The objective of this empirical analysis is to investigate into the causes of fast economic growth of China in the context whether this growth pattern is a normal phenomenon or an indicator of shifting global economic paradigm.Our study is spread over a period starting from 1980 to 2011 because of the introduction of economic reforms and massive economic growth. We have collected data from different sources such as China Bureau of National Statistics, IMF, World Bank and relevant research Journals and books. The selected variables for this research paper are: labour productivity, investment, exports, Research and Development expenses, capital stock, open door policy, real exchange rate and US GDP. We used ordinary least square (OLS) model to measure change in the selected variables. Five tests were used to test the stability of the model. The Econometric results show that international trade and investment in capital stock and R&D expenses by Chinese Government are the major determinants, which are responsible for enhancing labour productivity and output in the long-run, Similarly, real exchange rate appears as an important determinant to explain change in output in the long-run
BOON OR BANE: ASSESSING THE ENVIRONMENT OF CHINA’S FREE TRADE AGREEMENTS WITH OTHER NATIONS (Published)
In recent years, China has drawn a lot of attention, not only due to its rapid economic development and the WTO accession, but also due to its active attitude towards regional economic development. China, as the world’s leading producer, also looks for multiple markets to decrease the chances of any major setback of economy in future. In these lines, China has recently signed Free Trade Agreements with different nations. This study explores the impact of China’s Free Trade Agreement with other countries. APEC is the first step for this initiative, followed by bilateral trade agreements or regional trade agreements with other economies, mostly neighboring economies. China, a developing country, whose experience, would provide some insights for free trade agreements among other developing economies. This paper also explores the present situation and motives behind China’s FTA engagement through analysis of last five years and bilateral trade of China with other countries and FTA partners. A thorough analysis suggests that China has gained real benefits from FTAs which have helped China boost its exports to the world. This paper further explains that as a dominating partner in these agreements, China has obtained substantial advantage after signing these agreements. This study also suggests that China can establish win-win relationships in its targeted market by providing mutual benefits to its counterparts.
Vol 2, Issue 5, October 2014 (Published)
CHINA – NIGERIA RELATIONS: PROSPECTS AND CHALLENGES (Review Completed - Accepted)
The study centred on China- Nigeria Relations. China-Nigeria Relation spans a wide spectrum of areas: politics, trade, investment, aid, technology, science, culture, education, health and military. The growing economic ties between China and Nigeria require detailed analysis to determine the prospects and challenges so as to ascertain the benefits on both sides. Qualitative analysis was the main anchor and its descriptive in nature, drawing largely from secondary sources from analytical standpoint. The prospects are: adequate infrastructure in Nigeria through China’s financial resources will improve investment climate in the country, ability to do quality work at a fast rate, simplification of their access to capital, strengthen infrastructure, revive the agricultural sector, china provide trade not aid, Nigerians could borrow from Chinese character of discipline, purposeful leadership and deliverability, China’s investment focus in agriculture, light industry, machinery, infrastructure, construction, information technology and tourism will be added impetus to Nigerian Economy. Nigeria may gain from technical assistance and scientific cooperation. The Challenges are: Domestic firms may lose as a result of lack of competitiveness, trade imbalance, stifles technological transfer, tax evasion, slave wages, poor working conditions, Economic inequality, uncoordinated leadership and policy. Strong pressure must be placed on Nigerian leaders to effectively balance Chinese engagement to maximize growth and opportunity.
In recent decades, the potential contribution of military expenditure to economic growth has been a subject of much controversy among development economists. While some contend that military expenditure has an adverse effect on economic growth as it crowds out investment. Others are of the view that military spending improves economic performance as it tends to expand aggregate demand. Taking advantage of recent developments in time series econometric methods, this paper re-examines the relationships between military expenditure and economic growth in China, from annual data for the period 1980–2011. The study used autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) to test for the long-run and short run relationships while granger causality techniques used to examine the direction of causation. The results however indicate that there is an inverse relationship between economic growth and military spending in the short run while the long run results suggest that the correlation among the variables is inconclusive. Similarly, the granger causality tests revealed a unidirectional relationship running from GDP to military spending.
A Study on the functions of western cultural non-verbal behavior in English classroom in China (Review Completed - Accepted)
In China, English classroom is the main place of English language acquisition. Therefore, how to improve English classroom teaching effectively has become the scholars’ concern. This paper reports a study conducted at North China Electric Power University on the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom in China. Questionnaires with both close-ended and open-ended questions were distributed to the students. By means of quantitative and qualitative research methods, this paper analyzed the functions of western cultural nonverbal behaviors in English classroom and found that：1) as a foreign language teacher you need not only to speak foreign language but also transmit cultural knowledge to students； 2) the nonverbal behaviors which reflect the western culture can have the positive effects on second language learning. 3) non-verbal behavior should be involved in the teaching and learning processes