Tag Archives: children


This study sought to determine the echocardiographic profile of paediatric patients with RHD at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH), Eldoret, Kenya. It employed a cross sectional study carried out between October 2009 and October 2010 in the general peadiatric wards, paediatric outpatient clinic and cardiology clinic at the MTRH. The study subjects were children with RHD aged 3 to 15 years, in total, Eighty four children (28 boys and 56 girls) with RHD were enrolled. Consecutive sampling was done. Data was collected in a structured questionnaire and analyzed using Genstat discovery. From the study findings, most new patients presented in NYHA class 3 and 4. Mitral regurgitation alone was the commonest lesion, followed by mitral regurgitation + aortic regurgitation. New patients had echocardiographic evidence of severe valvular disease and complication implying late presentation. Since most of the new patients had severe disease at diagnosis, emphasis should be put on early detection and primary prevention

Keywords: Echocardiographic, children, paediatric, profile


Marriage instability has hindered the growth and progress of many homes and children in Nigeria. Many factors could be responsible for this disappointing situation. The study therefore focused on identifying effects of marital instability on children in Abeokuta Metropolis. A descriptive research method was adopted for the study. The total numbers of two hundred and fifty one (251) respondents were selected from Abeokuta Metropolis using stratified and systematic sampling technique with the use questionnaires to collect information from respondents who participated in the study. The data collected were carefully analysed using percentages supported by chi-square to represent the raw data in a meaningful manner. it was discovered that children of divorced/separated are prone to drug addiction, armed robbery, commercial sex workers and other forms of criminal activity, not only that they also tend to go wayward, naughty, unruly and rebellious. The study also established that children who grow up in a single parent family are more likely to be used for trafficking, rituals and house helps than the children who grow up in an intact family. It is therefore recommended that family counselling be emphasized by the stakeholders (government, religious leaders, and counsellors to minimise instability in the family and effort should be intensified to discourage marital discord

Keywords: Marital Instability; Divorce, Marriage, Metropolis, Separated, children, family

Children Use of Gestures to Communicate In Second Language (Review Completed - Accepted)

This article is an attempt to investigate whether the gestures used by children effect their communication in English. This study explored how children communicate in the second language by using gestures. It determines whether children’s nonverbal behaviors or gestures are positive in communicating in the second language when the children are tired too. This study was done with two boys: namely; Mohammad and Abolfazl, with the age of 7 and 5 respectively, they are learning English language at their home. They are brothers and they are the researcher nephews. They have been taught English for more than 6 months. Of course, it should be mentioned that they can, to some extent, speak English. The researcher has used different pictorial and visual instruments to teach them to talk and communicate in English language, but most of the times, they made use of their gestures to say their purposes. The researcher made use of a kind of video recording at the times of reading the books, watching the films ,and having the snacks and meals. The result shows that the actions accompanied with gestures are more meaningful and communicative, and they learning are fostered and they are more motivated. So it will indicate that children use of gestures to communicate in English is one of the best ways to be used even for the time that they cannot remember the words or when they are too tired to talk

Keywords: Communicate, Fostered, Gestures, Videotaped, children

Parents’ Ethnic Socialization Practices in Shaping Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem of Children in Malaysia (Published)

Parents’ Ethnic Socialization practices play important role in shaping their children’s ethnic identity and is also important for other developmental and behavioral outcomes such as self-esteem, and academic achievement. The present study examined the role of parents’ ethnic socialization practices in shaping ethnic identity and self-esteem of children. A total of 342 children (ages ranging from 10-14 years old) participated in the present study. The modified version of Multi group Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM), The Familial Ethnic Socialization Measure (FESM) and The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) were used in this study. The results showed that: i) parents’ ethnic socialization practices were strong predictor of ethnic identity development and self-esteem of the children; iii) the children with a greater ethnic identity exploration exhibited higher self-esteem. The results of this study showed the implications for parents’ ethnic socialization practices in successful multi ethnic families for better child development outcomes.

Keywords: Ethnic Identity development, Parents’ Ethnic Socialization Practices, children, self-esteem