Comparative Studies of the Antimicrobial Activities of Different Chewing Sticks on Some Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms (Review Completed - Accepted)
The crude aqueous and methanol extract of the chewing sticks were assessed for antimicrobial activity and the active principles present in them. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol and aqueous extract of ten (10) different types of chewing sticks were determined against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extract was tested against bacteria likeStapylococcusaureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, βeta. haemolytic streptococcus, Bacillus subtilisATCC 6633, ShigellaflexneriATCC 12022, SerratiamarscenceATCC 39006, EnterobacteraerogensATCC 13045, Proteus mirabilisATCC 2598, and fungi such as Candida albicans, Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusniger, and Aspergillusfumigatus. The methanol crude extract of the chewing sticks have greater zone of inhibition compare with the aqueous extracts. All plants tested displayed antimicrobial activityes against one or more of the tested organisms but Fagarazanthoxyloidesshows greater antibacterial against Escherichia coli 40mm, Stapylococcusaureus34mm, while Disthemonanthusbenthamianusdisplayed the highest antifungal activity against Candida albican with 11mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each active values were as well determined using agar well diffusion method. The chewing sticks contain antimicrobial agents though the concentration and composition of the bioactive substances may differ amongst the plants.The result showed that the extract of the plants also possessed some active principles such as tannin, phenol, steroid, saponin, alkaloid, anthraquinones. Thus, the chewing sticks extract may serve as sources for chemotherapeutic agents for the management of Orofacial infections caused by broad spectrum pathogenic organisms and could also be suitable for better dental care. It is concluded that methanol extract and aqueous extract of the chewing sticks exhibited significant amount of antimicrobial and trace amount of antifungal.