Long before the era of high through-put screening and genomics, drug discovery relied heavily on natural products. Drug discovery involves the identification of New Chemical Entities (NCEs) of potential therapeutic value, which can be obtained through isolation from natural sources, through chemical synthesis or a combination of both. However, the success stories for the discoveries Penicillin from penecilium rubens, Paclitaxel yew tree and marketed as Taxol, Aspirin from Willow bark of Salix alba tree etc. have pave way for scholars in the field of natural product and organic chemistry to focus their research work in drug-derived from plants and microorganisms. Natural products derived from these sources are rich in bioactive compound, which have been use over years throughout human history and evolution as remedies for various ailments. This paper however, X-rayed the sources and classes of natural products, pharmaceuticals derived from Natural product, and uses of natural products. The paper also recommended among others that, government should fund research in the area of natural products, pharmaceutical chemistry and pharmacognocy.
The Comparison between the Chalk and the Holderness Glacial Till Water Chemistry, North Humberside (Published)
The research work was about the hydrochemical of this catchment, in respect of the interactions between the Holderness glacial till and the underlying Chalk. Gross variations in ground water quality in the North Humberside Chalk were recognised and suggested that poor quality water from the Chalk in the Holderness area was an indicator of minimal ground water circulation. This work was devised to resolve outstanding uncertainties of the direct connection between the Holderness glacial till and the underlying Chalk and to improve understanding which has thereby resulted will be of value in the interpretation of the hydrochemical behaviour of this catchment and any similar areas of glacial till underlying Chalk.
The undermentioned theory is aimed to simplify the study of elements described in periodic table. The theory is formulated to ascertain the location of the elements as described in the periodic table without using the periodic table. The theory provides the simpler medium to find out the group number as well as period number which can be further utilized to study properties of elements.
Identification of the Mathematics Concepts That Are Relevant in the Study of Chemistry at the Secondary School Level in Nigeria (Published)
This study focused on identification of mathematics concepts that are relevant in chemistry education at the secondary school level. The study is a descriptive research design and the area of the study was Abakaliki education zone of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The sample comprised of 73 teachers (38 mathematics teachers and 35 chemistry teachers). Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The questionnaire was made up of two sections for mathematics and chemistry teachers. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. Based on the findings from the data analysis, recommendations were made and it includes; the chemistry teachers should be exposed to programmes that would enable them to acquire more knowledge on mathematical aspects of chemistry. Training programmes should be organized which will bring the chemistry and mathematics teachers together to share their views on certain concepts in mathematics among others.
Green Chemistry: a Panacea for Environmental Sustainability Agriculture in Global Perspective (Published)
The environment is a very important component necessary for the existence of both man through agriculture. Agriculture is one of the oldest and global sources of human livelihood. Producing food, transportation, and energy for teeming population has led to large and widespread increases in the use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuel combustion, resulting in a leakage of N into the environment as various forms of air ,soil and water pollution. Information for the paper was through secondary data, in which principles of green chemistry, impact of pesticides and inorganic fertilizers were discussed with the confirmation of negative impacts through their applications in agriculture. Sustainable Agricultural Applications in Green Chemistry was discussed and bio-pesticides and bio-fertilizers were recommended as an alternative tools . Green Chemistry aims not only for safer products, less hazardous consequences to the environment, saving energy and water, but includes broader issues which can promote in the end Sustainable Development. The beginning of green chemistry is frequently considered as a response to the need to reduce the damage of the environment by man-made materials and the processes used to produce them.
Investigating the Availability and the Extent of Use of Instructional Materials by Secondary School Chemistry Teachers in Nigeria (Published)
This study focused on level of utilization of available instructional materials, teacher made instructional materials and the obstacles faced by the chemistry teachers during improvisation of the teacher made instructional materials in Ebonyi State secondary schools.397 chemistry teachers from the 212 government owned secondary schools in Ebonyi State formed the population. Because of the small size of the population, no sampling was done. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection; it was validated by 3 experts from Science Education Department, one expert from Measurement and Evaluation and the other 2 from chemistry education. The reliability of the instrument was determined to be 0.81. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. 3 research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The 3 research questions were answered using mean statistics while the hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using the z-test statistics. The findings revealed that teachers are not utilizing effectively the available instructional materials in their teaching, the chemistry teachers are not making enough efforts in improvisation of those instructional materials that are not available and that the teachers faced obstacles such as lack of fund and skill for the improvisation of instructional materials. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made a number of recommendations that would help the teachers in their instructional delivery.
Impact of Instructional Scaffolding on Students’ Achievement in Chemistry In Secondary Schools In Ebonyi State Of Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated effects of instructional scaffolding on achievement of senior secondary students in chemistry in Ebonyi State of Nigeria. It also studied the interactive effects of scaffolding and gender on achievement of senior secondary school students in chemistry. Three research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. The method of data collection was experimental, were simple random sampling technique was applied to select a total sample of ninety (90) students from the ten secondary schools used for the study. The instruments for data collection were chemistry scaffolding Achievement Test (CSAT) for the treatment group and Conventional Instructional Package (CIP) for the control group. Mean and standard deviation were used for the analysis of the data. The hypotheses were tested using ANCOVA at the level of significance of 0.05. The reliability of the instrument was calculated using Kuder-Richardson (K-R20) procedure, from which a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. Table 1 presented result on the effect of instructional scaffolding on senior secondary school students’ achievement in chemistry. The result obtained from Table 2 on effect of gender on students’ achievement using scaffolding method proved that the male students performed better than the female students. Table 3, which presented result on interactive effects of scaffolding and gender revealed that there is no significant interaction, as both performed well. The researcher made the following recommendations. Teachers should regularly apply instructional scaffolding method to enhance the effectiveness of their instructions; students should abide by scaffolding method of instruction when adopted by the teacher to enhance retention and long term learning; and the school authorities should on regular basis supervise classroom instructions to promote the application of instructional scaffolding by the teachers