Tag Archives: Chemical composition.

Varietal Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Field Performance and Yield of Some Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined eleven improved cassava varieties that could be recommended to farmers for higher productivity in order to meet the high demand for cassava produce in the sub region. The eleven cassava varieties include TMS 01/1371, TMS 96/1632, TMS 98/0510, TME 419, TMS 98/0581, TMS 01/1368, TMS 07/0593, TMS 98 / 0505, TMS 30572, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 95/0289. The field performance evaluated include: plant height, leaf number, number branched, fresh tuber yield and dry weight. Immediately after harvest, the tubers were analyzed for chemical composition such as hydrogen cyanide, percentage moisture content, fibre and starch for each of the varieties. Results of the study showed significant (P<0.05) variation on the performances of the various improve cassava varieties studied. The top seven high yielding varieties among the studied varieties intense of fresh tuber yield which is a product of high growth performance as revealed by the results of this experiment include TMS 01/1371 > TMS 01/1368 > TME 419 > TMS 98/0505 > TMS 98/0581 > TMS 30572 and TMS 92/0326 in decreasing order. Similarly, low cyanide content and early high dry matter content such as starch and fibre evaluation of the studied varieties significantly (P<0.05) revealed TME 419 as the best performed followed by TMS 98/0505 > TMS 30572 > TMS 01/1368 > TMS 01/1371 and TMS 07/0593 in decreasing order. These varieties could be recommended for rapid stem multiplication and distribution to farmers for cultivation and consumption in Rivers State and Nigeria at large to increase the quantity of cassava products. With these selected improved varieties, adequate agronomic practices and processing, cassava yield and product quality could be bettered with less land use and labor.

 

Keywords: Chemical composition., Growth Performance, Varieties, Yield, cassava

Assessment of Chemical Composition, Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance in Tetrapluera Tetraptera Fruits (Published)

Fruits of six genotypes of Tetrapluera tetraptera collected from six States in Southern Nigeria were analyzed for proximate, minerals, vitamins and phytochemical composition. The aims were to determine nutrient composition as well as variations among them, estimate the proportions of heritable and non heritable components, and expected genetic advance. The determinants were replicated 3 times in completely randomized design. Analysis of variance showed that proximate, minerals, vitamins and phytochemical were significant (P< 0.01). The results showed that the fruit is a good source of essential nutrients, minerals (potassium, iron, and calcium), vitamins A, B-complex; C and E. Heritable variations among the genotypes were observed in their ether, protein, crude fibre, potassium and Vitamin A contents. Selection based on these traits could lead to improvement of nutritional and phytochemical composition of T. tetraptera fruits, for more availability and consumption by average Nigerians.

Keywords: Chemical composition., Genetic Advance, Heritability, Tetrapluera Tetraptera Fruits, variability

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of the Oleoresin from the Clove Buds (Syzygium Aromaticum) (Published)

The chemical composition and antioxidant activities of the oleoresin from clove buds were investigated in this work. The results showed that 20 compositions of the oleoresin were identified, and eugenol (72.85%) was found to be the main components of the oleoresin, followed by eugenyl acetate (10.54%), β-caryophyllene (4.54%), and d-cadinene (3.88%). The oleoresin from clove buds had the better scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salts (ABTS) radicals, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation reaction in lard emulsion, as well as exhibited different protection effects against DNA damage caused by Fe2+ and 2,2′-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). And the antioxidant activities of oleoresin showed a dose-response relationship to some degree. However, the oleoresin did not have the protection against protein damage, but had a prooxidant effect on protein oxidative damage.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Chemical composition., Free radical, Oleoresin

Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of the Oleoresin from the Clove Buds (Syzygium Aromaticum) (Published)

The chemical composition and antioxidant activities of the oleoresin from clove buds were investigated in this work. The results showed that 20 compositions of the oleoresin were identified, and eugenol (72.85%) was found to be the main components of the oleoresin, followed by eugenyl acetate (10.54%), β-caryophyllene (4.54%), and d-cadinene (3.88%). The oleoresin from clove buds had the better scavenging capacity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2, 2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salts (ABTS) radicals, and inhibiting lipid peroxidation reaction in lard emulsion, as well as exhibited different protection effects against DNA damage caused by Fe2+ and 2,2′-azobis (2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride (AAPH). And the antioxidant activities of oleoresin showed a dose-response relationship to some degree. However, the oleoresin did not have the protection against protein damage, but had a prooxidant effect on protein oxidative damage.

Keywords: Antioxidant activity, Chemical composition., Free radical, Oleoresin

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF ORIGANUM MAJORANA L. (LAMIACEAE) AND SALVIA OFFICINALIS (L.) (LAMIACEAE) UNDER BRUCHUS LENTIS (COLEOPTERA, CHRYSOMELIDAE) (Published)

To assess the biological activity of origanum majorana essential oils and salvia officinalis, 6 concentrations were tested as fumigation against Bruchus lentis (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) high on lentil seeds. Essential oils from two plants affect biological parameters weevil. The main components are marjoram: Trans Sabinene hydrate (26,64%), Terpinen-4-ol (17,08%) and o-Cymene (6,29%), while those of sage are: α-Thujone (20,52%), Eucalyptol (12,39%) and γ-Gurjunene (11,13%). The survival time of 50% of adults exposed to different concentrations of essential oils ranges from less than 24 hours to about 4 days depending on the concentration, while in the control group, in live adult average of 7 to 11 days. After 48h the letal concentration LC50 fumigation marjoram is 10,28μl/ l while that of the sage is 13,42μl/l. The intensity of the impact of the essential oil is directly dependent on their concentrations. The essential oils of officinal sage and marjoram studied can be integrated into management weevils, stored and associated with the pulses thus replace the phosphine and methyl bromide.

Keywords: Bruchus lentis, Chemical composition., Fumigants, LC50, LT50, Origanum majorana, Salvia officinalis

ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL FROM THE MOROCCAN FENNEL FRUITS (Published)

Keywords: Antimicrobial properties, Chemical composition., Essential oil, Foeniculum vulgare mill.

Testing for NDVRL Using Nonparametric Kernel Method (Review Completed - Accepted)

Using the nonparametric “kernel methods” of curve fitting, a new approach is
taken for testing exponentiality versus net decreasing variance residual lifetime
(NDVRL). The test is proposed for complete and censored data. The Pitman’s asymptotic
relative efficiency to test for other classes is discussed. Selected critical values are
tabulated. Some numerical simulations on the power estimates are presented for the
proposed test. Numerical examples are presented for illustrative our test purpose

Keywords: Antimicrobial properties, Chemical composition., Essential oil, Foeniculum vulgare mill.