An Approach to Reevaluating and Understanding Chekhov in the Perspective of Theme, Motif, Symbol and Writing Style (Published)
Anthon Chekhov can strikingly be marked out for his artistic ingenuity in composing his short stories imbued with cornucopia of ideas with pinpoint accuracy. He has amassed so many cutting edge ideas which represent the matter of opinions which can be often described as a sense of sentimental, emotive, equivocal, weird, funny, and even haunting and taunting . A gushing outlet of emotional intelligence and essence of life are found in Anthon Chekhov’s writing. Chekhovian short stories do not let the reader a solid message rather it caters to the readers to give room to extract the themes of the stories from abyss of twist and turn . Russian literature owes to Chekhov by large for he got the nerves of the Russian people and their turn of mind. His delineation of the characters is enshrouded in delicate touch and his dealings with the characters has an emollient tone. His experiential learning with the social maladies bounds him to present the scenario of decadent, corroding and worked-up society of Russia. His play with the word also contributes to the creation of the characterization more sharply and nicely. His words are woven into inviting creation with a single thread polished with fine texture. His plot is pregnant with comical references resulting in presenting the malaise of Russian society. Broadly speaking, his writing has always been the showcases of human characters and complexities of the world.
Ethnography of Communication is a novel approach that relates language with the cultural norms, values and the speaking rules that are specific to a particular speech community. Duranti (1997)1 defines Ethnography as follows:” Ethnography is the written description of the social organization, social activities, symbolic and material resources, and interpretive practices characteristic of a particular group of people”. A number of scholars including Dell Hymes (1962)2 Sherzer (1983)3, Hill and Hill (1986)4 and Saville-Troike (2003)5 worked in the framework of ethnography of communication. Though the studies made by all ethnographers generally focus on the spoken language in a community, it is possible to extend the above frameworks to the analysis of short stories in view of the fact that many short stories are not merely narratives from a third person point of view but involve dialogues between characters. Often the speech patterns, expressions, motivations and the logical deductions they make are in conformity with the particular society they belong to. In particular, the SPEAKING Model evolved by Dell Hymes (1974)6 is found to be highly adaptable to the analysis of short stories.
The Dualistic Mode of the Divided Heroism in Heart of Darkness and Season of Migration to the North (Published)
This paper analyses the Dualistic Mode of the Divided Heroism in Heart Darkness and Season of Migration to the North. Heart of Darkness is a novel by the Polish-British novelist Joseph Conrad, about a voyage up the Congo River into the Congo Free State, in the heart of Africa, by the story’s narrator Marlow. Marlow tells his story to friends aboard a boat anchored on the River Thames, London, England. And in Season of Migration to the North the unnamed narrator has returned to his native village in the Sudan after seven years in England furthering his education. On his arrival home, the Narrator encounters a new villager named Mustafa Sa’eed who exhibits none of the adulation for his achievements that most others do, and he displays an antagonistically aloof nature. Mustafa betrays his past one drunken evening by wistfully reciting poetry in fluent English, leaving the narrator resolute to discover the stranger’s identity. The story of Mustafa’s troubled past in Europe, and in particular his love affairs with British women, form the center of the novel. The narrator then discovers that the stranger, Mustafa Sa’eed, awakens in him great curiosity, despair and anger, as Mustafa emerges as his doppelganger. The novel has also been related in many senses to Heart of Darkness by the author Joseph Conrad. Both novels explore cultural hybridity, cross-colonial experiences, and orientalism. The paper tries to clarify the divided heroism in Heart of Darkness through Kurtz and Marlowe, while in Season of Migration to the North through the anonymous narrator and Mustafa Saeed.