Enhancement of the Nutritive and Sensory Characteristics of Bambara Nut Steamed Paste (Okpa) By Process Modification (Published)
This work assessed the enhancement of the nutritive and sensory characteristics of Bambara nut (Vigna subterranea) steamed paste (okpa) by process modification. Mature seeds of bambara nut were cleaned and divided into six portions. One portion was milled and sieved; the second portion was further divided into two sub-portions, milled and sieved; the third portion was fermented by steeping in fresh water (25±20C) for 48h, oven-dried (600C), milled and sieved. The fourth was allowed to sprout after 48h, oven-dried (600C), milled and sieved while the fifth and sixth portions were boiled for 8h and oven-dried; and roasted till brown, milled and sieved respectively. Each flour was reconstituted with potable water, with ingredients added and processed into steamed paste by cooking for 1h., except for the 2 sub-portions in the second portion to which 48h and 72h fermented ugba was incorporated and similarly steamed into okpa. The samples were subjected to proximate and sensory evaluations. A generally significant (P<0.05) increase was obtained in crude protein, ash, crude fibre, fat and carbohydrate contents, respectively; from the control steamed paste (CSP), 4.04g100g-1 to 6.66g100g-1 in the fermented steamed paste (FSP); 2.96g100g-1to 4.288g/100-1 in Bambara nut + 72h fermented steamed paste (UFSP2); 0.95g100-1 to 9.55g100g-1 in the boiled steamed paste (BSP); 14.80g100-1 to 20.60g100g-1 in BSP; and 13.95g-1 to 20.49g100g-1 in roasted steamed paste (RSP).The germinated steamed paste (GSP) had the highest moisture content (68.85%) while BSP had the least (51.90%) UFSP2 was the most highly acceptable sample. Process modification of Bambara groundnut produced okpa samples with enhanced nutritive value. While FSP had the highest protein content, UFSP2 had the highest mineral content, the least fat and the most highly acceptable.
Characteristics and Composition of Fermentation Containers, Its Effect on Ph and Some Functional Properties for Effective and Sustainable Fermentation of Locust Beans (Parkia biglobosa) (Published)
The choice for type of container to be used for effective and sustainable fermentation of locust bean (Iru) has been of contention by local processors having preference for some materials over others. Calabash gourd, highly dense polyethylene (plastic) and stainless steel were used to ferment locust bean for a threshold of 72 hrs. pH of significant difference p<0.005 was obtained from calabash gourd 6.02, plastic 5.95, and stainless steel 5.8. Insignificant differences were obtained in bulk density, water absorption capacity and oil absorption capacity.Iheke et al 2017 reported increase in pH with fermentation time and Olasupo et al 2016 reported a threshold of pH 8.2 after four days of fermentation. The three respective containers have low thermal and electrical conductivities but calabash, a polymer of lignin fused with cellulose has the lowest thermal and electrical conductivities of 0.163W/MK and 0.01 W/mK at 25oc respectively, followed by plastic a polymer of polyethylene with 0.4W/Mk and 0.44W/mK at 25oc respectively, and stainless steel an alloy of Iron, Chromium, Nickel, Molybdenum, Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen having the highest values of 15 W/mK and 16W/Mk at 25o c. The insulating capacity and ability to retain and sustain heat in a closed system is inversely proportional to both thermal and electrical conductivities.
Characteristics of English Teachers as Motivative Factor on Reading Performance among Private and Public Secondary Schools in Kano Metropolise (Published)
This study examined the relationship among English Teachers’ academic qualification. Professional qualification, their content knowledge and work value. English Teachers’ attendance and job satisfaction on academic performance of secondary school students in private and public secondary schools in Kano metropolis. The study adopted a descriptive research design of correlation type. The secondary school English Teachers in private and public secondary schools in Kano metropolis were selected using multi-stage sampling technique and 342 teachers were selected at random using balloting for the study. Out of 2456 teachers teaching in the Kano metropolis. Questionnaire termed English Teachers’ Characteristics on Reading Performance Questionnaire (ETCRPQ). Two research questions and hypotheses were answered in the study. Based on the results of this study, the following findings were arrived at; English Teachers’ variables in general influence student’s reading performance in a number of ways in private and public schools. Based on the findings of study the following recommendations are proposed to relevant educational authorities and other stakeholders in education: English Teachers variables should be considered in the recruitment of staff in the senior secondary schools. The ministry of Education should organize regular professional development programmes for English Teachers.
Students’ Characteristics and Information Resources Utilization in the University of Uyo Library (Published)
This study examined students’ characteristics and information resources utilization in the University of Uyo library. To carry out the study, two specific objectives were formulated from which two research questions and two hypotheses were drawn. Out of the population of 9694 registered undergraduate students in the University of Uyo library for 2013/2014 academic session, the sample size of 484 registered undergraduate students were purposively sampled for the study. Data were collected for the study through the administration of 25 – item questionnaire tagged “Students’ Characteristics and Information Resources Utilization Questionnaire” (SCIRUQ). The data obtained were analyzed using mean score, standard deviation and Pearson Moment Correlation Coefficient (PPMC). The findings showed that there is significant relationship between age and students’ utilization of University of Uyo library information resources. It also showed that there is significant relationship between gender and students’ utilization of University of Uyo library information resources, The study concluded that though students of all ages and gender utilize the information resources in the library. One of the recommendations was that University libraries need to adopt the computerized methods to access and utilize information resources in the library.
The Legal Nature of the Marriage Contract (Published)
This paper provides an analysis of the concept of a marriage contract, its characteristics, the difference between the civil code contracts and the terms of validity. Albanian civil code provides the marriage contract, which is a very important step in family relations, especially in the relationship between spouses, given the social position of women, but these changes did not find a suitable ground due to the patriarchal mentality of albanian society, which brought its implementation in rare cases in the field of family relations. Nowadays, spouses have the opportunity not only to contract on the property regime to which they will be subjected, but also beyond. The marriage contract is not limited to the determination of rights and obligations. It has the main purpose of fixing the wealth status of the family to be established, in terms of wealth rather than administration, determining the fate of most of the legal acts that spouses will do with third parties during their common life. Therefore, it can be considered as the “statute” of the family. The marriage contract represents the general rule in terms of regulating the property regime between the spouses. In the case when the latter have not signed a marriage contract, or it is invalid or related only to a part of the property, they will be subject to the property regime of the legal community.