The aim of this study is to examine Spenser’s last major poems— Prothalamion, Fowre Hymnes, and Mutability Cantos-—to show that though they differ greatly from one another, they all, like the second half of the Faerie Queen, share a retrospective quality, looking back on the earlier poetry from the perspective of middle age. They deal in various ways with time, change, and the uses of the imagination, where in each, the speaker works through a sequence of imaginings toward a more comprehensive, if not to a final, vision. Fowre Hymnes was published in 1596 with a reprint of Daphna Ida. In the dedication to the Countesses of Cumberland and Warwick, Spenser asserts that he wrote the first two in honor of earthly love and beauty in the “greener times of [his] youth,” but finding “that the same loo much pleased those of like age and disposition, which being too vehemently carried with that kind of affection, do rather suck out poison to their strong passion, than honey to their honest delight, I was moved by the one of you two most excellent Ladies, to call in the same” (YESP 690). Since too many copies of these hymns had got abroad for them to be recalled, he “resolved at least to amend, and by way of retractation to reform them” with two hymns of heavenly love and beauty The dedication thus, as William Oram reflects in “Introduction: Spenser’s Para texts,” gives the four poems a biographical structure (xxi): the first two are the work of youth, while the second pair embody the second thoughts—the revision—of wiser age. It raises questions of biography (how accurate is this account of their genesis?) and of meaning (how are the first hymns opposed to the later ones?).
Indigenous Capital Formation Institutions among the Igbo: Factors for Change, 1914 2014. (Published)
For some time now, there has been a growing concern on how the ordinary man and woman in the town and rural communities of Africa can raise capital to start some micro-business and, thus, reduce poverty, and improve his or her standard of living. Within the period covered by this paper, successive governments and financial institutions have tried to address this challenge with little or no success. However, specifically for capital formation among the Igbo of southeast Nigeria, there exist traditional institutions through which the people raised resources to attend to their community and individual needs. These include, among others, Contribution Clubs, Family and Extended Family Pools, Age Grade Associations, Title Taking/Societies, Pawning, Inheritance, Land/Economic Trees Pledging, Imachi Nkwu and other Fruit Trees, Ilu – Elulu (Keeping Custody of Domestic Animal) and Ili – Ichi (Burial of Umbilical Cord). Consequently, this paper surveys those aspects of the traditional economic institutions that have become changed, transformed, or modified. Both internal and external forces have affected the traditional institutions for capital formation among the Igbo of southeast Nigeria, mostly by the later. This has caused the indigenous finance institutions to become altered from their original states. The paper concludes that in spite of the changes and modifications that had occurred overtime, the indigenous finance institutions have continued to exist. The descriptive and analytical methods were adopted in writing this paper. The period covered is 1914 to 2014.
Contributions of Various Kenyan Personalities in Communicating Change For Transformative Community (Published)
In spite of relatively stable governance and a hard working population, Kenya is rated among the countries with wide income disparities. Extreme and chronic poverty has not been eliminated even after fifty years of development efforts, that is, since the country gained its independence in 1963. In mitigating the adverse effects of these inequalities, communication is considered an essential tool for transformation through which essential thoughts in the minds of the people aimed at transformation are nurtured and shared. The purpose of this study was to identify the contributions made by various Kenyan personalities whose life experiences are shared in this paper, in communication change for a transformative society. The study displays how the select Kenyans engaged with the people and got them involved in transforming their community. A qualitative research design was adopted to select ten Kenyans to share their life experiences through in-depth interviews that were used by the author to gather data. Data analysis focused on the participants’ narratives on the aspect of their personal contributions and how they got the community working towards sustainable change. The study also recommends development of an African Communication Theory on what motivates communicative acts that lead to societal transformation.
Effects of Individual Differences on Staff Social Status and Academic Performance of Students in Nigerian Universities (A Study of Selected University in FCT Abuja) (Published)
This investigation explores effects of individual differences on staff social status and academic performance of students in Nigerian Universities with specific reference to selected Universities in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria. There are few societies around the world that ascribe everyone (at least adults) equal status, most societies do have some form of social hierarchy with some people in stronger, more dominant positions, and other people in weaker, lower positions. This inequity is built into the social system itself through various forms of structural components and institutions. Social and economic roles are distinguished and accorded different status according to what a particular society or culture deems valuable. Social status is the degree of honor or prestige attached to one’s position in society. The perception of social status is very wide and many aspects can contribute to elucidate on the hierarchies of social status. Achievement, individual merit, wealth, occupation, family background and style of life might explain individuals’ social status within a social group. The objectives of this paper are to: Determine the extent, to which certain domain of individual characteristics attributes one to acquire prestigious position in Nigerian Universities; ascertain the degree to which staff social status impact positively on the performance of staff of Nigerian Universities, and examine the intensity to which individual differences and social status influences students academic performance. The researcher adopted secondary methods of data collection in the review of related literature with specific reference to management journals, periodicals and internet, while primary information was sourced from key informants in the selected Nigerian Universities and analysis and test of hypotheses was done with the use of F test statistical techniques. The results of the study indicate that certain domain of individual characteristics causes one to acquire prestigious position in Nigerian Universities and the intensity of individual differences and social status influences student’s academic performance. It was recommended that institutions should review individual characteristics quarterly to determine which position will best suit individual peculiarity than individual struggling to acquire prestigious position in Nigerian Universities. This will enhance competition and the desire for better attitude to work and performance by all staff.
Words are used in various forms and styles as political language for the achievement of a specific objective in political communication. The President Jonathan’s Great Leaders Election Campaign Advertisement, known as Change is not easy, is the political television commercial analysed, to understand how “change” in other countries in the world is associated with “transformation” in Nigeria, for the generation of voter support. The critical dialectical method used, found that the commercial is an exercise in glittering generalities, as propaganda in political communication. The proposition of “change” as “transformation” was a straw man’s logical fallacy and that the imported comparison of political performance by notable icons globally, has no direct correlation with transformation promised Nigerians, as bait for voter support and endorsement. It means that selected artistic elements in political advertisements must be relevant, through used political language, in the realisation of set objective. It shows that message acceptance and believability are essential in political communication.
Re-Aligning Nursing and Midwifery Practice to Enhance Professionalism: Action Research Perspective (Published)
Leadership Styles as Recipes for Transformation (Published)
The success of any organization depends on the leader and the leadership style use in driving the organizational processes. This makes leadership studies or researches a recurrent exercise. This study therefore attempt to ascertain the leadership styles used by the commissioner in National Insurance Commission, Abuja-Nigeria to motivate and empowers the staff in the commission as well as explore the leadership-change behaviour exhibited by him in introducing change and managing the resistance thereof in the commission. To achieve this, the study relies solely on interview to generate the necessary information that will help in addressing the objectives since the study is a pilot personality-based research. A 15-item structured open-ended interview questions which derive its content from the objectives were used. Since only the commissioner participated in the study, his responses to the questions were taken as the findings of the study. From his responses, it was found that, he used both the transformational and transactional leadership styles in driving the transformation processes in the commission. His unique skills such as visionary, good listener, initiator, communicator, delegator, mediator and a manager was observed to be instrumental in helping him achieve effectiveness in the commission. It was also observed that, participation, delegation, conducive working environment and competitive remuneration package used by the commissioner empowers and motivate the staff in the commission. Again, strategies such as change needs identification, employee participation, communication, training of change agents and the use of palliatives aided the commissioner in successful change implementation. The associated resistance was managed through vigorous publicity of the need for change, feedback mechanism and coaching among others. The study therefore concludes that the success of any organization depends on the leader and his leadership style or styles
Confusing Violent People with Violent Places: An Investigation Of Urban Change And Criminality In Port Harcourt (Review Completed - Accepted)
Indeed some works on urban settlement and crime are skeptical that specific places can be considered a category capable of differentiating social groups base on their controversial status in other sub-areas of sociology, the twin concept of study of crime and urban communities remain important. Social inequality that shared perceptions of social deprivation have been instrumental in creating a distinct community based collective psychological reaction. It is this specific psychological reaction which in theory has made shanty dwellers more aggressive than non-shanty dwellers. In this paper, we show how spatial inequality goes about constructing difference based on a collective psychological reaction to social deprivation. To do this, the study used some assumptions on key variable ‘crime’, income’ and ‘class’. Using regress and regression micro fit 4.1 statistical package, the study revealed that crime in Port Harcourt is not tied to spatial phenomenon but based on the prevalence of certain social forces which determine the dimension and magnitude of crime. The study recommends the inclusion of urban poor in government housing development plan