Intergovernmental Authority on Development and Regional Integration in East Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
This study focuses on the activities of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in promoting regional integration among member countries since its transformation from Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) to IGAD in the 1990s. The data for the study are derived from the secondary sources such as textbooks, articles journals, theses, and other relevant documents both offline and online. The theory of liberal intergovernmentalism is adopted for the purpose of analysis. From the findings, the paper notes that so far, the organization has been able to achieve some objectives, including the establishment of IGAD Climate Prediction Application Centre (ICPAC) which relays reports on climate change to member states every 10 days; establishment of IGAD Women’s Desk in 1994 to Foster gender mainstreaming and promote Women’s participation in IGAD Programmes; mediation etcetera. However, the organization is yet to achieve economic union it proposed in 2009. There are also challenges of incessant conflicts/wars among member states. Equally, the issues of harsh weather conditions-drought and desertification- of the region as well as multiplicity of regional organizations with overlapping membership and functions have equally affected the process of integration among IGAD’s member states. Finally, the study makes some recommendations among which are as follows: Member states should focus more on development programmes that will boost the economy of the region so that the goal of integration can be attained; Member countries should avoid joining several organizations with huge cost implications and concentrate on the ones that can help them achieve regional integration among them; The mediation arm of the organization should be strengthened with proper funding while members should remain neutral during mediation to enable the organization meets it goal of peace in the region, Etcetera.
Challenges on Development and Education of Nomadic Children in Sokoto State: Implications for Education and Sustainability (Published)
Globally, education as birth right and sustainable development in human capacities and societal progress are being pursued with vigour. The nomadic Fulani are the second largest population of inhabitants in Sokoto state. However, they are among marginalised, underserved, underdeveloped and less educated group not only in the state but the country at large. The paper identifies nomadic life styles, inadequacies in policies and provisions for nomadic education and wide spread corruptions as major sources of constraints to development and education of Fulani children thus affecting the sustainable development prospects. The paper suggests the need for more concerted efforts form individuals and government, need for accurate census figure, mass mobilisation, wide spread campaign and use of culture-friendly integrated health, socio-economic welfare and education packages for all nomads. The paper concludes that it seems obvious that the nomads prefer sending children to cattle rearing than schooling because to the nomads a child who can rear and milk cow is more desirable than a certificate-holder that has no job or cannot breed cattle, thus it is imperative to make nomadic education more relevant to ideals and values of nomads for sustainable development to be a reality and achievable.
Challenges of transportation in Obàléndé area of Lagos Nigeria can only be felt and experienced by its ever increasing commuters and the numerous vehicles plying the road facility. Though the status quo of transportation in that area cannot be outrightly written off, the prospect of keeping in view possible transport infrastructures into the transport system and executing it at the adequate locations in the said area is a feat that is worth researching into. This research looks into the actual transportation challenges faced by Nigerians in Obàléndé area of Lagos, with every possible conceivable solutions that is practical. The data gathered for this research will be via literature review and structured interview. The interviews will be conducted using purposive sampling methods and the data analysis will be done using coding and content analysis. From the information obtained it is recommended
Challenges to the Development of Instructional Packages for Business Education Programme in Universities in South-East Nigeria (Published)
Challenges to the development of instructional packages for business education programme in universities in South-East Nigeria, formed the basic objective for this research. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population was 57 Federal and State university lecturers in business education. No sampling was adopted because of the manageable size of the population. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire which was validated by three experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha which yielded a coefficient of 0.79. Mean with standard deviation was used for data analysis and the t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The findings include: inadequate funding of our universities for curriculum development, use of obsolete instructional facilities in our universities, among others. Recommendations made include: adequate fund should be provided by the federal and state government on the development of instructional packages and proper regulation of universities instructional packages should be carried out on regular basis.
This paper examines the basis for quality assurance of secondary education in Nigeria. In fact, Nigeria is populous in Africa, but the problem of quality secondary education confronting standard of education in Nigeria. It was discovered that the products were poor quality, the poor quality was however, as a result of the multifaceted problems bedeviling the system in Nigeria such as inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, low morale of teachers, poor supervision of schools and frequent changes in educational policies. The roles of the principal in meeting these challenges were examined as the chief executive who manages the school finance and who can use his ingenuity to raise fund to complement government efforts, provision and maintenance of physical facilities, principal as a curriculum and instruction supervision, a motivator and a change facilitator. It was there recommended that modern day principal should be knowledgeable, professionally competent and resourceful. It was again recommended that government should make provision for sponsoring principals and organizing conferences for them to serve as a means for professional growth.
Challenges Preventing Science Teachers from Performing Natural Science Practical Works in Selected Primary Schools in the Oshana Region, Namibia (Published)
Despite the importance of practical work, there are several factors preventing science teachers, especially at primary schools from including practical work in their teaching routine. The main objective of this study was to investigate the challenges preventing science teachers from carrying out Natural Science practical works in selected primary schools in the Oshana Region. A qualitative research approach employing interview schedules and observation as the research instruments was used to collect data on the challenges faced by the science teachers. A sample of 4 Natural Science teachers (2 teaching grade 6 and 2 teaching grade 7) was chosen using the purposive sampling method to participate in the study. The study found that the major factors preventing the teachers from carrying out practical works in the selected primary schools include lack of well equipped functional laboratories, no provision for practical work on the teaching time table, teachers’ lack of experiences in preparing experiments and handling of some equipment, and the lack of laboratory assistance. However, as part of measures to encourage the use of practical works in teaching primary school Natural Science in the study area, the participants indicated that relevant materials and equipment should be made available at the beginning of every academic year. It was also indicated that regular capacity building workshops should be held to train the teachers on conducting experiments and handling equipment. Thus, it was recommended that the school management should devise means of addressing the identified challenges in order to enable the teachers include practical work in the teaching of Natural Science.
Status of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education in Universities in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the status of the implementation of entrepreneurship education in universities in Delta State, Nigeria. Two research questions and corresponding null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive design. The population of the study comprised all the 65 lecturers and 5,000 students in the two public universities in Delta State. The sample size was 530 (lecturers 65 and 497 students) from the two universities using purposive sampling techniques. Assessment of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire (AIEEQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts to ensure face and content validity, which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.87 using Cronbach Alpha. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while independent samples z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance. It was found that entrepreneurship education was properly implemented in the undergraduate and post graduate levels in Delta State universities. However, the programme was bedeviled with conspicuous challenges. It was recommended among others that a monitoring team should be set up by the National Universities Commission (NUC) to monitor the progress and shortcoming of entrepreneurship education in the universities.
National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
Challenges in Using Spoken English by Grade Six Learners at a School in Onankali Circuit in Namibia (Published)
Research investigating the challenges in teaching and learning using spoken English in schools has shown that many challenges do exist in using spoken English around the world. Although learners are being taught all the English skills usage, it still seems to be a big problem mastering the skill of speaking in schools, specifically the grade six learners at the case school. In the context of Namibia, English is used as a medium of instruction in schools only from grade 4. The major research questions raised in this article were as follows: What are the challenges that learners encounter in using spoken English in the selected school? What measures should be put in place to solve the above challenges? Qualitative research method was used in this study. Data was collected through interviews of four teachers and 12 learners. Teachers and learners gave different perceptions about the usage of spoken English and its challenges. These challenges included shyness, poor vocabulary that causes poor expression ability, the learning environment and lack of confidence. Suggested interventions included parental involvement, the introduction of spelling bee program at the school, more support should be given to teachers as well as strengthening the policy of speaking English all the times at the school.
The Challenges Encountered by the Selected Private Universities in Kenya in Implementing Strategies that Would Lead to a Financially Sustainable University (Published)
Great expectations of high quality education are held by many people due to a high demand of tertiary education in private Kenyan universities. Higher education in Kenya has experienced a lot of numerical growth of the number of universities chartered. As of November 2015, Kenya had a total of 70 chartered universities. Of these, 17 were private chartered ones which had grown in number from 3 to 17 in just two decades (CUE 2015, Chacha 2004,4). That notwithstanding, private universities face numerous challenges, which if not addressed, their sustainability will be threatened. This paper therefore seeks to explore the challenges encountered by selected private universities in Kenya, in implementing strategies that would lead to a financially sustainable university. These challenges were classified into two categories: the internal and external challenges. The internal challenges, experienced from within the university included: inadequate finances, university leadership and structures while the external ones include: government funding, government regulations and donor support. Qualitative grounded theory design was used in which an interview guide and a self-developed interview schedule were used in data collection. Twenty respondents were involved from four theological private universities. A fifth university was used for a pilot study. Data was organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through the use of codes and formation of categories. The strategies utilized were: students’ recruitment, internal and external funding, program development, review and diversification. The findings show that different universities are engaging in different strategies without much success in terms of income generated. This was attributed to the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore, this study proposed a financial sustainability system that is based on grounded theory which recommends the need to prioritize income generating strategies – developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are a major impediment to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financially sustainable university. This paper concludes by suggesting ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams that will enhance the financial sustainability of the sampled universities. Moreover, it recommends that universities should develop more creative strategies that are not yet in place, review their status and also diversify their strategies to achieve financial sustainability.
Ethno Veterinary Medicine Knowledge and Practices In and Around Gondar, Ethiopia (Published)
A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2013 to April, 2014 in and around Gondar town, northern Gondar administrative zone of the Amhara region with the objective of documentation of ethno veterinary medicine knowledge and practices and identifying the challenges of the traditional medicine practice by using semi structured questionnaire survey and focal person discussion. The information was collected on 96 traditional veterinary medicine knowledgeable live stock owners, among those 90(93.8%) were males while 6(6.2%) were females and 60(62.5%) of them were above 50 age group level. During the study 68 traditionally used medicinal plants and 24 non plants traditional remedy materials were documented and also the study was indicate that 45 live stock diseases could be treated locally. Among the total respondents, 43(44.8%) of them were predominantly indicate veterinary clinic was the common animal health management. likewise from the main sources of traditional knowledge, family (44.8%) followed by friends (19.8%) were the most sources of indigenous knowledge. furthermore, study revealed that simple to practice (25%), cost affordability (20.8%) and easily availability of raw materials (16.7%) were the most factors that drive for the practice of traditional medicine. The survey were indicate that root parts (67.7%) followed by leaf parts (35.4%) of the medicinal plants were the main plant parts for remedy preparations again pounding and crushing(79.2%) were indicate as the common methods of traditional remedy preparation predominantly. Additionally this study revealed that liquid dosage form (54.2%) followed by an ointment (20.8%) were the most dosage form of traditional remedies with predominant administration of oral route (75%) followed by topical routes (22.9%). Regarding to challenges of traditional medicine practices the study indicated that imprecise dosage (62.5%) was the main challenge of traditional medicine practice. The study revealed that as there were no any medicinal plant conservation activity and official training. From the study, conservation and utilization of medicinal plants, encouragement and exploitation of indigenous knowledge rich persons and further pharmacological study of medicinal plants should be recommended.
The study aimed to identify the most common challenges faced by science teachers in activating the school laboratories. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive method in terms of applying the study tool and data collection and analysis. The study population consisted of all the teachers of science and educational supervisors in Jerash Education Directorate. There were 15 teachers and five educational supervisors. The study found that there are a number of challenges facing the science teachers in activating the school labs, the most important of which is the low number of classes devoted to teaching science, the researcher recommended the need to work to restructure the distribution of classes of science and increase the time allocated for practical activity.
Challenges in Developing Indigenous Management Theories in Africa and the Implications for Management Practice (Published)
The paper examines the challenges against developing indigenous management theories in Africa and the implications for management practice in Africa. The paper recognizes that there is a dearth of African indigenous management theories, and attributes the situation to both economic and socio-cultural factors in Africa. It notes that the inability to develop indigenous management theories has caused indiscriminate importation of western theories for adoption in Africa, and this has huge negative impact on management practice in Africa. The paper posits that the uncritical adoption of western theories is a major reason for ineffective management practice in Africa and the poor performance of industries in the continent. It therefore calls on stakeholders to look away from foreign based theories and chart a way towards developing indigenous theories that account for African peculiarities, and encourage the application of such theories. It recommends that concerted efforts be made to overcome the challenges bedeviling the development of African indigenous management theories by committing to new ways of thinking and orientation about research and theories, and overhauling African value system towards supporting research leading to development of theories.
The Challenges Facing the Students of the Higher Basic Stage in Jordanian Public Schools in Writing English (Published)
The study aims to identify the challenges facing the tenth grade students in Jordanian public schools in writing the English language. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool and data collection and analysis, While the sample of the study consisted of (50) teachers of English language. The study found that there are a number of challenges facing students in writing the English language was the most prominent Letters followed by a vowel, the researcher recommended The need for many of the studies on different regions of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to find out the real reasons for poor students in learning English writing.
Challenges Encountered by Principals in Enforcing Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Edo North Senatorial District, Nigeria (Published)
This study was carried out to investigate challenges encountered by principals in enforcing students discipline among secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District. Five (5) research questions were raised while three (3) hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive method based on survey research design was adopted. A population of 286 principals of public and private secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District was used while 172 principals constituted the sample size using a simple random sampling technique. The sample comprised 60% of the entire population. The questionnaire was used to gather relevant data and was titled: Challenges of Principals in Enforcement of Students’ Discipline Questionnaire (CPESDQ). The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. It was found among others that principals in secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District encountered 10 different challenges in the enforcement of students’ discipline. Some of these challenges included school owners’ interference and students’ fear of assault which were ranked highest, while restriction by law was ranked least in secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District. Further, principals of public secondary schools encountered more challenges in the enforcement of students’ discipline than their counterparts in private secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District. It was recommended based on the findings that principals of secondary schools should develop coping strategies in solving challenges encountered in enforcing students’ discipline. The strategies were Reality Therapy (RT) and Discipline with Dignity (DD).
Performance appraisal is regarded as an important tool that enhances improvement in staff performance and institutional efficiency and productivity. It has consequently become a routine practice for administrators and authorities of institutions. The study set out to examine teachers’ knowledge on rationales for performance appraisal, their perception of the practice, their attitude towards its implementation and their concerns about it. The descriptive study employed a questionnaire as a data collection tool. The data was analysed descriptively and the results are presented in means and standard deviations. The results showed that the teachers had little knowledge on the objectives for conducting performance appraisal. Again, they held a negative perception about it and also had an unfavourable attitude towards it. The study also unveiled concerns that the participants had about performance appraisal, which need to be addressed to enhance its implementation. Recommendations have been proffered for policy and practice.
Pitfalls of Tourism Development in Ethiopia: A Case of Bahir Dar Town and Its Surroundings, a Historical Perspective (Published)
The history of tourism is one of the neglected themes in Ethiopian history which has received less scholarly attention. In Ethiopia, the development of modern tourism as an important economic sector traced back to the imperial regime. This was when the Ethiopian Tourist Organization (ETO) was founded in 1961. Since that period, until the overthrow of the regime in 1974, the development of tourism has shown a remarkable and smooth upward trend in the arrival of tourists. However, shortly after the military government assumed power in 1974, the growth of tourism was highly subjected to adverse political and socio-economic crises. This became evident when the tourism sector experienced a downward trend in its history, whereby the number of tourists steadily decreased from 1,267 in 1974 to 141 in 1977 in Bahir Dar and its surroundings and from 50,220 to 28,984 in 1977 at the national level. However, the seizure of power by a new government in 1991 brought about a relatively conducive environment for the growth of tourism which is evident in the adoption of free market, relative stability, and infrastructural development. Thus, this paper sheds light on the history of tourism and its challenges throughout the three consecutive Ethiopian regimes: the imperial, Derg, and EPRDF. This was done in the context of the changing political regimes in light of the political, economic, and ideological shifts. In order to realize the intended objectives, primary sources of information were collected through interviews and focus group discussions with tourists, experts, hotel managers, and tour guides. In addition, government reports from published and un-published sources were also consulted.
Implementation of ICT in Kenya Primary Schools in the Light of Free Laptops at Primary One, Challenges and Possibilities (A Case Study of Teachers in Nandi County Kenya Implementing ICT into their Teaching Practice (Published)
Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have been touted as being potentially powerful tools that can be used to facilitate the implied educational change and reform. Implementation of ICT in primary school learning environments is a complex task for both Teachers and learners, but also management and administration. To facilitate the change processes better the first step is to actually understand what problems and challenges realization of ICT leads to and how it affects practice. Although classical instructional methods will continue to be used in the teaching-learning process, it is also true that Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) can be harnessed to become powerful pedagogical tools. Proceeding from the premise that there are many ways to use new technologies for teaching and learning, the paper presents literature on the possibilities and challenges of integrating ICT into teaching-learning, the rationale for adopting and using ICTs for learning-teaching, as well as the key factors that influence the adoption and use of ICTs in teaching and learning both from a general perspective and in a technical education context. The paper then outlines and discusses findings of a study designed to investigate the possibilities and challenges of using Information Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching-learning procedures in primary school institutions in Kenya using data obtained from a Tinderet District school in the Rift valley region of Kenya. It examines views in pertinent literature as well as teachers’ perceptions of the benefits of integrating ICT into teaching-learning, the success factors and obstacles encountered in their endeavours to do this. Conclusions are drawn and suggestions made to address the challenges and improve on the use of ICT for teaching-learning in teaching institutions.
Effective Teaching of the English Language in Multicultural L2 Classrooms: The Nigerian Perspective (Published)
Effective teaching demands that we use all the facts available to us to impact knowledge. In Nigeria where the English Language is essentially a second language, effective teaching seeks to incorporate all tools and practices that assist the English Language learner in an L2 multicultural classroom. Effective teaching in an L2 setting seeks to promote learning skills that will be of benefit to learners from diverse cultural backgrounds. The paper identifies a number of issues related to effective teaching in multicultural L2 classrooms. It addresses barriers to effective learning in an L2 classroom, the potential challenges to teaching and provides diverse strategies that may improve teaching and learning in this context. In the end, the paper outlines the processes for improving the effectiveness and quality of teaching and learning the English Language. The argument is that multiculturalism improves teaching, teaching skills and learning abilities. Therefore, the paper highlights core considerations for analyzing the challenges faced by teachers and learners, and finally, recommends some directions to embrace the challenges.
This study is an original contribution to the issue of how English/American culture may be integrated into the teaching of English in the Saudi EFL classroom. Unlike other studies it explores the challenges that teachers face from both their own perspective and their supervisors’. Furthermore it provides guidelines to teachers in designing their materials in ways that may gain the approval of the Saudi educational authorities. In order to explore the views of teachers and their educational supervisors, a mixed-study method of qualitative and quantitative approaches was adopted. A semi-structured interview with seven educational supervisors of teachers in the city of Makkah was carried out and a structured questionnaire survey was distributed to 85 English teachers. The results show that teachers experience constraints in teaching English/American culture in EFL classrooms. In identifying and exploring such constraints the research aims to support teachers in overcoming the challenges they encounter.