Fiscal decentrialisation and challenges of property tax mobilization: A case study of Bolgatanga Municipality (Published)
Decentralised municipal and district assemblies of Ghana have over the years usually not been able to wield the necessary financial muscle to provide essential goods and services for their constituents. Fiscal decentralization gives authority to the assemblies to impose taxes and levies in order to strengthen their financial base and to discharge their responsibilities efficiently and effectively. Yet, decentralized local governments have not been able to realize their tax targets through property tax. This paper seeks to investigate the key issues and challenges that confront the Bolgatanga Municipality Assembly in meeting its property tax revenue collection targets to finance social services such as roads, sanitation, health and electricity. The purposiv e sampling method was used to select staff from th e Bolgatanga Municipal Ass embly, Lands Commission, rev enu e collectors and prop erty own ers. The results revealed a number of factors underpinning the Assembly’s ability to raise property tax revenue notable among which are failure to update valuation rolls, inadequate databases and logistics, fraudulent practices of revenue collectors, limited capacity, inadequate valuation practices poorly motivated staff, political interference.inadequate and inaccurate public address system and house numbers and the Assembly’s inability to prepare and maintain complete records on property rat e.To the management of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly, the study recommends mass public education on property revenue taxation, improve upon the preparation and maintenance of complete records, Prevent or minimize the incidence of revenue leakages, motivate employee to enable them carry out their duties diligently and honestly without thinking of ways to steal the organization, enhancing the capacity staff in rating valuation, protection of property taxation from political interference, enforcement of law against non-compliance, enforcement of legal action against defaulters, adjusting property taxes according to “ability to pay” as well as some exemption to the extremely poor rural dwellers
This study investigated the challenges encountered by student teachers during their teaching practice. The sample of the study comprised 4 supervisors and 12 student teachers enrolled in the final semester in the Faculty of Education at Tripoli University. The student teachers studied different content and method courses during their studying journey in the college and did some micro teaching as a prerequisite for the teaching practice. A questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were employed for data collection. Data analysis revealed that although there was a noticeable application of what they had studied in the college, some remarkable challenges were found. For instance, lack of cooperation between the student teachers and school principal and cooperative teachers, lack of confidence, lack of classroom management skills, little guidance, and support from the part of the supervisors. Finally, the study provided several suggestions that could help eradicate or at least minimize the effect of these challenges on the quality of teaching practice.
It is no doubt that corruption is a global plague ravaging world’s economy. Corruption is depleting the scarce economic resources of developed and developing nations though, at varying intensities. Corruption has also been described as the black hole which must be thoroughly covered. In a bid to fighting corruption in the world, the whistle blowing mechanism was adopted by several countries including the USA, UK, South Africa and Nigeria. To complement the efforts of ICPC and EFCC, the whistle-blowing machinery was adopted in Nigeria by the Muhammadu Buhari/Osinbajo administration in 2016. This paper examined the economic gains, prospects and challenges of the whistle blowing policy in Nigeria. The Role and Framing Theories were adopted in the study to explain the question of morality and persuasiveness through specific communication strategies to the citizens. The methodology used in the study was qualitative deductions from secondary data. The study discovered that the policy has attracted 5,000 tips which led to recovery of several billions of naira. Also discovered, was that there was no law protecting whistle-blowers from victimizations and recriminations. The paper therefore recommends that, the long overdue whistle-blower protection bill of 2011 should be passed into law as an emergency law amongst others
Challenges of Utilising the Key Messages of Coronavirus Pandemic Campaigns in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated the challenges of utilising the key messages of coronavirus pandemic campaign in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted for the study while questionnaire was the instrument of data collection. The study was anchored on social cognitive theory and Health belief model. The population of the study comprised of residents of Akwa Ibom State, which according to 2018 projection of the National Population Commission census figure of 2006 was 5,828,267. The sample size of 400 was drawn using Taro Yamane’s sample size formula. The study found out that the level of awareness of the coronavirus pandemic campaign was high in the metropolis but low in rural communities. The study also found out that the level of compliance was very low. Moreso, the study found out that majority of respondents did not believe that coronavirus exist in Nigeria. The study recommends that awareness should not be left alone in the hands of government, individuals should be ready to save lives by promoting the campaign of coronavirus in the society.
Challenges Faced By Mathematics Education Student-Teachers during Macro-Teaching Practice (Published)
It sounds contradictory when students who are being trained to teach go to the field and end up performing quite below standard despite all efforts put in place by the university to produce effective and productive teachers. The issue been raised is, what then becomes the fate of the students they are teaching in terms of performance? It is in this view that the current research was conducted to examine the challenges faced by mathematics education students during macro-teaching. To achieve the objective of the study, a descriptive survey design was employed for the study. A sample size of 35 final year students offering Bachelor of Education (Mathematics) programme were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Questionnaires were used as the main instruments for data collection during the research process. Results from the study indicated that student-teachers encounter environmental, instructional and supervisory challenges. Environment challenges faced by these students include inadequate teaching and learning mathematics and difficulty in transport to the schools. Other challenges encountered, conclusions, recommendations as well as the implications of the findings are discussed in the work.
Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring Of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)
The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes
A Historical Analysis of the Introduction, Spread and Impact of Western Education in Southern Taraba Area, 1905 to 2018 (Published)
Education can be construed as a pattern of awareness which determines and influences the behavioural pattern of any given society. It encompasses societal civilization, values, norms and traditions. It is a people’s belief system, system of thought, an instrument through which a society produces and reproduces its kind in the light of what makes one a representation of his/her society. Every society therefore has its own system of education through which cultural transmission and socialization are anchored. Unfortunately, former colonies erroneously consider western education as the only best alternative for all-round development. It is viewed as the basic instrument for civilization, gainful employment, socialization, economic prosperity and development. This conventional assumptions has resulted in the eventual neglect of the traditional education by African societies, Southern Taraba inclusive. This paper therefore examine the process of introduction and spread of western education in Southern Taraba Area. The paper captures issues like the agencies and individuals involved, the impact, challenges encountered and how the challenges can be remedied. Thus, using a multi-disciplinary methodological approach, the study came to the realization that western education has impacted tremendously on the peoples of Southern Taraba Area in the spheres of human, infrastructural, political and socio-economic development.
Agricultural Cooperatives in the Kingdom of Eswatini: Financial Efficiency, Challenges and Opportunities (Published)
Promoting cooperative financial efficiency through problem-solving and arresting opportunities builds cooperative resilience necessary for ameliorating rural livelihoods. Therefore, this study assessed the income-generating capacity, challenges, and opportunities available to agricultural cooperatives in Eswatini. Secondary data were sourced from government and parastatal reports, while primary data were collected through personal interviews guided by a structured questionnaire. Financial ratios, descriptive statistics, and content analysis were employed for data analysis. The results revealed that broiler, dairy, crop, animal feed and sugarcane cooperatives had strong financial efficiency, 81.75%, 65.36%, 49.61%, 40.33% and 36.37%, respectively. High production cost, free-riders, insufficient capital and lack of training on conflict resolution and administration are the major challenges encountered by cooperatives. Agribusiness opportunities exist in all subsectors. An inclusive regulatory body is recommended to establish production-marketing frameworks to enhance financial efficiency. Pragmatic training programmes are required to address intra-organisational challenges, while inter-organisational linkages are necessary to harness opportunities.
Use of Information and Communication Technology Systems for Delivery of Environmental Literacy Education in Nigeria: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
The purpose of this paper is to examine the opportunities, challenges and prospects of using Information and Communication Technology Systems (ICTS) for delivery of Environmental Literacy Education (ELE) in Nigeria. The paper begins by providing a brief but concise definition of Environmental Literacy (EL) and the attributes of an environmentally literate person. It goes on to establish the need for ELE in Nigeria, using empirical evidence that clearly reveals a high level of Environmental Illiteracy among all segments of the Nigerian citizenry and its adverse consequences of wide spread backwardness and poverty in the country. The paper also defines the concept of ICTS and their role in education with particular reference to Nigeria. After further clarification of the focus and content of Environmental Literacy (EL) as the foundation of ELE, and in view of the pervasiveness of the Environmental Illiteracy syndrome in Nigeria, the paper establishes that ELE needs to adopt Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal forms/modes of delivery in order to involve all concerned segments of the Nigerian population and illustrates, in an annotated manner, what ICTS are needed to deliver ELE in Nigeria. The opportunities, challenges and prospects of using the ICTS to deliver the ELE programmes are succinctly highlighted, conclusions drawn, and appropriate recommendation made, specifying that the Federal Government of Nigeria should harness features of the opportunities and prospects to minimize the challenges and promote use of ICTS for delivery of the highly needed ELE in Nigeria.
Comparative Analysis of Business and Consumer Buying Behaviour and Decisions: Opportunities and Challenges in Nigeria (Published)
Business markets and consumer markets are alike in some key ways. For example, both include people in buying roles whose purchased decision is to satisfy needs. But business markets also differ in many ways from consumer markets. For one thing, the business market is enormous, far larger than the consumer market. Within Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries the business market includes more than 13 million organizations that annually, purchased trillions of Naira worth of goods and services. This paper also focused on the traditional tools and techniques employed in the marketing of goods and services to the business sector. Attempt was made to draw attention on the major differences between consumer and business markets – dissimilarities that, while using the same basic marketing tools and techniques, spelled the difference between success and failure in the contemporary business marketing environments.
The central aim of this paper is to highlight the rural development processes in Nigeria and identify the emerging challenges that impede sustainable rural development in the country. In achieving its aim, the paper clarified the concept of development and rural development as postulated by various scholars. It examines the modernization and dependency theoretical underpinning of the concepts. The study analyses secondary and empirical sources of data through qualitative methods. The paper posits that the rural areas have constituted majority of the nation’s population and serve as a base for food production. The paper argues that though various rural development policies have been initiated in Nigeria, the conditions of the rural areas has not changed much since independence. Rather, development policies in Nigeria have been tilted toward the urban areas while the rural areas live in extreme poverty and lack basic health, educational and social infrastructures. It identifies emerging challenges such as corruption and mismanagement of resources, poor policy implementation, famers- herders conflicts and lack of autonomy of the local governments. The study recommends more concerted efforts in implementing rural developments projects, punishment of corrupt public officials, effective budget monitoring, provision of security and conflict resolution mechanisms and participation of the rural populace in development projects.
Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)
The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria.
The period we are in Nigeria is a unique time in history as a nation. The country has in recent times, witnessed an unprecedented magnitude of violence that has shaken the unity of Nigeria. The study therefore examined the challenges to peace building in Nigeria. . The study had adopted descriptive perspective in its analysis of the secondary data obtained for the study. The data obtained indicated that violent conflict from the ramous region and tribes of Nigeria is rooted in the conflict diversity of the citizens and bad governance structure. The study concluded that gives the present political and economic structure, the prospects of achieving peace are less probable, unless, the government of Nigeria would generate political will to address huge human capital development afflict, invest In infrastructure, and re-engineer political consensus on socio-economic and political development in the country.
Intergovernmental Authority on Development and Regional Integration in East Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
This study focuses on the activities of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in promoting regional integration among member countries since its transformation from Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) to IGAD in the 1990s. The data for the study are derived from the secondary sources such as textbooks, articles journals, theses, and other relevant documents both offline and online. The theory of liberal intergovernmentalism is adopted for the purpose of analysis. From the findings, the paper notes that so far, the organization has been able to achieve some objectives, including the establishment of IGAD Climate Prediction Application Centre (ICPAC) which relays reports on climate change to member states every 10 days; establishment of IGAD Women’s Desk in 1994 to Foster gender mainstreaming and promote Women’s participation in IGAD Programmes; mediation etcetera. However, the organization is yet to achieve economic union it proposed in 2009. There are also challenges of incessant conflicts/wars among member states. Equally, the issues of harsh weather conditions-drought and desertification- of the region as well as multiplicity of regional organizations with overlapping membership and functions have equally affected the process of integration among IGAD’s member states. Finally, the study makes some recommendations among which are as follows: Member states should focus more on development programmes that will boost the economy of the region so that the goal of integration can be attained; Member countries should avoid joining several organizations with huge cost implications and concentrate on the ones that can help them achieve regional integration among them; The mediation arm of the organization should be strengthened with proper funding while members should remain neutral during mediation to enable the organization meets it goal of peace in the region, Etcetera.
Challenges on Development and Education of Nomadic Children in Sokoto State: Implications for Education and Sustainability (Published)
Globally, education as birth right and sustainable development in human capacities and societal progress are being pursued with vigour. The nomadic Fulani are the second largest population of inhabitants in Sokoto state. However, they are among marginalised, underserved, underdeveloped and less educated group not only in the state but the country at large. The paper identifies nomadic life styles, inadequacies in policies and provisions for nomadic education and wide spread corruptions as major sources of constraints to development and education of Fulani children thus affecting the sustainable development prospects. The paper suggests the need for more concerted efforts form individuals and government, need for accurate census figure, mass mobilisation, wide spread campaign and use of culture-friendly integrated health, socio-economic welfare and education packages for all nomads. The paper concludes that it seems obvious that the nomads prefer sending children to cattle rearing than schooling because to the nomads a child who can rear and milk cow is more desirable than a certificate-holder that has no job or cannot breed cattle, thus it is imperative to make nomadic education more relevant to ideals and values of nomads for sustainable development to be a reality and achievable.
Challenges of transportation in Obàléndé area of Lagos Nigeria can only be felt and experienced by its ever increasing commuters and the numerous vehicles plying the road facility. Though the status quo of transportation in that area cannot be outrightly written off, the prospect of keeping in view possible transport infrastructures into the transport system and executing it at the adequate locations in the said area is a feat that is worth researching into. This research looks into the actual transportation challenges faced by Nigerians in Obàléndé area of Lagos, with every possible conceivable solutions that is practical. The data gathered for this research will be via literature review and structured interview. The interviews will be conducted using purposive sampling methods and the data analysis will be done using coding and content analysis. From the information obtained it is recommended
Challenges to the Development of Instructional Packages for Business Education Programme in Universities in South-East Nigeria (Published)
Challenges to the development of instructional packages for business education programme in universities in South-East Nigeria, formed the basic objective for this research. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population was 57 Federal and State university lecturers in business education. No sampling was adopted because of the manageable size of the population. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire which was validated by three experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha which yielded a coefficient of 0.79. Mean with standard deviation was used for data analysis and the t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The findings include: inadequate funding of our universities for curriculum development, use of obsolete instructional facilities in our universities, among others. Recommendations made include: adequate fund should be provided by the federal and state government on the development of instructional packages and proper regulation of universities instructional packages should be carried out on regular basis.
This paper examines the basis for quality assurance of secondary education in Nigeria. In fact, Nigeria is populous in Africa, but the problem of quality secondary education confronting standard of education in Nigeria. It was discovered that the products were poor quality, the poor quality was however, as a result of the multifaceted problems bedeviling the system in Nigeria such as inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, low morale of teachers, poor supervision of schools and frequent changes in educational policies. The roles of the principal in meeting these challenges were examined as the chief executive who manages the school finance and who can use his ingenuity to raise fund to complement government efforts, provision and maintenance of physical facilities, principal as a curriculum and instruction supervision, a motivator and a change facilitator. It was there recommended that modern day principal should be knowledgeable, professionally competent and resourceful. It was again recommended that government should make provision for sponsoring principals and organizing conferences for them to serve as a means for professional growth.
Challenges Preventing Science Teachers from Performing Natural Science Practical Works in Selected Primary Schools in the Oshana Region, Namibia (Published)
Despite the importance of practical work, there are several factors preventing science teachers, especially at primary schools from including practical work in their teaching routine. The main objective of this study was to investigate the challenges preventing science teachers from carrying out Natural Science practical works in selected primary schools in the Oshana Region. A qualitative research approach employing interview schedules and observation as the research instruments was used to collect data on the challenges faced by the science teachers. A sample of 4 Natural Science teachers (2 teaching grade 6 and 2 teaching grade 7) was chosen using the purposive sampling method to participate in the study. The study found that the major factors preventing the teachers from carrying out practical works in the selected primary schools include lack of well equipped functional laboratories, no provision for practical work on the teaching time table, teachers’ lack of experiences in preparing experiments and handling of some equipment, and the lack of laboratory assistance. However, as part of measures to encourage the use of practical works in teaching primary school Natural Science in the study area, the participants indicated that relevant materials and equipment should be made available at the beginning of every academic year. It was also indicated that regular capacity building workshops should be held to train the teachers on conducting experiments and handling equipment. Thus, it was recommended that the school management should devise means of addressing the identified challenges in order to enable the teachers include practical work in the teaching of Natural Science.
Status of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education in Universities in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the status of the implementation of entrepreneurship education in universities in Delta State, Nigeria. Two research questions and corresponding null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive design. The population of the study comprised all the 65 lecturers and 5,000 students in the two public universities in Delta State. The sample size was 530 (lecturers 65 and 497 students) from the two universities using purposive sampling techniques. Assessment of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire (AIEEQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts to ensure face and content validity, which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.87 using Cronbach Alpha. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while independent samples z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance. It was found that entrepreneurship education was properly implemented in the undergraduate and post graduate levels in Delta State universities. However, the programme was bedeviled with conspicuous challenges. It was recommended among others that a monitoring team should be set up by the National Universities Commission (NUC) to monitor the progress and shortcoming of entrepreneurship education in the universities.