Agricultural Cooperatives in the Kingdom of Eswatini: Financial Efficiency, Challenges and Opportunities (Published)
Promoting cooperative financial efficiency through problem-solving and arresting opportunities builds cooperative resilience necessary for ameliorating rural livelihoods. Therefore, this study assessed the income-generating capacity, challenges, and opportunities available to agricultural cooperatives in Eswatini. Secondary data were sourced from government and parastatal reports, while primary data were collected through personal interviews guided by a structured questionnaire. Financial ratios, descriptive statistics, and content analysis were employed for data analysis. The results revealed that broiler, dairy, crop, animal feed and sugarcane cooperatives had strong financial efficiency, 81.75%, 65.36%, 49.61%, 40.33% and 36.37%, respectively. High production cost, free-riders, insufficient capital and lack of training on conflict resolution and administration are the major challenges encountered by cooperatives. Agribusiness opportunities exist in all subsectors. An inclusive regulatory body is recommended to establish production-marketing frameworks to enhance financial efficiency. Pragmatic training programmes are required to address intra-organisational challenges, while inter-organisational linkages are necessary to harness opportunities.
Use of Information and Communication Technology Systems for Delivery of Environmental Literacy Education in Nigeria: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
The purpose of this paper is to examine the opportunities, challenges and prospects of using Information and Communication Technology Systems (ICTS) for delivery of Environmental Literacy Education (ELE) in Nigeria. The paper begins by providing a brief but concise definition of Environmental Literacy (EL) and the attributes of an environmentally literate person. It goes on to establish the need for ELE in Nigeria, using empirical evidence that clearly reveals a high level of Environmental Illiteracy among all segments of the Nigerian citizenry and its adverse consequences of wide spread backwardness and poverty in the country. The paper also defines the concept of ICTS and their role in education with particular reference to Nigeria. After further clarification of the focus and content of Environmental Literacy (EL) as the foundation of ELE, and in view of the pervasiveness of the Environmental Illiteracy syndrome in Nigeria, the paper establishes that ELE needs to adopt Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal forms/modes of delivery in order to involve all concerned segments of the Nigerian population and illustrates, in an annotated manner, what ICTS are needed to deliver ELE in Nigeria. The opportunities, challenges and prospects of using the ICTS to deliver the ELE programmes are succinctly highlighted, conclusions drawn, and appropriate recommendation made, specifying that the Federal Government of Nigeria should harness features of the opportunities and prospects to minimize the challenges and promote use of ICTS for delivery of the highly needed ELE in Nigeria.
Comparative Analysis of Business and Consumer Buying Behaviour and Decisions: Opportunities and Challenges in Nigeria (Published)
Business markets and consumer markets are alike in some key ways. For example, both include people in buying roles whose purchased decision is to satisfy needs. But business markets also differ in many ways from consumer markets. For one thing, the business market is enormous, far larger than the consumer market. Within Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries the business market includes more than 13 million organizations that annually, purchased trillions of Naira worth of goods and services. This paper also focused on the traditional tools and techniques employed in the marketing of goods and services to the business sector. Attempt was made to draw attention on the major differences between consumer and business markets – dissimilarities that, while using the same basic marketing tools and techniques, spelled the difference between success and failure in the contemporary business marketing environments.
The central aim of this paper is to highlight the rural development processes in Nigeria and identify the emerging challenges that impede sustainable rural development in the country. In achieving its aim, the paper clarified the concept of development and rural development as postulated by various scholars. It examines the modernization and dependency theoretical underpinning of the concepts. The study analyses secondary and empirical sources of data through qualitative methods. The paper posits that the rural areas have constituted majority of the nation’s population and serve as a base for food production. The paper argues that though various rural development policies have been initiated in Nigeria, the conditions of the rural areas has not changed much since independence. Rather, development policies in Nigeria have been tilted toward the urban areas while the rural areas live in extreme poverty and lack basic health, educational and social infrastructures. It identifies emerging challenges such as corruption and mismanagement of resources, poor policy implementation, famers- herders conflicts and lack of autonomy of the local governments. The study recommends more concerted efforts in implementing rural developments projects, punishment of corrupt public officials, effective budget monitoring, provision of security and conflict resolution mechanisms and participation of the rural populace in development projects.
Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)
The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria.
The period we are in Nigeria is a unique time in history as a nation. The country has in recent times, witnessed an unprecedented magnitude of violence that has shaken the unity of Nigeria. The study therefore examined the challenges to peace building in Nigeria. . The study had adopted descriptive perspective in its analysis of the secondary data obtained for the study. The data obtained indicated that violent conflict from the ramous region and tribes of Nigeria is rooted in the conflict diversity of the citizens and bad governance structure. The study concluded that gives the present political and economic structure, the prospects of achieving peace are less probable, unless, the government of Nigeria would generate political will to address huge human capital development afflict, invest In infrastructure, and re-engineer political consensus on socio-economic and political development in the country.
Intergovernmental Authority on Development and Regional Integration in East Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
This study focuses on the activities of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in promoting regional integration among member countries since its transformation from Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) to IGAD in the 1990s. The data for the study are derived from the secondary sources such as textbooks, articles journals, theses, and other relevant documents both offline and online. The theory of liberal intergovernmentalism is adopted for the purpose of analysis. From the findings, the paper notes that so far, the organization has been able to achieve some objectives, including the establishment of IGAD Climate Prediction Application Centre (ICPAC) which relays reports on climate change to member states every 10 days; establishment of IGAD Women’s Desk in 1994 to Foster gender mainstreaming and promote Women’s participation in IGAD Programmes; mediation etcetera. However, the organization is yet to achieve economic union it proposed in 2009. There are also challenges of incessant conflicts/wars among member states. Equally, the issues of harsh weather conditions-drought and desertification- of the region as well as multiplicity of regional organizations with overlapping membership and functions have equally affected the process of integration among IGAD’s member states. Finally, the study makes some recommendations among which are as follows: Member states should focus more on development programmes that will boost the economy of the region so that the goal of integration can be attained; Member countries should avoid joining several organizations with huge cost implications and concentrate on the ones that can help them achieve regional integration among them; The mediation arm of the organization should be strengthened with proper funding while members should remain neutral during mediation to enable the organization meets it goal of peace in the region, Etcetera.
Challenges on Development and Education of Nomadic Children in Sokoto State: Implications for Education and Sustainability (Published)
Globally, education as birth right and sustainable development in human capacities and societal progress are being pursued with vigour. The nomadic Fulani are the second largest population of inhabitants in Sokoto state. However, they are among marginalised, underserved, underdeveloped and less educated group not only in the state but the country at large. The paper identifies nomadic life styles, inadequacies in policies and provisions for nomadic education and wide spread corruptions as major sources of constraints to development and education of Fulani children thus affecting the sustainable development prospects. The paper suggests the need for more concerted efforts form individuals and government, need for accurate census figure, mass mobilisation, wide spread campaign and use of culture-friendly integrated health, socio-economic welfare and education packages for all nomads. The paper concludes that it seems obvious that the nomads prefer sending children to cattle rearing than schooling because to the nomads a child who can rear and milk cow is more desirable than a certificate-holder that has no job or cannot breed cattle, thus it is imperative to make nomadic education more relevant to ideals and values of nomads for sustainable development to be a reality and achievable.
Challenges of transportation in Obàléndé area of Lagos Nigeria can only be felt and experienced by its ever increasing commuters and the numerous vehicles plying the road facility. Though the status quo of transportation in that area cannot be outrightly written off, the prospect of keeping in view possible transport infrastructures into the transport system and executing it at the adequate locations in the said area is a feat that is worth researching into. This research looks into the actual transportation challenges faced by Nigerians in Obàléndé area of Lagos, with every possible conceivable solutions that is practical. The data gathered for this research will be via literature review and structured interview. The interviews will be conducted using purposive sampling methods and the data analysis will be done using coding and content analysis. From the information obtained it is recommended
Challenges to the Development of Instructional Packages for Business Education Programme in Universities in South-East Nigeria (Published)
Challenges to the development of instructional packages for business education programme in universities in South-East Nigeria, formed the basic objective for this research. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population was 57 Federal and State university lecturers in business education. No sampling was adopted because of the manageable size of the population. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire which was validated by three experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha which yielded a coefficient of 0.79. Mean with standard deviation was used for data analysis and the t-test statistics was used to test the null hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The findings include: inadequate funding of our universities for curriculum development, use of obsolete instructional facilities in our universities, among others. Recommendations made include: adequate fund should be provided by the federal and state government on the development of instructional packages and proper regulation of universities instructional packages should be carried out on regular basis.
This paper examines the basis for quality assurance of secondary education in Nigeria. In fact, Nigeria is populous in Africa, but the problem of quality secondary education confronting standard of education in Nigeria. It was discovered that the products were poor quality, the poor quality was however, as a result of the multifaceted problems bedeviling the system in Nigeria such as inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, low morale of teachers, poor supervision of schools and frequent changes in educational policies. The roles of the principal in meeting these challenges were examined as the chief executive who manages the school finance and who can use his ingenuity to raise fund to complement government efforts, provision and maintenance of physical facilities, principal as a curriculum and instruction supervision, a motivator and a change facilitator. It was there recommended that modern day principal should be knowledgeable, professionally competent and resourceful. It was again recommended that government should make provision for sponsoring principals and organizing conferences for them to serve as a means for professional growth.
Challenges Preventing Science Teachers from Performing Natural Science Practical Works in Selected Primary Schools in the Oshana Region, Namibia (Published)
Despite the importance of practical work, there are several factors preventing science teachers, especially at primary schools from including practical work in their teaching routine. The main objective of this study was to investigate the challenges preventing science teachers from carrying out Natural Science practical works in selected primary schools in the Oshana Region. A qualitative research approach employing interview schedules and observation as the research instruments was used to collect data on the challenges faced by the science teachers. A sample of 4 Natural Science teachers (2 teaching grade 6 and 2 teaching grade 7) was chosen using the purposive sampling method to participate in the study. The study found that the major factors preventing the teachers from carrying out practical works in the selected primary schools include lack of well equipped functional laboratories, no provision for practical work on the teaching time table, teachers’ lack of experiences in preparing experiments and handling of some equipment, and the lack of laboratory assistance. However, as part of measures to encourage the use of practical works in teaching primary school Natural Science in the study area, the participants indicated that relevant materials and equipment should be made available at the beginning of every academic year. It was also indicated that regular capacity building workshops should be held to train the teachers on conducting experiments and handling equipment. Thus, it was recommended that the school management should devise means of addressing the identified challenges in order to enable the teachers include practical work in the teaching of Natural Science.
Status of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education in Universities in Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the status of the implementation of entrepreneurship education in universities in Delta State, Nigeria. Two research questions and corresponding null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted descriptive design. The population of the study comprised all the 65 lecturers and 5,000 students in the two public universities in Delta State. The sample size was 530 (lecturers 65 and 497 students) from the two universities using purposive sampling techniques. Assessment of the Implementation of Entrepreneurship Education Questionnaire (AIEEQ) was used for data collection. The instrument was validated by experts to ensure face and content validity, which yielded a reliability coefficient of 0.87 using Cronbach Alpha. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while independent samples z-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significance. It was found that entrepreneurship education was properly implemented in the undergraduate and post graduate levels in Delta State universities. However, the programme was bedeviled with conspicuous challenges. It was recommended among others that a monitoring team should be set up by the National Universities Commission (NUC) to monitor the progress and shortcoming of entrepreneurship education in the universities.
National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
Challenges in Using Spoken English by Grade Six Learners at a School in Onankali Circuit in Namibia (Published)
Research investigating the challenges in teaching and learning using spoken English in schools has shown that many challenges do exist in using spoken English around the world. Although learners are being taught all the English skills usage, it still seems to be a big problem mastering the skill of speaking in schools, specifically the grade six learners at the case school. In the context of Namibia, English is used as a medium of instruction in schools only from grade 4. The major research questions raised in this article were as follows: What are the challenges that learners encounter in using spoken English in the selected school? What measures should be put in place to solve the above challenges? Qualitative research method was used in this study. Data was collected through interviews of four teachers and 12 learners. Teachers and learners gave different perceptions about the usage of spoken English and its challenges. These challenges included shyness, poor vocabulary that causes poor expression ability, the learning environment and lack of confidence. Suggested interventions included parental involvement, the introduction of spelling bee program at the school, more support should be given to teachers as well as strengthening the policy of speaking English all the times at the school.
The Challenges Encountered by the Selected Private Universities in Kenya in Implementing Strategies that Would Lead to a Financially Sustainable University (Published)
Great expectations of high quality education are held by many people due to a high demand of tertiary education in private Kenyan universities. Higher education in Kenya has experienced a lot of numerical growth of the number of universities chartered. As of November 2015, Kenya had a total of 70 chartered universities. Of these, 17 were private chartered ones which had grown in number from 3 to 17 in just two decades (CUE 2015, Chacha 2004,4). That notwithstanding, private universities face numerous challenges, which if not addressed, their sustainability will be threatened. This paper therefore seeks to explore the challenges encountered by selected private universities in Kenya, in implementing strategies that would lead to a financially sustainable university. These challenges were classified into two categories: the internal and external challenges. The internal challenges, experienced from within the university included: inadequate finances, university leadership and structures while the external ones include: government funding, government regulations and donor support. Qualitative grounded theory design was used in which an interview guide and a self-developed interview schedule were used in data collection. Twenty respondents were involved from four theological private universities. A fifth university was used for a pilot study. Data was organized manually and analyzed qualitatively through the use of codes and formation of categories. The strategies utilized were: students’ recruitment, internal and external funding, program development, review and diversification. The findings show that different universities are engaging in different strategies without much success in terms of income generated. This was attributed to the many internal and external challenges being faced by these universities. Therefore, this study proposed a financial sustainability system that is based on grounded theory which recommends the need to prioritize income generating strategies – developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams (input activities) that will generate adequate income to overcome the challenges in the system that are a major impediment to implementation of activities (output) that would lead to establishment of a financially sustainable university. This paper concludes by suggesting ways of developing, reviewing and diversifying revenue streams that will enhance the financial sustainability of the sampled universities. Moreover, it recommends that universities should develop more creative strategies that are not yet in place, review their status and also diversify their strategies to achieve financial sustainability.
Ethno Veterinary Medicine Knowledge and Practices In and Around Gondar, Ethiopia (Published)
A cross sectional study was conducted from November, 2013 to April, 2014 in and around Gondar town, northern Gondar administrative zone of the Amhara region with the objective of documentation of ethno veterinary medicine knowledge and practices and identifying the challenges of the traditional medicine practice by using semi structured questionnaire survey and focal person discussion. The information was collected on 96 traditional veterinary medicine knowledgeable live stock owners, among those 90(93.8%) were males while 6(6.2%) were females and 60(62.5%) of them were above 50 age group level. During the study 68 traditionally used medicinal plants and 24 non plants traditional remedy materials were documented and also the study was indicate that 45 live stock diseases could be treated locally. Among the total respondents, 43(44.8%) of them were predominantly indicate veterinary clinic was the common animal health management. likewise from the main sources of traditional knowledge, family (44.8%) followed by friends (19.8%) were the most sources of indigenous knowledge. furthermore, study revealed that simple to practice (25%), cost affordability (20.8%) and easily availability of raw materials (16.7%) were the most factors that drive for the practice of traditional medicine. The survey were indicate that root parts (67.7%) followed by leaf parts (35.4%) of the medicinal plants were the main plant parts for remedy preparations again pounding and crushing(79.2%) were indicate as the common methods of traditional remedy preparation predominantly. Additionally this study revealed that liquid dosage form (54.2%) followed by an ointment (20.8%) were the most dosage form of traditional remedies with predominant administration of oral route (75%) followed by topical routes (22.9%). Regarding to challenges of traditional medicine practices the study indicated that imprecise dosage (62.5%) was the main challenge of traditional medicine practice. The study revealed that as there were no any medicinal plant conservation activity and official training. From the study, conservation and utilization of medicinal plants, encouragement and exploitation of indigenous knowledge rich persons and further pharmacological study of medicinal plants should be recommended.
The study aimed to identify the most common challenges faced by science teachers in activating the school laboratories. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive method in terms of applying the study tool and data collection and analysis. The study population consisted of all the teachers of science and educational supervisors in Jerash Education Directorate. There were 15 teachers and five educational supervisors. The study found that there are a number of challenges facing the science teachers in activating the school labs, the most important of which is the low number of classes devoted to teaching science, the researcher recommended the need to work to restructure the distribution of classes of science and increase the time allocated for practical activity.
Challenges in Developing Indigenous Management Theories in Africa and the Implications for Management Practice (Published)
The paper examines the challenges against developing indigenous management theories in Africa and the implications for management practice in Africa. The paper recognizes that there is a dearth of African indigenous management theories, and attributes the situation to both economic and socio-cultural factors in Africa. It notes that the inability to develop indigenous management theories has caused indiscriminate importation of western theories for adoption in Africa, and this has huge negative impact on management practice in Africa. The paper posits that the uncritical adoption of western theories is a major reason for ineffective management practice in Africa and the poor performance of industries in the continent. It therefore calls on stakeholders to look away from foreign based theories and chart a way towards developing indigenous theories that account for African peculiarities, and encourage the application of such theories. It recommends that concerted efforts be made to overcome the challenges bedeviling the development of African indigenous management theories by committing to new ways of thinking and orientation about research and theories, and overhauling African value system towards supporting research leading to development of theories.
The Challenges Facing the Students of the Higher Basic Stage in Jordanian Public Schools in Writing English (Published)
The study aims to identify the challenges facing the tenth grade students in Jordanian public schools in writing the English language. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool and data collection and analysis, While the sample of the study consisted of (50) teachers of English language. The study found that there are a number of challenges facing students in writing the English language was the most prominent Letters followed by a vowel, the researcher recommended The need for many of the studies on different regions of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan to find out the real reasons for poor students in learning English writing.