Cotton is the second most important cash-crop in Eswatini, yet production continues to decline. This study identifies the challenges and solutions for ameliorated productivity. Data were collected through questionnaire-guided interviews from 308 growers and 5 key informants. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis and inferential statistics were applied for data analysis. The production-related challenges include drought, inflators of production cost, lack of credit, poor input and mechanical technology supply, ineffectual cooperativism and low-yielding varieties. Market-related challenges include low prices, monopsony, limited market channels and lack of value addition options. Gender, location, farm size and household size revealed significant effects on production-related challenges at p<0.01. Labour, location and age revealed significant effects on marketing-related challenges at p<0.01, and p<0.05, respectively. Identified solutions include subsidies, credit funding and high-yielding varieties under irrigated-farming. Establishment of stakeholder-inclusive regulatory organ is recommended to address the identified challenges. Further redress of cooperativism is recommended to promote cotton productivity.
Teachers and Learners in Vocational Agricultural High Schools Face Challenges: The News from Cameroon, (Published)
Challenges in teaching and learning agriculture remain an important and unresolved problem across sub-Saharan Africa. The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges in teaching and learning agriculture in Vocational Agricultural High schools in Cameroon. Using a mixed method descriptive survey research design, data was collected with separate questionnaires for students and teachers. A total of 98 respondents, 18 teachers and 80 students from the 3 existing agricultural high schools were involved. Purposive, proportional and convenience sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. Data collected was analysed using descriptive statistical techniques. Several challenges were identified: inadequate teaching and learning resources, frequent use of teacher-centred teaching methods and the need to improve on training of teachers. Gaining vital insights into the current capacity and capability of the Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) system in Cameroon especially related to the teaching and learning of agriculture and generating evidence needed to inform policy on possible ways of improving TVET delivery in high schools can contribute to the development of a skilled workforce and Cameroons sustainable development. We recommend the putting in place of a comprehensive TVET development policy that will make sure the available resources are well coordinated and distributed while those that are completely absent are purchased and all stakeholders participate in defining the training of teachers and students to ensure quality. This, could result in properly trained youths with directly employable skills, reduce unemployment and poverty, and in consequence, foster sustainable development.
Perceptions, Challenges and Coping Strategies of Women in Political Leadership Positions (Published)
This study examined the experiences of females in political leadership positions in the Sunyani West District. Qualitative approach was adopted with a case study design to explore the experiences of the women leaders. Purposive and snowball sampling techniques were used to select 14 participants comprising eight (8) political party executives, four (4) Assembly women and two (2) women who were parliamentary candidates. The data were collected using interview and analysed through thematic procedure. The findings indicated that females in political leadership positions perceive leadership in three different ways as task-oriented, goal-oriented and people-oriented. Whatever way they perceived political leadership; they faced several challenges related to their personal lives, family and community. However, the main challenge facing females in political leadership positions in Sunyani West District is misconceptions about their capabilities as females. Females in political leadership positions cope with their challenges through self-motivation, creation of cordial relationship with male chauvinists and concentration on their potentials. The study recommended that female political leaders should focus on their output and achievements to show their capabilities in contributing meaningfully to society. There is an urgent need for opinion leaders such as chiefs, queen mothers, district chief executives and the public in general to discourage the unfair, unjust and unequal treatment sometimes meted out to women who occupy political leadership positions.
Challenges faced by healthcare providers in implementing community-based health services provided to HIV and AIDS clients in Songea Municipality, Tanzania. (Published)
Background: Community-based health care providers provide support in the running of the HIV/AIDS interventions focused on reducing the magnitude of diseases of public health importance, however, the implementation is faced with various challenges, which need to be explored by this study. Objective:To explore Challenges experienced by community-based health care providers during the execution of their duties to HIV and AIDS clients in Songea Municipality.Methods: The study employed qualitative methods for data collection in Songea Municipality with the District management team, counselors, health care workers, and the health facility in charges of three levels of health facilities (Hospital, Health center, and Dispensary). Purposive sampling was used to select participants. Total of 2 Focus Group Discussions with 10 health care providers (5 Male, 5 Female). 18 In-depth interviews and 4 Key informant Interviews with health managers were interviewed. Data audio was recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using NVIVO software following thematic analysis approach.Results: The results of this study have revealed the interaction of factors associated with the delivery of services in the community by health care providers are as follows; Barriers like social-cultural practices mentioned to improve treatment services among PLHIV. Issues of continuous non-disclosure amongst discordant couples and stigma have been observed. Furthermore, a shortage of qualified staff with current updates of care and treatment was found to be a major challenge. Inadequate infrastructure for the increasing number of clients in the facilities is one of the mentioned challenges as you find more than one service is provided in one room with a lack of privacy and a breach of confidentiality.Conclusion: Centrally the study has testified that increasing the number of human resources for health (HRH) can increase adoption and retention of clients to care. Reliable transportation of drugs and other commodities to the community all year round, availability of incentives to HCPs for working extra hours, and reliable medical supplies can make an impact on the quality of care, comprehensive pre and post-test counseling for discordant couples will minimize stigma and discrimination amongst couples Regular on the job training and frequent refresher training for most recent updates from MoH will equip HCPs with current skills to manage our clients and thus improve retention into care.
Estate Surveying, Valuation, Education and Practice in Anambra State: Challenges Faced by Female Professional Practitioners (Published)
Professional practice especially in Estate Surveying and Valuation industry no doubt has its challenges and there is an increasing quest to survive by both the male and female practitioners in Nigeria. However, it appears the females are finding the practice of the profession more challenging than their male counterparts. This study however looked at the challenges faced by female Estate Surveyors and Valuers (ESV) in the public and private sectors of the industry in Anambra State. Primary data were collected and analysed using simple tables and percentages. Challenges identified include; difficulty in balancing work and family lives, the inability to attend to assignments outside the town at short notice and lack of marital support. The study recommended that efforts should be made to encourage more women, attract them into practice, also into educational sector, give more opportunities to them for research and more importantly discourage sexual harassment.
Fiscal decentrialisation and challenges of property tax mobilization: A case study of Bolgatanga Municipality (Published)
Decentralised municipal and district assemblies of Ghana have over the years usually not been able to wield the necessary financial muscle to provide essential goods and services for their constituents. Fiscal decentralization gives authority to the assemblies to impose taxes and levies in order to strengthen their financial base and to discharge their responsibilities efficiently and effectively. Yet, decentralized local governments have not been able to realize their tax targets through property tax. This paper seeks to investigate the key issues and challenges that confront the Bolgatanga Municipality Assembly in meeting its property tax revenue collection targets to finance social services such as roads, sanitation, health and electricity. The purposiv e sampling method was used to select staff from th e Bolgatanga Municipal Ass embly, Lands Commission, rev enu e collectors and prop erty own ers. The results revealed a number of factors underpinning the Assembly’s ability to raise property tax revenue notable among which are failure to update valuation rolls, inadequate databases and logistics, fraudulent practices of revenue collectors, limited capacity, inadequate valuation practices poorly motivated staff, political interference.inadequate and inaccurate public address system and house numbers and the Assembly’s inability to prepare and maintain complete records on property rat e.To the management of the Bolgatanga Municipal Assembly, the study recommends mass public education on property revenue taxation, improve upon the preparation and maintenance of complete records, Prevent or minimize the incidence of revenue leakages, motivate employee to enable them carry out their duties diligently and honestly without thinking of ways to steal the organization, enhancing the capacity staff in rating valuation, protection of property taxation from political interference, enforcement of law against non-compliance, enforcement of legal action against defaulters, adjusting property taxes according to “ability to pay” as well as some exemption to the extremely poor rural dwellers
This study investigated the challenges encountered by student teachers during their teaching practice. The sample of the study comprised 4 supervisors and 12 student teachers enrolled in the final semester in the Faculty of Education at Tripoli University. The student teachers studied different content and method courses during their studying journey in the college and did some micro teaching as a prerequisite for the teaching practice. A questionnaire and a semi-structured interview were employed for data collection. Data analysis revealed that although there was a noticeable application of what they had studied in the college, some remarkable challenges were found. For instance, lack of cooperation between the student teachers and school principal and cooperative teachers, lack of confidence, lack of classroom management skills, little guidance, and support from the part of the supervisors. Finally, the study provided several suggestions that could help eradicate or at least minimize the effect of these challenges on the quality of teaching practice.
It is no doubt that corruption is a global plague ravaging world’s economy. Corruption is depleting the scarce economic resources of developed and developing nations though, at varying intensities. Corruption has also been described as the black hole which must be thoroughly covered. In a bid to fighting corruption in the world, the whistle blowing mechanism was adopted by several countries including the USA, UK, South Africa and Nigeria. To complement the efforts of ICPC and EFCC, the whistle-blowing machinery was adopted in Nigeria by the Muhammadu Buhari/Osinbajo administration in 2016. This paper examined the economic gains, prospects and challenges of the whistle blowing policy in Nigeria. The Role and Framing Theories were adopted in the study to explain the question of morality and persuasiveness through specific communication strategies to the citizens. The methodology used in the study was qualitative deductions from secondary data. The study discovered that the policy has attracted 5,000 tips which led to recovery of several billions of naira. Also discovered, was that there was no law protecting whistle-blowers from victimizations and recriminations. The paper therefore recommends that, the long overdue whistle-blower protection bill of 2011 should be passed into law as an emergency law amongst others
Challenges of Utilising the Key Messages of Coronavirus Pandemic Campaigns in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)
This study investigated the challenges of utilising the key messages of coronavirus pandemic campaign in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Survey research design was adopted for the study while questionnaire was the instrument of data collection. The study was anchored on social cognitive theory and Health belief model. The population of the study comprised of residents of Akwa Ibom State, which according to 2018 projection of the National Population Commission census figure of 2006 was 5,828,267. The sample size of 400 was drawn using Taro Yamane’s sample size formula. The study found out that the level of awareness of the coronavirus pandemic campaign was high in the metropolis but low in rural communities. The study also found out that the level of compliance was very low. Moreso, the study found out that majority of respondents did not believe that coronavirus exist in Nigeria. The study recommends that awareness should not be left alone in the hands of government, individuals should be ready to save lives by promoting the campaign of coronavirus in the society.
Challenges Faced By Mathematics Education Student-Teachers during Macro-Teaching Practice (Published)
It sounds contradictory when students who are being trained to teach go to the field and end up performing quite below standard despite all efforts put in place by the university to produce effective and productive teachers. The issue been raised is, what then becomes the fate of the students they are teaching in terms of performance? It is in this view that the current research was conducted to examine the challenges faced by mathematics education students during macro-teaching. To achieve the objective of the study, a descriptive survey design was employed for the study. A sample size of 35 final year students offering Bachelor of Education (Mathematics) programme were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Questionnaires were used as the main instruments for data collection during the research process. Results from the study indicated that student-teachers encounter environmental, instructional and supervisory challenges. Environment challenges faced by these students include inadequate teaching and learning mathematics and difficulty in transport to the schools. Other challenges encountered, conclusions, recommendations as well as the implications of the findings are discussed in the work.
Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring Of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)
The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes
A Historical Analysis of the Introduction, Spread and Impact of Western Education in Southern Taraba Area, 1905 to 2018 (Published)
Education can be construed as a pattern of awareness which determines and influences the behavioural pattern of any given society. It encompasses societal civilization, values, norms and traditions. It is a people’s belief system, system of thought, an instrument through which a society produces and reproduces its kind in the light of what makes one a representation of his/her society. Every society therefore has its own system of education through which cultural transmission and socialization are anchored. Unfortunately, former colonies erroneously consider western education as the only best alternative for all-round development. It is viewed as the basic instrument for civilization, gainful employment, socialization, economic prosperity and development. This conventional assumptions has resulted in the eventual neglect of the traditional education by African societies, Southern Taraba inclusive. This paper therefore examine the process of introduction and spread of western education in Southern Taraba Area. The paper captures issues like the agencies and individuals involved, the impact, challenges encountered and how the challenges can be remedied. Thus, using a multi-disciplinary methodological approach, the study came to the realization that western education has impacted tremendously on the peoples of Southern Taraba Area in the spheres of human, infrastructural, political and socio-economic development.
Agricultural Cooperatives in the Kingdom of Eswatini: Financial Efficiency, Challenges and Opportunities (Published)
Promoting cooperative financial efficiency through problem-solving and arresting opportunities builds cooperative resilience necessary for ameliorating rural livelihoods. Therefore, this study assessed the income-generating capacity, challenges, and opportunities available to agricultural cooperatives in Eswatini. Secondary data were sourced from government and parastatal reports, while primary data were collected through personal interviews guided by a structured questionnaire. Financial ratios, descriptive statistics, and content analysis were employed for data analysis. The results revealed that broiler, dairy, crop, animal feed and sugarcane cooperatives had strong financial efficiency, 81.75%, 65.36%, 49.61%, 40.33% and 36.37%, respectively. High production cost, free-riders, insufficient capital and lack of training on conflict resolution and administration are the major challenges encountered by cooperatives. Agribusiness opportunities exist in all subsectors. An inclusive regulatory body is recommended to establish production-marketing frameworks to enhance financial efficiency. Pragmatic training programmes are required to address intra-organisational challenges, while inter-organisational linkages are necessary to harness opportunities.
Use of Information and Communication Technology Systems for Delivery of Environmental Literacy Education in Nigeria: Opportunities, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
The purpose of this paper is to examine the opportunities, challenges and prospects of using Information and Communication Technology Systems (ICTS) for delivery of Environmental Literacy Education (ELE) in Nigeria. The paper begins by providing a brief but concise definition of Environmental Literacy (EL) and the attributes of an environmentally literate person. It goes on to establish the need for ELE in Nigeria, using empirical evidence that clearly reveals a high level of Environmental Illiteracy among all segments of the Nigerian citizenry and its adverse consequences of wide spread backwardness and poverty in the country. The paper also defines the concept of ICTS and their role in education with particular reference to Nigeria. After further clarification of the focus and content of Environmental Literacy (EL) as the foundation of ELE, and in view of the pervasiveness of the Environmental Illiteracy syndrome in Nigeria, the paper establishes that ELE needs to adopt Formal, Non-Formal, and Informal forms/modes of delivery in order to involve all concerned segments of the Nigerian population and illustrates, in an annotated manner, what ICTS are needed to deliver ELE in Nigeria. The opportunities, challenges and prospects of using the ICTS to deliver the ELE programmes are succinctly highlighted, conclusions drawn, and appropriate recommendation made, specifying that the Federal Government of Nigeria should harness features of the opportunities and prospects to minimize the challenges and promote use of ICTS for delivery of the highly needed ELE in Nigeria.
Comparative Analysis of Business and Consumer Buying Behaviour and Decisions: Opportunities and Challenges in Nigeria (Published)
Business markets and consumer markets are alike in some key ways. For example, both include people in buying roles whose purchased decision is to satisfy needs. But business markets also differ in many ways from consumer markets. For one thing, the business market is enormous, far larger than the consumer market. Within Nigeria and other sub-Saharan African countries the business market includes more than 13 million organizations that annually, purchased trillions of Naira worth of goods and services. This paper also focused on the traditional tools and techniques employed in the marketing of goods and services to the business sector. Attempt was made to draw attention on the major differences between consumer and business markets – dissimilarities that, while using the same basic marketing tools and techniques, spelled the difference between success and failure in the contemporary business marketing environments.
The central aim of this paper is to highlight the rural development processes in Nigeria and identify the emerging challenges that impede sustainable rural development in the country. In achieving its aim, the paper clarified the concept of development and rural development as postulated by various scholars. It examines the modernization and dependency theoretical underpinning of the concepts. The study analyses secondary and empirical sources of data through qualitative methods. The paper posits that the rural areas have constituted majority of the nation’s population and serve as a base for food production. The paper argues that though various rural development policies have been initiated in Nigeria, the conditions of the rural areas has not changed much since independence. Rather, development policies in Nigeria have been tilted toward the urban areas while the rural areas live in extreme poverty and lack basic health, educational and social infrastructures. It identifies emerging challenges such as corruption and mismanagement of resources, poor policy implementation, famers- herders conflicts and lack of autonomy of the local governments. The study recommends more concerted efforts in implementing rural developments projects, punishment of corrupt public officials, effective budget monitoring, provision of security and conflict resolution mechanisms and participation of the rural populace in development projects.
Challenges and Prospects of Monitoring of Adult Education Projects and Programmes For Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)
The focus of the paper is on identification of the challenges and prospects of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. Inadequacy of data, challenge of appropriate interpretation of data, poor utilization of feedback from monitoring, poor funding of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes among others were identified in the paper as the challenges of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper equally identified provision of good information, control of the cost of projects and programmes as well as maintaining the use of good standard as the prospects of monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria. The paper recommends the need for relevant stakeholders in adult education projects and programmes to understand the efficacy of utilization of feedback from monitoring, the need for many task-team members to have adequate technical knowledge and skills among others for effective monitoring of adult education projects and programmes for sustainability in Nigeria.
The period we are in Nigeria is a unique time in history as a nation. The country has in recent times, witnessed an unprecedented magnitude of violence that has shaken the unity of Nigeria. The study therefore examined the challenges to peace building in Nigeria. . The study had adopted descriptive perspective in its analysis of the secondary data obtained for the study. The data obtained indicated that violent conflict from the ramous region and tribes of Nigeria is rooted in the conflict diversity of the citizens and bad governance structure. The study concluded that gives the present political and economic structure, the prospects of achieving peace are less probable, unless, the government of Nigeria would generate political will to address huge human capital development afflict, invest In infrastructure, and re-engineer political consensus on socio-economic and political development in the country.
Intergovernmental Authority on Development and Regional Integration in East Africa: Achievements, Challenges and Prospects (Published)
This study focuses on the activities of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) in promoting regional integration among member countries since its transformation from Intergovernmental Authority on Drought and Development (IGADD) to IGAD in the 1990s. The data for the study are derived from the secondary sources such as textbooks, articles journals, theses, and other relevant documents both offline and online. The theory of liberal intergovernmentalism is adopted for the purpose of analysis. From the findings, the paper notes that so far, the organization has been able to achieve some objectives, including the establishment of IGAD Climate Prediction Application Centre (ICPAC) which relays reports on climate change to member states every 10 days; establishment of IGAD Women’s Desk in 1994 to Foster gender mainstreaming and promote Women’s participation in IGAD Programmes; mediation etcetera. However, the organization is yet to achieve economic union it proposed in 2009. There are also challenges of incessant conflicts/wars among member states. Equally, the issues of harsh weather conditions-drought and desertification- of the region as well as multiplicity of regional organizations with overlapping membership and functions have equally affected the process of integration among IGAD’s member states. Finally, the study makes some recommendations among which are as follows: Member states should focus more on development programmes that will boost the economy of the region so that the goal of integration can be attained; Member countries should avoid joining several organizations with huge cost implications and concentrate on the ones that can help them achieve regional integration among them; The mediation arm of the organization should be strengthened with proper funding while members should remain neutral during mediation to enable the organization meets it goal of peace in the region, Etcetera.
Challenges on Development and Education of Nomadic Children in Sokoto State: Implications for Education and Sustainability (Published)
Globally, education as birth right and sustainable development in human capacities and societal progress are being pursued with vigour. The nomadic Fulani are the second largest population of inhabitants in Sokoto state. However, they are among marginalised, underserved, underdeveloped and less educated group not only in the state but the country at large. The paper identifies nomadic life styles, inadequacies in policies and provisions for nomadic education and wide spread corruptions as major sources of constraints to development and education of Fulani children thus affecting the sustainable development prospects. The paper suggests the need for more concerted efforts form individuals and government, need for accurate census figure, mass mobilisation, wide spread campaign and use of culture-friendly integrated health, socio-economic welfare and education packages for all nomads. The paper concludes that it seems obvious that the nomads prefer sending children to cattle rearing than schooling because to the nomads a child who can rear and milk cow is more desirable than a certificate-holder that has no job or cannot breed cattle, thus it is imperative to make nomadic education more relevant to ideals and values of nomads for sustainable development to be a reality and achievable.