Ethnic-Based Political Parties: Challenges And Prospects For National Unity Of Ethiopia In The Post 1991 (Published)
The aim of the paper is to investigate the challenges and prospects of ethnic-based politics on national unity of Ethiopia. To address the objectives of the study, the researcher employed qualitative approach with case study as study design and used primary and secondary data sources. Primary data was collected from the key informant interview and FGDs. Secondary data was collected from different books, reports, journals, published and unpublished proclamations, conference papers, dissertations and FDRE constitution. In this study the researcher has been used purposive sampling and thematic analysis method based on the objectives of the study. With the view of ensuring unity with diversity the finding of the study has revealed that ethnic-based political parties have daunting challenges for national unity. In this regard, they are playing in the politicizing of ethnicities, ethnic autonomy conflicts and intra-regional boundary conflicts and self-determination and secessionists feeling were discussed on the challenges of national unity for the country. Despite the negative impacts there appeared to be helped role in the empowerment of minority groups and advocacy of culture of ethnic groups in Ethiopia. Consequently, to realization of national unity of Ethiopia, the possible tools have been investigated: the constitutional and electoral reform, the intra-regional boundary demarcation, empowerment of multinational and civic oriented political parties, national consensus and reconciliation. The researcher argues that ethnic politics can also be playing divisive factors which can seriously challenging the mutual existence of Ethiopia and make the quest for national unity difficult. Therefore, it recommends that the view that national unity can be achieved when ethnic politics becomes a tool for the accommodation of diverse political programs.
Keywords: Challenge, Ethnicity, National Unity., Politics, Prospect, ethnic politics
Exploring The Role and Challenges of Ethical Values to impart Good Governance: The Case of Dessie Town, South Wollo, Ethiopia (Published)
The objectives of the study was to assess the role and challenge of realizing ethical values in promoting good governance. For this study the data was gathered from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources of information was gathered through questionnaire and interviews whereas secondary data gathered from different types of documentaries, published materials and internet websites resources. The gathered data were analyzed and interpreted by using tables and percentages. As the study revealed, the overall objective of good governance is to ensure good conduct with the concern for values, practices and behavior. These values are inculcated in an individual by his/her parents, teachers, religion, society and the environmental of work place. The essential duty of governance principles is to effectively and equitably implement ethical values of the society. Hence, it demands highly competent, well administration, participatory and good deal of sound policy formulation and distinct citizen orientation. The promotion of ethical values in good governance implies legality of government action; rationality in policy and decision making; evolving a sense of responsibility; creating excellence; facilitating spirit of individual and organizational goals; developing responsiveness; protecting the national interests; and bringing and elevating integrity. The study identified the role and challenge of realizing ethical values in promoting good governance in Dessie Town. It is recommended by the researcher that the officials and religious institutions must give high consideration to ethical values and principles for realization of good governance in the study area.
Keywords: Challenge, Ethics, Good Governance, Morality, Promotion
Issues and Challenges of Urban Governance in Africa: The Nigerian Experience (Published)
The growth of urban centres has become one of the most remarkable trends of the 20th century Africa. Mans’ inclination to agglomerate in large number in a few urban centres is quite impressive. No wonder about 10 of the fastest growing cities in the world are found in Africa with an annual average growth rate of 3.5 percent and presently the fastest in the world. (UN World Urbanisation Prospect, 2014). The urbanisation process is accelerate by the dynamisms of the socio-political and economic conditions of the contemporary times, coupled with the increasing migration that takes place in Africa. As the ever increasing urban population lead to proliferation of cities, certain environmental, legal, institutional and other problems arise resulting in ineffective urban governance. This paper therefore examined the problem issues that have negative impacts on urban governance in Africa. Eeffective urban governance is to be understood from the perspective of Associative Network model. Data was basically drawn from secondary sources. Findings showed that effective urban governance hinges on efficient local government through synergy and collaboration of all stake holders, multi level government, public /private partnership, greater space for public participation etc.
Keywords: Challenge, Governance, Issues, Urbanization, urban governance
The Challenges Facing Secondary School Principals as Human Resource Managers (HRMS) In Line of Duty: A Case of Nandi County, Kenya (Published)
UNESCO (1996) notes that education systems nearly everywhere are managed poorly and administered inefficiently. Despite the enormous expectations of school principals, many are not fully prepared for the task. The headship of secondary schools in Kenya is usually a product of the teaching force. Teachers, who have spent a minimum of ten years in service, are usually appointed as principals and deputy principals of secondary schools. Thus years of experience remain the major yardstick for appointment into the position of principal as opposed to relevant skills and qualifications. This paper seeks to identify the many challenges faced by Principals as HRMs in performing their roles. The target population was 140 secondary school principals drawn from Nandi County. Census sampling was used to select the study sample. Data collection was done using self-administered questionnaire. Coding of responses was done using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The paper points out that: empowerment of the staff, team management and career development among others, as challenges resulting from inadequate training. The study recommends introduction of HRM courses in Teacher Training Colleges.
Keywords: Challenge, Human Resource Managers, Principals, Roles, Secondary School