The growth of urban centres has become one of the most remarkable trends of the 20th century Africa. Mans’ inclination to agglomerate in large number in a few urban centres is quite impressive. No wonder about 10 of the fastest growing cities in the world are found in Africa with an annual average growth rate of 3.5 percent and presently the fastest in the world. (UN World Urbanisation Prospect, 2014). The urbanisation process is accelerate by the dynamisms of the socio-political and economic conditions of the contemporary times, coupled with the increasing migration that takes place in Africa. As the ever increasing urban population lead to proliferation of cities, certain environmental, legal, institutional and other problems arise resulting in ineffective urban governance. This paper therefore examined the problem issues that have negative impacts on urban governance in Africa. Eeffective urban governance is to be understood from the perspective of Associative Network model. Data was basically drawn from secondary sources. Findings showed that effective urban governance hinges on efficient local government through synergy and collaboration of all stake holders, multi level government, public /private partnership, greater space for public participation etc.
The Challenges Facing Secondary School Principals as Human Resource Managers (HRMS) In Line of Duty: A Case of Nandi County, Kenya (Published)
UNESCO (1996) notes that education systems nearly everywhere are managed poorly and administered inefficiently. Despite the enormous expectations of school principals, many are not fully prepared for the task. The headship of secondary schools in Kenya is usually a product of the teaching force. Teachers, who have spent a minimum of ten years in service, are usually appointed as principals and deputy principals of secondary schools. Thus years of experience remain the major yardstick for appointment into the position of principal as opposed to relevant skills and qualifications. This paper seeks to identify the many challenges faced by Principals as HRMs in performing their roles. The target population was 140 secondary school principals drawn from Nandi County. Census sampling was used to select the study sample. Data collection was done using self-administered questionnaire. Coding of responses was done using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The paper points out that: empowerment of the staff, team management and career development among others, as challenges resulting from inadequate training. The study recommends introduction of HRM courses in Teacher Training Colleges.