Education at the bedside of a “consensual democracy” in Chadian style (Published)
Just after its accession to international sovereignty, Chad experienced decades of socio-political crises. This has had negative repercussions on its development at all levels and particularly on its education system. However, a democratic process in a country can only achieve the expected objectives if it takes place in a State with a high rate of school-going population. This contribution attempts to show how the success of a country’s democratic process depends to a large extent on the educational culture of its citizens. With a view to achieving the desired objectives, documents relating to the political history of Chad and those concerning the evolution of the Chadian educational process were consulted. In addition to the documentary approach, we proceeded by direct observation in the field. This allowed us to briefly present the vicissitudes that have characterized Chad and to establish their impact on the country’s education and democratic culture.
Keywords: Chad, Chadian politics, Democracy, Education, history
Les mécanismes de gouvernance des PME familiales en Afrique (Published)
The objective of this paper is to provide conceptual clarification of governance mechanisms based on a literature review applied to African family SMEs. The analysis of the literature review made it possible to understand the specificities of African family businesses through a better knowledge of their governance practices on the one hand, and by specific African management in the light of contemporary theories, on the other hand. The study analyses the cultural realities of the African field to propose an explanatory and interpretative framework in the context of African specific management.
Keywords: Africa, Chad, Culture, Family business, Governance, SMEs