Small Organic Farming: The Case of Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) Value Chain in São Tomé and Príncipe (Published)
Organic agriculture, in addition to supporting environmental sustainability, has been a meaningful way to protect and develop small farming in developing regions. The changes that have occurred within the value chain, such as increases in global standards and the effect of globalisation, have created an increase in both opportunities and risks for smallholders. In the developing countries, mainly on African continent organic agriculture beyond being less researched than in the developed ones, there are constraints related to scale, certification policies, strategies, and the fact that most farmers remain in informal circuits. This paper presents a study of the pepper value chain in São Tomé e Príncipe, which is divided into two categories: certified organic producers, affiliated (Aff) to the Cooperative of Pepper and Vanilla Export (CEPIBA) and non-certified organic pepper, non-affiliated farmers (Naf). The study presents the strategy to promote organic farming through the value chain and a brief comparison among certified and non-certified organic producers. The results showed that Aff perform better than Naf because they have financial stability and apply sustainable practices that are more productive and provide better income, while Naf generally practice subsistence farming with the exception of some medium enterprises.
Not only in the field of education but also in many other forms of social expression and action, a period of fundamental changes can be observed due to the incorporation of new data imposed by the technological revolution. However, the process of integrating Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in the learning process requires coordination, system change and radical transformations. These changes should be incorporated into curricula, while active teachers should have ongoing training on new technologies. In such a context, this paper comes to explore the views of secondary education teachers on the use of information and communication technologies in the learning process. In particular, a sample survey was conducted to determine the degree of utilization of new information and communication technologies in the learning process, especially in secondary school teachers in the Prefecture of Aitoloakarnania. The statistical software SPSS 23 was used to analyze the data obtained from the questionnaires. Tools and methods of descriptive and inductive statistics were used. The results highlight the low percentage of teachers who have received Level B certification and demonstrate the low level of ICT use by teachers, identifying at the same time all the factors affecting negatively their use and application.