Construction and Validation of a Five-Dimensional Celebrity Endorsement Scale: Introducing the Pater Model (Published)
Research has shown that the use of celebrity endorsers brings many positive effects including a positive brand attitude, building brand awareness, creating positive feelings towards the ad and increased purchase intention for the brand. However, the process of choosing the right celebrity for the brand is not easy. It is important for the companies to choose an effective celebrity as their brand ambassador. The purpose of the present study is to construct and validate a scale that the marketing managers can use to select an effective celebrity endorser for their products/brands. Through a survey of 692 respondents in India who are exposed to celebrity endorsements for various products/brands, a five-dimensional scale measuring various attributes of a celebrity endorser is revealed through exploratory factor analysis. The scale is empirically tested for unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. The resultant validated instrument comprises of five dimensions of celebrity endorsers including attractiveness, trustworthiness, expertise, popularity and relevance. Thus, the present study presents a new model – PATER model of celebrity endorsements, defining the important attributes that should be considered in making a choice of the celebrity endorser.
Celebrity endorsement (CE) has been successful as one of the Marketing Communications tools and has attained such popularity but abound extant literature and various research works have not consider challenges Corporate Organizations are confronted with in their business endeavor by engaging Celebrities to endorse the organization’s brands. It is believed that in every endeavor there are few challenges that are set to militate against whatever good intentions or objectives that venture might have. This paper therefore, focus is on findings from a research project that reflected upon the challenges of Celebrity endorsement (CE) and how they have affected diffusion. CE was applied to capture Customers and Business Executives experiences on using Celebrity Endorsers which provided a basis for observation and reflection. The research adopted both quantitative and qualitative methodology. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. The study surveyed 30 Business Executives. The outcome of the study has proved that despite the enormous feat chalked by CE successes and its popularity attained factors such as Management, Publicity, Contract, Customer match-up and Competition were identified to be the challenging factors that have been drawbacks inhibiting Celebrity endorsements.
This paper reports on findings from a research project that reflected upon the effectiveness of Celebrity endorsement (CE) and how it impacts on adoption. The study was undertaken to reflect upon the rate at which CE with the aid of modern technology have enhanced and transformed social interactions which have quickened communication within, between and among societies hence spreading information faster and easier throughout communities earlier than anticipated. The Rogers’ Diffusion and Adoption Model was applied to capture Customers and Business Executives experiences on using Celebrity Endorsers which provided a basis for observation and reflection. The research adopted both quantitative and qualitative methodology. Questionnaires were used to collect the data. The study surveyed 1000 Customers, and interviewed 30 Business Executives. The outcome of the study has proved that CE greatly impact on the diffusion process of products and services into markets at a faster rate than has been assumed. Hence it has modified the Rogers and Bass Diffusion model in 1983.
Impact of Celebrity Endorsements on Consumers’ Ad Perception: A Study Of Indian Consumers (Published)
Numerous researches have proved empirically the effectiveness and the positive influence of celebrity endorsements in advertising. The present study attempts to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers’ ad perception through a survey of 336 respondents in India. The three-dimensional scale proposed by Roobina Ohanian (1990) has been used for the purpose. Thus, the present study considers three attributes of celebrity endorsements as suggested by Ohanian – attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise. The study also attempts to find out the individual impact of these dimensions on consumers’ ad perception. Exploratory factor analysis was used to reconfirm the factor structure. The model used was empirically tested for unidimensionality, reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity, using confirmatory factor analysis. Structural equation modeling was used to find out the impact of celebrity endorsements on consumers’ ad perception. Results revealed that celebrity endorsements have a significant impact on consumers’ ad perception. Further, attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise, all were found to have a significant impact on ad perception.