Tag Archives: Causality

Proximal Processes and Causality in Human Development (Published)

The bioecological model developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner includes the process, person, context, time framework and a concept of interaction known as proximal process. While the concept of proximal process is essential in explaining developmental outcomes, it has not been fully developed. The goal of this inquiry is to focus in particular on proximal process and examine some aspects of it in terms of the Aristotelian four causes. Bronfenbrenner’s theory is introduced, and proximal process is defined and briefly appraised. The four Aristotelian causes are defined, and examples are suggested. The concept of proximal process is examined with regard to material cause, formal cause, efficient cause, and final cause. It is important from the perspective of developmental research to more fully define proximal processes and to conceptualize them in terms of the four causes that were described by Aristotle. Such a conceptualization could lead to identification of measurable variables that represent the four Aristotelian causes.

Keywords: Aristotle, Causality, Proximal Process

Crude Oil Production, Prices, Export And Foreign Exchange Rate, Do They Interact? Evidence from Nigeria (2006 – 2014) (Published)

The purpose of the study is to determine the extent to which Foreign Exchange Rate is influenced by or associated with crude oil selling price, crude oil export and crude oil production and the direction and magnitude of their granger causalities in Nigeria oil and gas sector (2006 -2014). Data were collected from Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and multiple regression, correlation and granger causality approach were adopted in the analysis of data. It was found that foreign exchange rate is positively influenced by volume of crude oil export and the selling price per barrel of crude oil, though not significantly; while a weak and insignificant relationship exists between crude oil export, crude oil production and foreign exchange rate. There is no Granger Causality running from any of the explanatory variables namely crude oil export, crude oil selling price and crude oil production, to foreign exchange rate. This implies that there are other factors that exert more far reaching impact on foreign exchange rate than crude oil production, export and sales price in Nigeria. Hence, the regulatory agencies in Nigeria such as the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) and Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) should strengthen other macroeconomic and microeconomic variables in other to foster a stable foreign exchange regime.

Keywords: Causality, Correlation, Foreign Exchange, OPEC, Regression, crude oil

CARBON EMISSION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH OF SAARC COUNTRIES: A VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR) ANALYSIS (Published)

This paper examines the causal relationship between carbon ( ) emissions and economic growth in seven SAARC countries using time series data for the period from 1972-2012. We applied Vector Error Correction Modeling (VECM) approach. We have also applied Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (P.P) test and Johansen’s cointegration approach to check time series properties and cointegration relationship of the variables. Results exhibit a cointegration relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth. Results also show that the estimated coefficients of emissions have positive and significant impacts on GDP in the long run. These results will help the environmental authorities to understand the effects of economic growth on environment for degradation and manage the environmental problems using macroeconomic methods.

Keywords: Causality, Emission, GDP, SAARC, VECM

Carbon Emission and Economic Growth of SAARC Countries: A Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Analysis (Review Completed - Accepted)

This paper examines the causal relationship between carbon ( ) emissions and economic growth in seven SAARC countries using time series data for the period from 1972-2012. We applied Vector Error Correction Modeling (VECM) approach. We have also applied Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (P.P) test and Johansen’s cointegration approach to check time series properties and cointegration relationship of the variables. Results exhibit a cointegration relationship between environmental pollution and economic growth. Results also show that the estimated coefficients of emissions have positive and significant impacts on GDP in the long run. These results will help the environmental authorities to understand the effects of economic growth on environment for degradation and manage the environmental problems using macroeconomic methods.

Keywords: Causality, Emission, GDP, SAARC, VECM