Biofertilizer Impacts: Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Cultivation Crop Yield and Regenerative Agriculture (Published)
Citation: Ayodele A. Otaiku (2022) Biofertilizer Impacts | Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Cultivation Crop Yield and Regenerative Agriculture, Global Journal of Agricultural Research , Vol.10, No.1, pp.1-90
Abstract: Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) demand by 700 million people and cultivated in 105 countries between Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn within 2300m elevations globally for food security and the cultivation impact on biodiversity require biofertilizer to mitigate climate challenges, crop sustainable development and regenerative agriculture. Nigeria is the world largest producer with a global average yield of 11.80 t/ha, cassava yields can reach 80 t/ha, compared to the current world average yield of just 12.8 t/ha. Biofertilizer solves the traceability problem of chemical farm inputs, suitability and nutrient use efficiency as an integral function of the rhizosphere microbiome via plant microbe interactions for improved soil health quality and crop degradation management. Cassava cultivation with biofertilizer will reduce hydrogen cyanide (HCN) levels in the crop as an integral bioavailability of soil organic matter and nutrient use efficiency. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in the biofertilizer will ameliorate plant abiotic stress and bio-control diseases management. Easily accessed agrobacterium inoculant in biofertilizer has potential for transgenic cassava cultivar development for improved yield and nutrient biofortification. This book chapter encapsulate the case studies trilogy research article papers on biofertilizer impacts on soil microbiome during cassava cultivation for crop yield, soil health, regenerative agriculture, value chain development, food and nutrition security.
Varietal Evaluation of the Chemical Composition, Field Performance and Yield of Some Improved Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Varieties in Rivers State, Nigeria (Published)
This study examined eleven improved cassava varieties that could be recommended to farmers for higher productivity in order to meet the high demand for cassava produce in the sub region. The eleven cassava varieties include TMS 01/1371, TMS 96/1632, TMS 98/0510, TME 419, TMS 98/0581, TMS 01/1368, TMS 07/0593, TMS 98 / 0505, TMS 30572, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 95/0289. The field performance evaluated include: plant height, leaf number, number branched, fresh tuber yield and dry weight. Immediately after harvest, the tubers were analyzed for chemical composition such as hydrogen cyanide, percentage moisture content, fibre and starch for each of the varieties. Results of the study showed significant (P<0.05) variation on the performances of the various improve cassava varieties studied. The top seven high yielding varieties among the studied varieties intense of fresh tuber yield which is a product of high growth performance as revealed by the results of this experiment include TMS 01/1371 > TMS 01/1368 > TME 419 > TMS 98/0505 > TMS 98/0581 > TMS 30572 and TMS 92/0326 in decreasing order. Similarly, low cyanide content and early high dry matter content such as starch and fibre evaluation of the studied varieties significantly (P<0.05) revealed TME 419 as the best performed followed by TMS 98/0505 > TMS 30572 > TMS 01/1368 > TMS 01/1371 and TMS 07/0593 in decreasing order. These varieties could be recommended for rapid stem multiplication and distribution to farmers for cultivation and consumption in Rivers State and Nigeria at large to increase the quantity of cassava products. With these selected improved varieties, adequate agronomic practices and processing, cassava yield and product quality could be bettered with less land use and labor.
Growth Performance of Eleven Improved Cassava Varieties and their susceptibility to Some Insect Pests and Diseases in Humid Tropics, Rivers State (Published)
Study on the agronomic evaluation and disease resistance of eleven improved cassava varieties was carried out in Rivers State University Teaching and Research Farm in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The eleven varieties assessed are TMS 30572, TMS 98/0510, TMS 98/0581, TMS 98/0505, TMS 92/0326, TME 419, TMS 01/1371, TMS 01/1368, TMS 07/0593, TMS 95/0289 and TMS 96/1632 were evaluated for plant height, leaf number, number of branches, number of flowers, insect infestation and disease incidence. The plant height of the cassava varieties revealed that eight varieties (TMS 01/1371, TMS 01/1368, TMS 30572, TME 419, TMS 98/0505, TMS 96/1632, TMS 98/0510 and TMS 07/0593) are tall varieties while TMS 98/0581, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 95/0289 are short varieties. The highest leaf number was recorded in TMS 01/1371 but the tall varieties like TMS 01/1368, TMS 96/1632 and TME 419 had low leaf number. TMS 98/0581, TMS 92/0326 and TMS 95/0289 were shown to have scanty leaves. TMS 01/1371 was significantly higher (P<0.05) than other varieties in plant height, leaf number and branches. Four varieties flowered namely TMS 07/0593, TMS 01/1371, TMS 30572 and TMS 98/0505. TMS 30572 and TMS 92/0326 were highly susceptible to both African Cassava Mosaic and Xanthomona sp. (Bacterial blight diseases) while TMS 95/0289, TMS 01/1368 and TMS 98/0505 were less susceptible to African Cassava Mosaic virus disease alone. Insect infestations (White fly: Bemisia sp. and Mealybugs: Phenacoccus sp.) on the tested varieties were significantly minimal though five cultivars (TMS 98/0505, TMS 96/1632, TMS 98/0510, TMS 98/0581 and TMS 95/0289) were completely resistant. Therefore, there is urgent need to withdraw the varieties that are susceptible, and use more of the varieties that are disease resistant for high crop yield, breeding and higher productivity.
Analysis of cassava production in Akpabuyo Local Government Area: An econometric investigation using farm-level data (Published)
The study analyzed the economics of cassava production in Akpabuyo LGA of Cross River State. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 75 respondents for the study using a validated structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, budgetary method and regression analysis. Findings revealed that farm size, labour, the quantity of fertilizer, and gender were the significant factors affecting cassava production in the study area. The coefficients of elasticity showed that a 10% increase in capital, labour, number of bundles and quantity of fertilizer would lead to 0.06, 0.84, 0.03 and 0.85% increase respectively in cassava production while that of farm size will lead to -0.64% decline in cassava production. Total Cost (TC) per hectare of N35,990.4 was incurred in cassava production and a net farm income (NFI) of N39,957.6 was earned and return on naira invested was N2.11. Unfavourable government policies, sparse marketing outlets, inadequate capital, high cost of inputs, insufficient farmland, high cost of transportation and lack of extension services were the severe constraint faced by cassava farmers in the study area. Extension agents should be mobilized and sent to the study area to educate the farmers on the innovation practices available for cassava farming to encourage its production.
Mapping Of Weeds in Cassava Fields Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 1n Derived Savanna of Nigeria (Published)
The investigation of weed spectrum in cassava fields was carried out in Derived savanna agro-ecology (Ido Local Government Area) of southern Nigeria in 2017. Thirteen (13) cassava farms were surveyed. Coordinate points, elevation of the investigation sites and mapping were conducted with Geographic information system (GIS). Weed flora composition of each location was studied by sampling randomly using ’M’ pattern of quadrat placement and average from the samples was recorded. Results showed that thirty-six (36) weed species cutting across twenty-one (21) families were identified. This showed the richness and dominance of weed flora identified in the agro-ecology. Tridax procumbens, Talinum fruticosum, Euphorbia heterophylla, Chromolaena odorata and Ageratum conyzoides were the most frequent weed species and evidently showed their broader environmental tolerance. Weediness in cassava fields ranged from 4.67/10 to 8.33/10 across locations. Cultural practices and location might have influenced the weediness and weed flora composition.
Influence of Potassium Iodide Fertilization Rates on Performance and Fortification of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) in Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
Pot and field experiments were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 in Calabar, (Southeastern rainforest agro-ecological zone of Nigeria) to determine the effective rate (0, 0.25, 0.50, & 1.0g KI) on agronomic fortification of two cassava varieties (TME 419 and TMS 30555). The designs were a 2×4 factorial experiment laid out in randomised complete block designed with three replicates. Vegetative parameters measured were plant height, leaf area (LA), tuber weight and tuber weight per plot. Iodine content was determined in cassava tuber and processed products (fufu). In both pot and field, applied doses of iodine did not significantly vary the plant height and LA and tuber weight (p≥0.05). Plot yield were not markedly influenced by Iodine levels (p≥0.05). Iodine absorption and retention in tuber flesh and fufu were significantly positively correlated with Iodine doses (p0≥.05 and 0.01). KI, at 2.5g per plant or 25kg/ha favoured iodine retention in tuber and fufu in TME 419 and for TMS 30555, 0.5g per plant or 5.0kg/ha. TME 419 retained more Iodine in tissues than TMS 30555.
Effect of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Variety, Drying Method and Blending Ratio on the Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Cassava-Wheat Composite Bread (Published)
The use of composite cassava-wheat flour for commercial bread making purposes and consumption of composite cassava-wheat bread are relatively new in Ethiopia. This experiment was conducted to explore the effects of cassava variety, drying methods and blending ratio on chemical compositions and sensory properties of cassava-wheat composite bread. Two levels of cassava verities (Qulle and Kello), two levels of drying methods (sun and oven) and three levels of blending rations (11.12g, 25.00 g and 42.90 g of cassava in 100 g of control wheat flour) were used and the treatments were factorial arranged in complete randomized design with three replications. Blending with Qulle and Kello varieties had reduced crude protein content to 9.18 and 8.84 %, respectively as compared to the protein content (10.05 %) in the control (100% wheat bread). Similarly, the crude fat dropped to 1.18 to 1.12 % from 2.33%, the crude fiber increased to 2.05 and 2.03 % from 1.17 %, the carbohydrate (%) increased to 80.13 and 81.10 from 77.33, the ash increased to 2.21 and 2.10 % relative to 1.82 % in wheat bread. No significant (P>0.05) differences were detected in proximate compositions attributed to the two drying methods. With increase in blending ratio the carbohydrate, the crude fiber and the ash contents increased whereas the protein content decreased significantly (P<0.05). No significant (P>0.05) differences were observed in overall acceptability of the composite breads due to varieties and drying methods. However, as the blending ratio increased the overall acceptability dropped significantly (P<0.05). It could be concluded that the substitution of cassava flour with wheat flour in bread making with substitution level up to 25 g did not adversely affect the quality properties of the bread and produce bread comparable to that produced from wheat flour in terms of proximate composition and sensory acceptability. Further studies are required to investigate the impacts on anti-nutrients and storage period on cassava-wheat composite bread.
EFFECT OF NATIONAL SPECIAL PROGRAMME FOR FOOD SECURITY ON CASSAVA OUTPUT AMONG RURAL FARMERS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
This study was carried out to analyse the effect of National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS) on cassava output in among rural farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to ascertain the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents determine the effect of the programme on cassava output and identify the problems encountered by the beneficiaries. Data for the study were collected through structured questionnaire from the three agricultural zones in the state using multi-stage random sampling technique for the selection of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. A total of 203 respondents were used for the study. The tools used for data analyses included frequencies, percentages, means and paired t-test. The result indicated that most of the respondents were females and married. Most of them were between the ages of 31-40 years and had household size of 6-10 persons. Majority had secondary education and had annual income of less than N100, 000(one hundred thousand) naira. The paired t-test result indicated that the mean annual output of beneficiaries was higher and significantly different from that of the non-beneficiaries at 95% confidence level and late release of loan and inputs was rank first among other problems encountered by the beneficiaries. The study therefore recommended that NSPFS project site should be expanded to other communities across the state. Loan and other inputs from the NSPFS should be released early enough to the beneficiaries to effectively improve their productivity and enhance food security in the State.