Analysis of cassava production in Akpabuyo Local Government Area: An econometric investigation using farm-level data (Published)
The study analyzed the economics of cassava production in Akpabuyo LGA of Cross River State. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select a sample size of 75 respondents for the study using a validated structured questionnaire. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics, budgetary method and regression analysis. Findings revealed that farm size, labour, the quantity of fertilizer, and gender were the significant factors affecting cassava production in the study area. The coefficients of elasticity showed that a 10% increase in capital, labour, number of bundles and quantity of fertilizer would lead to 0.06, 0.84, 0.03 and 0.85% increase respectively in cassava production while that of farm size will lead to -0.64% decline in cassava production. Total Cost (TC) per hectare of N35,990.4 was incurred in cassava production and a net farm income (NFI) of N39,957.6 was earned and return on naira invested was N2.11. Unfavourable government policies, sparse marketing outlets, inadequate capital, high cost of inputs, insufficient farmland, high cost of transportation and lack of extension services were the severe constraint faced by cassava farmers in the study area. Extension agents should be mobilized and sent to the study area to educate the farmers on the innovation practices available for cassava farming to encourage its production.
Mapping Of Weeds in Cassava Fields Using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) 1n Derived Savanna of Nigeria (Published)
The investigation of weed spectrum in cassava fields was carried out in Derived savanna agro-ecology (Ido Local Government Area) of southern Nigeria in 2017. Thirteen (13) cassava farms were surveyed. Coordinate points, elevation of the investigation sites and mapping were conducted with Geographic information system (GIS). Weed flora composition of each location was studied by sampling randomly using ’M’ pattern of quadrat placement and average from the samples was recorded. Results showed that thirty-six (36) weed species cutting across twenty-one (21) families were identified. This showed the richness and dominance of weed flora identified in the agro-ecology. Tridax procumbens, Talinum fruticosum, Euphorbia heterophylla, Chromolaena odorata and Ageratum conyzoides were the most frequent weed species and evidently showed their broader environmental tolerance. Weediness in cassava fields ranged from 4.67/10 to 8.33/10 across locations. Cultural practices and location might have influenced the weediness and weed flora composition.
Influence of Potassium Iodide Fertilization Rates on Performance and Fortification of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) in Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
Pot and field experiments were conducted between November 2011 and May 2013 in Calabar, (Southeastern rainforest agro-ecological zone of Nigeria) to determine the effective rate (0, 0.25, 0.50, & 1.0g KI) on agronomic fortification of two cassava varieties (TME 419 and TMS 30555). The designs were a 2×4 factorial experiment laid out in randomised complete block designed with three replicates. Vegetative parameters measured were plant height, leaf area (LA), tuber weight and tuber weight per plot. Iodine content was determined in cassava tuber and processed products (fufu). In both pot and field, applied doses of iodine did not significantly vary the plant height and LA and tuber weight (p≥0.05). Plot yield were not markedly influenced by Iodine levels (p≥0.05). Iodine absorption and retention in tuber flesh and fufu were significantly positively correlated with Iodine doses (p0≥.05 and 0.01). KI, at 2.5g per plant or 25kg/ha favoured iodine retention in tuber and fufu in TME 419 and for TMS 30555, 0.5g per plant or 5.0kg/ha. TME 419 retained more Iodine in tissues than TMS 30555.
Effect of Cassava (Manihot Esculenta Crantz) Variety, Drying Method and Blending Ratio on the Proximate Composition and Sensory Properties of Cassava-Wheat Composite Bread (Published)
The use of composite cassava-wheat flour for commercial bread making purposes and consumption of composite cassava-wheat bread are relatively new in Ethiopia. This experiment was conducted to explore the effects of cassava variety, drying methods and blending ratio on chemical compositions and sensory properties of cassava-wheat composite bread. Two levels of cassava verities (Qulle and Kello), two levels of drying methods (sun and oven) and three levels of blending rations (11.12g, 25.00 g and 42.90 g of cassava in 100 g of control wheat flour) were used and the treatments were factorial arranged in complete randomized design with three replications. Blending with Qulle and Kello varieties had reduced crude protein content to 9.18 and 8.84 %, respectively as compared to the protein content (10.05 %) in the control (100% wheat bread). Similarly, the crude fat dropped to 1.18 to 1.12 % from 2.33%, the crude fiber increased to 2.05 and 2.03 % from 1.17 %, the carbohydrate (%) increased to 80.13 and 81.10 from 77.33, the ash increased to 2.21 and 2.10 % relative to 1.82 % in wheat bread. No significant (P>0.05) differences were detected in proximate compositions attributed to the two drying methods. With increase in blending ratio the carbohydrate, the crude fiber and the ash contents increased whereas the protein content decreased significantly (P<0.05). No significant (P>0.05) differences were observed in overall acceptability of the composite breads due to varieties and drying methods. However, as the blending ratio increased the overall acceptability dropped significantly (P<0.05). It could be concluded that the substitution of cassava flour with wheat flour in bread making with substitution level up to 25 g did not adversely affect the quality properties of the bread and produce bread comparable to that produced from wheat flour in terms of proximate composition and sensory acceptability. Further studies are required to investigate the impacts on anti-nutrients and storage period on cassava-wheat composite bread.
EFFECT OF NATIONAL SPECIAL PROGRAMME FOR FOOD SECURITY ON CASSAVA OUTPUT AMONG RURAL FARMERS IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
This study was carried out to analyse the effect of National Special Programme for Food Security (NSPFS) on cassava output in among rural farmers in Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to ascertain the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents determine the effect of the programme on cassava output and identify the problems encountered by the beneficiaries. Data for the study were collected through structured questionnaire from the three agricultural zones in the state using multi-stage random sampling technique for the selection of beneficiaries and non-beneficiaries. A total of 203 respondents were used for the study. The tools used for data analyses included frequencies, percentages, means and paired t-test. The result indicated that most of the respondents were females and married. Most of them were between the ages of 31-40 years and had household size of 6-10 persons. Majority had secondary education and had annual income of less than N100, 000(one hundred thousand) naira. The paired t-test result indicated that the mean annual output of beneficiaries was higher and significantly different from that of the non-beneficiaries at 95% confidence level and late release of loan and inputs was rank first among other problems encountered by the beneficiaries. The study therefore recommended that NSPFS project site should be expanded to other communities across the state. Loan and other inputs from the NSPFS should be released early enough to the beneficiaries to effectively improve their productivity and enhance food security in the State.