In 2015, dissolved As, Cu and Pb levels were measured for the winter and summer seasons in the coastal waters of Caspian Sea in Azerbaijan. Ten stations were sampled around the vicinity areas of the Hovsan channel and Hovsan WWTP discharge outfall, while control samples were obtained 3 km away from the effluent. Levels of heavy metals were assessed using ICP-MS. Due to the rapid dilution, the concentrations of trace metals increased from coastal to seaward stations. High values of As and Pb were recorded in the Hovsan channel area and control zone in summer, while in winter it was constant high for both area. The hot spot area for Cu was observed in the Hovsan channel site in winter. Heavy metals and solids were generally considerably deleterious at discharge area. The high levels and behavior of the metals were assessed, and it is therefore, correlated to salinity, nitrites and ammonium. Moreover, As and Cu appear to co-vary more with Ammonium and Nitrite ions in the control area for the winter samples compared to the summer samples.
Caspian Route of the Silk Road (Published)
The article covers geological and historical basis of existence of land isthmus in the Caspian Sea connecting the territory of present Azerbaijan with the coast of Turkmenistan in ancient times (before the VII century AD). Along this isthmus could pass the unknown in the history the route of the Great Silk Road, which was the shortest and most convenient way of delivery of goods from China and countries of Asia to Europe and the Middle East via the Caspian Sea.
The legal status of Caspian Sea has caused a lot of disputes since former USSR dissolution in 1993. The littoral states of this basin have been affected by political and legal views which stated in international relations between these countries.There are different and controversial doctrines amonglittoral states which caused deep separation between them. Also, different seminars and conferences have been held to find a positive solution for dividing this International Lake, the legal system and limitation of every littoral state have been remained as a dilemma.