Tag Archives: Capacities

Chemical and Functional Properties of Wheat, Pigeon Pea and Plantain Composite Flour (Published)

This work was aimed at evaluating the proximate composition, some anti-nutritional factors and functional properties of composite flour produced from wheat, pigeon pea and unripe plantain. Four blends of composite flour were formulated by homogeneously mixing wheat flour, pigeon pea flour and plantain flour in the proportion of 95:5:0 (WPF), 85:10:5 (WPU1), 75:15:10 (WPU2), 65:20:15 (WPU3), respectively, while WHF represented 100% wheat flour served as control. The result of proximate composition signified that there were significant (p<0.05) increases in crude protein (13.25-16.10%), moisture (6.30-10.41%), ash (0.62-1.69%) and crude fibre (0.42-1.13%) content with the inclusion of pigeon pea and plantain flours. Significance reductions in crude lipid (2.84-1.82%) and carbohydrate (76.56-68.85%) contents were observed while energy value was not significantly (p>0.05) different from the control. The anti-nutrient composition of the blends showed significant reduction of HCN (10.71-8.87 mg/100g), oxalate (180.08-90.04 mg/100g) and tannin (13.02-10.23 mg/100g) contents while highest value (1.35 mg/100g) of phytate was observed in WPU2. Bulk density, foaming, water absorption and oil absorption capacities ranged 1.20-1.30 g/ml, 3.70-13.79%, 6.20-6.60 g/g, 6.00-6.40 ml/ml, respectively while swelling index ranged 28.50-32.00 ml/ml. This study showed that fortifying wheat flour with pigeon pea and plantain flours is a significant way of improving nutritive quality, especially the protein and also increased the functionality of the blends when compared with the control.

Keywords: Capacities, Control, Flour, blends, unripe plantain


Teachers are important resources in the teaching and learning process and should therefore be considered alongside other learning resources. They are the best recourses to be built into a particular teaching strategy designed to achieve a specific learning practice for instance thematic approach, without which can be administrative problem to head-teachers. Without adequate resource materials, it is a drawback to the implementation of new ideas and techniques. The study sought to investigate resource capacities of ECDE centers in supporting thematic approach in teaching in early childhood development centers in Eldoret Municipality. It was guided by Kurt Lewin’s Three Stages of Change Model developed in 1954. The study adopted the Descriptive Survey research Design. The target population comprised 266 respondents comprising of 164 ECDE teachers, 82 head teachers and 20 Educational Officials. Stratified sampling was used to select thirty schools out of eighty two schools; Public and Private Schools which translated to 30% of the total sample population. Purposive sampling was used to select all the head teachers to participate in the study while random sampling was also used to select one ECDE teacher. Instrumentation included the questionnaire, interview guide and document analysis. Data was collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Majority of the ECDC’s have inadequate resources and capacities both physical and human required supporting the implementation of thematic approach in teaching ECD children. The head teachers who supervise the curriculum in their schools are also not ECDE compliant hence, may not have be in a position to advice the teachers concerning the approach appropriately. The study recommended that ECDCs be equipped with adequate and developmentally appropriate materials and resources.

Keywords: Approach, Capacities, Resource, Thematic