This paper investigates the impact of process and distribution innovation on sustainable competitive advantage. Data are collected from manufacturing firms in the republic of Cameroon. Variables used were Eco-innovative product and service production process, customer relationship management process innovation and distribution innovation practices as the bases for enhancing sustainable competitive advantage. Sustainable competitive advantage was measured by Customer base-Market share, Employee Satisfaction and sustainable growth. We run a series of three multiple regressions of Customer Satisfaction, Employee Satisfaction, and Sustainable growth on explanatory variables defining Strategic process and distribution innovation practices. Our results show companies would have to implement customer relationship management process innovation and distribution innovation practices and companies would have to implement Eco-innovative product and service production process. Our results show that some companies are struggling with the idea of sustainability and Eco-innovative product production process. They need some expert advice on the way forward.
External Audit and Quality of Accounting and Financial Information in Cameroonian Companies (Published)
In the present economic and financial context of internalisation of commercial transactions and investments, benchmarks in the quality of financial and accounting information within a company are sought by the various stakeholders with quality and reliable financial information being the main factors of concern. Given its geographical setting and the fact that most Cameroonian companies are not listed, this study adopts a new approach to investigate the contribution of external audit in improving the quality of accounting and financial information produced by unlisted companies like Cameroon. To achieve, data were gathered through a survey on a sample of 52 employees of companies in Cameroon. Linear regression and the one factor ANOVA analysis were used to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that the auditor’s field of specialisation did not reduce manipulation of accounting and financial information, but that the auditor’s mandate duration and the auditor’s reputation have a significant influence on the quality of accounting and financial information.
This research set out to investigate the extent to which the language of agricultural inputs (chemicals) sold in Cameroon markets is intelligible and reliable to farmers, most especially the rural farmers. The South West, North West, West and Far North Regions were taken as case studies. Data was collected from inscriptions on inputs, farmers’ questionnaires, interviews with input sellers, agricultural experts and farmers, as well as personal observation of the researchers. The data was analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively following Swales (1990) and Bhatia’s (1993) approaches to genre analysis. The findings from questionnaires and interviews revealed that the language of agricultural input products use in Cameroon is less intelligible to rural farmers. This is because of the scientific nature, the formulae and abbreviations used which are difficult for a non- agricultural expert to understand and the fact that most rural farmers have low educational levels. Moreover, some chemicals sold in Cameroon markets do not have labeling and the language of withdrawal period. In addition, the result from questionnaires, interviews and personal experiences revealed that the language of most inputs like fungicide and herbicide are unreliable. Those who respect the application as prescribed on the chemicals fail in their farms and those who violate succeed. This unreliability and absence of instructional language have negative impacts on agricultural output and human health.
Political Turbulence and Power Topography in the North West Region of Cameroon, 1990-2000 (Published)
The spirit of liberalism that animated the political landscape in Africa in the 1990s produced varied and confusing reactions especially in states whose governments hitherto, provided little or no space for the functioning of the basic components of rights and freedom (democracy).In the Republic of Cameroon a central African country governed from independence by a tight dictatorial rule, this liberal age combined with home realities and incidentally gave both the governing and the governed sufficient reasons to engage in a chain of an interesting power contest. In effect, all of this brought forth a kind of turbulence which registered serious impacts on other political developments in Cameroon thereafter. In the North West region of this country, this turbulence emerged mostly from the circles of the unemployed and underemployed youths including a bug of people who had lost their jobs following the structural adjustment programme that was ostensibly adopted as a therapy for these crises. In any case, turbulence emerged and expressed itself in form of mob actions, gangsterism and civil strife and disobedience. Interestingly, the state authorities transformed the situation into an interesting power contest by employing most of the time; more than required brute force to counter the uprisings. The consequence of all of this was that; power and authority to lead and govern became largely contested and as such, technically shifted from its original traditional and legitimate fiefs to wander in absurdities for close to a decade. Guarded by an interdisciplinary approach, this paper attempts to tap evidences from primary and secondary sources complimented with oral accounts to bring out the ingredients, shapes and impact of this kind of encounters in this politico-geostrategic niche of Cameroon. It proffers that this phenomenon orchestrated traumatic encounters between the indigenous power barons against governmental structures and authorities. By so doing, it posits that this kind of power and authority drama ignited a general decay in power tenure and collective response from both ends. It further opines that these mixed and confused reactions to the liberal age in Cameroon like elsewhere in Africa destroyed the ligaments of mutual trust that existed between the government and the people on the street and therefore erected a lingering impediment to Cameroon development and this situation has continued to deter development planning and political conduct in Cameroon even lately.
Floristic Structure and Carbon Sequestration Potential of Acacia Senegal (L.) Willd. (Fabaceae) Improved Fallows in Far North Region of Cameroon (Published)
Agroforestry systems through their capacity to sequestrate carbon can contribute to climate change mitigation. This study aimed to evaluate the carbon storage potential of improved fallows with Acacia senegal in the Far North Region of Cameroon. Three categories of fallow were defined according to the planting age. The biomass of trees, bushes, and herbaceous was estimated in 21 sample plots. Soil carbon was also estimated. 08 woody species belonging to 4 families were identified. The most abundant species was Acacia senegal with 97 % of the individuals. Carbon stocks registered are 80.17 ± 33.64 tC ha-1 in the 7-11years old fallows, 101.10 ± 14.19 tC ha-1 in fallows of 12-16 years and 103.96 tC ha-1 in those over 17 years old. Soil is the main carbon reservoir with values ranging from 67.78 tC ha-1 to 89.24 tC ha-1. Statistical test shows that there is no significant difference between carbon stocked with the different ages (P > 0.05). The amount of CO2 absorbed gives an ecological value of $ 2942.24 ± 1234.77 ha-1 for fallows aged 7-11 years; $ 3710.37 ± 520.77 ha-1 for fallows aged 12-16 years and $ 3815.33 ± 947.60 ha-1 to those over 17 years. Improved fallows with Acacia senegal have good carbon sequestration potential and their inclusion in environmental services payments under the clean development mechanism would represent an opportunity to revive the creation of Acacia senegal plantations.
Traditional Justice System and Conflict Resolution: Exploring the Pre-colonial Institutional Frameworks in Mamfe and Bakweri lands of Cameroon (Published)
The current paper is geared at establishing the historicity of the traditional justice system in Cameroon using the Mamfe and Bakweri experiences. It centers on how traditional justice was dispensed in certain specific areas in Cameroon. Before the introduction of Formal Justice Instruments, it is important to mention that different societies applied different instruments of justice. Justice systems were modeled based on cultural belief patterns. Every society in pre-colonial Cameroon had its unique instruments of dictating and punishing crime. These instruments were enshrined in the people’s culture and handed down from generation to generation. The recognition of these traditional instruments of justice was born out of the ever increasing acceptance of the validity and legitimacy of the adjudicative powers of traditional leadership. In some instances a word from majesty was law. To realize this study, an interdisciplinary approach is adopted to prop into traditional instruments of justice using the Bakweri and Mamfe areas as typical examples. A qualitative design was adopted to look at the various crimes that were committed in these societies and the punishments that were mated out depending on the nature and magnitude of the crime. From all indications the traditional society in the Mamfe and Bakweri areas were not lawless societies. The people upheld human right values through their traditional belief patterns and could dictate and punish crime accordingly. The spirit of fair hearing was accorded criminals before punishment was mated out and this was enshrined in the doctrine of the traditional councils and customary courts that were charged with the resolution of land disputes, marital conflicts and other crimes like theft. Colonialism came with its own judicial system but some of the customary legal practices have continued to survive like customary marriages that are still recognized even in the presence of modern patterns of marriage.
Traditional Justice System and Conflict Resolution: Exploring the Pre-Colonial Institutional Frameworks in Mamfe and Bakweri Lands of Cameroon (Published)
The current paper is geared at establishing the historicity of the traditional justice system in Cameroon using the Mamfe and Bakweri experiences. It centers on how traditional justice was dispensed in certain specific areas in Cameroon. Before the introduction of Formal Justice Instruments, it is important to mention that different societies applied different instruments of justice. Justice systems were modeled based on cultural belief patterns. Every society in pre-colonial Cameroon had its unique instruments of dictating and punishing crime. These instruments were enshrined in the people’s culture and handed down from generation to generation. The recognition of these traditional instruments of justice was born out of the ever increasing acceptance of the validity and legitimacy of the adjudicative powers of traditional leadership. In some instances a word from majesty was law. To realize this study, an interdisciplinary approach is adopted to prop into traditional instruments of justice using the Bakweri and Mamfe areas as typical examples. A qualitative design was adopted to look at the various crimes that were committed in these societies and the punishments that were mated out depending on the nature and magnitude of the crime. From all indications the traditional society in the Mamfe and Bakweri areas were not lawless societies. The people upheld human right values through their traditional belief patterns and could dictate and punish crime accordingly. The spirit of fair hearing was accorded criminals before punishment was mated out and this was enshrined in the doctrine of the traditional councils and customary courts that were charged with the resolution of land disputes, marital conflicts and other crimes like theft. Colonialism came with its own judicial system but some of the customary legal practices have continued to survive like customary marriages that are still recognized even in the presence of modern patterns of marriage
Valorisation of NGOS’ Existence in Cameroon: Option for a More Engaged Civil Society (Vnec-Oecs) (Published)
Non-governmental organizations (NGO) have become quite prominent in the field of international development in recent decades. Even though, NGO have taken the centre stage in the fight against poverty, social injustice and human rights most are considered weak due to their dependence on funding from government and international aid bodies. This research activity highlights the probable values and weaknesses plaguing the civil society in Cameroon. Due to the pressures of obtaining and maintaining funding, less effort is placed on management leading to a lack of accountability and inefficiency in services offered to the public. The absence of a common platform for NGO makes coordination of their activities unrealistic. In our discussion we intend to propose ways by which NGOs can synergize their action plans. The paper will end by highlighting the distance NGOs have covered as development actors in Cameroon with recommendations deduced to valorise NGOs existence in Cameroon
With increasing pressure from the Breton woods and other international donor organizations for African states to move towards good governance, some of these countries including Cameroon are gradually attempting to institute reforms towards the attainment of these goals. Apart from instituting reforms that will grant free political participation, the government of Cameroon has also come up with the policy of regional balance that is intended to ensure a kind of equality in the distribution of what is commonly referred to as the National Cake. It is important to note that Cameroon is very diverse in terms of Ethnic nationalities and there is a gross disparity amongst these nationalities in terms of the natural distribution of resources. Some of the regions are naturally richer than others in terms of natural potentials and the government in her quest for good governance has come up with the theory of regional balance to guarantee fairness in the distribution of these resources. The paper is aimed at examining the perception of good governance in Cameroon and whether these perceptions actually match the practical implementation of this concept. The study equally looks at the instruments of good governance and the progress that has been attained since the introduction of the concept of good governance. The tenets of good governance, its features and the major obstacles to its application constitute the main trust of this research work. With regards to methodology, this study adopts a kind of inter-disciplinary design given that the study cuts across issues of geography, resource allocation and management, state policy and balanced development put in historical perspective. A qualitative instrument of analysis was adopted to give a critical insight to issues of governance in the society under study. In doing this a serious dichotomy is drawn between the perception of this policy and its practical application on ground.
The Artistic Functions and Symbolism in History: Reconfiguring History through Unconventional Sources of Artistic and Historical Works in Upper Ngemba, Bamenda Grasslands of Cameroon in the Pre-Colonial Era (Published)
The conventional sources of History include recorded data, tape-recorded information and oral tradition where information is handed down from one generation to the other by word of mouth. Historians in trying to constitute and reconstitute the colonial history of Africa have largely depended on these sources. Some scholars on African History have relied on intelligence and assessment reports that were left behind by the colonialists. One of the major contentions of this paper is that the artistic functions and symbolism have played an integral role in the re-configuring and recording African historical facts. The scarcity of indigenous sources of historical recordings made some European scholars to argue from a Eurocentric perspective that African history started with the coming of the Europeans to the Continent. This paper debunks this parochial contention and argues that African History existed long before European contact and that the people had alternative ways of recording their own history. History was transmitted through works of art which included carved objects, clay productions, weaved items, songs, legends and myths. All these are artistic and symbolic sources of historical facts. Recorded data also has a history and their history can be reconfigured through alternative sources like works of art that constitute an important way of recovering a people’s history. A typical example of this kind of society is upper Ngemba where their rich artistic background portrays a rich history
A Sub-variety of English in Cameroon known as Cameroon Francophone English (CamFE) has been hitherto treated dismissively as a performance variety (Simo Bobda and Mbangwana 1993, Simo Bobda 1994) and in some cases not even recognized as a sub-variety of Cameroon English (Kouega 1999). Nevertheless, this variety is growing rapidly, is exhibiting fairly stable, and has systematic features that are significantly different from Cameroon English (CamE). This development is attributed to the change of attitudes of Francophones towards English. That is, we have recently been witnessing an unprecedented trend towards rushing for English among the Fracophones in Cameroon. On the basis of my personal experiences as a teacher of English as a second and foreign language and on some key findings by previous researchers, I look at the implications of this growth on the future of English spoken in Cameroon. The emergence of Cameroon Francophone English and the future of English in Cameroon
MONTANE RESOURCES EXPLOITATION AND THE EMERGENCE OF GENDER ISSUES IN SANTA ECONOMY OF THE WESTERN BAMBOUTOS HIGHLANDS, CAMEROON (Published)
Highlands have played key roles in the survival history of humankind. They are refuge heavens of valuable resources like fresh water endemic floral and faunal sanctuaries and other ecological imprints. The mountain resource base in most tropical Africa has been mined rather than managed for the benefit of the low-lying areas. The world over an appreciable population derives its sustenance directly from mountain resources and this makes for about one-tenth of the world’s poorest.The Western highlands of Cameroon are an archetypical territory of a high population density and an economically very active population. The highlands are characterised by an ecological fragility and a multi-faceted socio-economic dynamism at varied levels of poverty, malnutrition and under employment, yet about 80 percent of the Santa highlands’ population depends on its natural resource base of vast fertile land, fresh water and montane refuge forest for their livelihood.
Impact of Agricultural Export on Economic Growth in Cameroon: Case of Banana, Coffee and Cocoa (Published)
The main objective of the present analysis is to explore and quantify the contribution of agricultural exports to economic growth in Cameroon. It employs an extended generalized Cobb Douglas production function model, using food and agricultural organization data and World Bank Data from 1975 to 2009. All variables were non stationary and of an order I (1), so the Cointegration test was conducted for long run equilibrium. All the variables confirmed cointegration and as such the conventional vector error correction model was estimated using the Engle and Granger procedure. The findings of the study show that the agricultural exports have mixed effect on economic growth in Cameroon. Coffee export and banana export has a positive and significant relationship with economic growth. On the other hand, cocoa export was found to have a negative and insignificant effect on economic growth. Base on our findings, it is recommended that policies aimed at increasing the productivity and quality of these cash crops should be implemented. Also additional value should be added to cocoa and coffee beans before exporting. When this is done, it will lead to a higher rate of economic growth in Cameroon