Building construction is complex, involving a wide range of building personnel, products, services and systems (be it mechanical, electrical or integrated service systems). The design process is highly organized, draws upon research establishments that studied designs, material properties, performance, code officials who adopt and enforce safety standards, and design professionals who determine user needs. All these in today’s world, involved Division of Labor and Specialization baptized, Outsourcing. The practice of architecture and building construction have for decades, adopted the services of the experts in putting together, buildings, structures, towns and communities without fundamentally baptizing the services with a name. The primary aim of this paper is to establish that Outsourcing has been in existence in architecture and building industry since the evolution of housing. To accomplish that, the authors adopted content base analysis, qualitative research method with data from secondary and primary sources. The building team includes, but not limited to the services of the architects, urban and physical planers, structural engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, builders, bricklayers, carpenters, etc. Be it the architect or the bricklayer, the components of the building have always been outsourced to different specialty areas or individuals with the capacity and special skills to put them together in what the economists called, “Division of Labor” and Social Sciences called, “Outsourcing.”
In today’s Architectural practice, there is a struggle to find the ways to balance or harmonize environmental technology, protection of resources and aesthetic content. And the world has witnessed some level of significant industrial and technological revolution. The revolution, despite its acclaimed benefits to humanity has resulted to a worrisome level of interaction with our environment. . One point of a great concern, with regard to the eco-system, is that as the global greenhouse gas level continue to rise, the planet’s temperature with corresponding rise, resulting in the melting of the ice caps and seriously altering global weather conditions. Current estimates calculate that the world built environment account for approximately one third of all global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions whilst consuming 40% of the world’s energy. However, the challenge facing environmental architecture is meting the increasing demand for revolutionary architectural solutions while mitigating its impact on the eco-system. The aim of this paper therefore, is to critically review current ecologic design concept/environmental technology using secondary and primary data. The effect of the built environment on the co-system which has resulted in consistent rise in global temperature in the past three decades was accessed. The paper recommends adopting more eco-friendly design approach, passive design methods and use of renewable energy source amongst others as key for achieving eco-friendly building. Finally we conclude that moving from a sectional prism of viewing environmentalism largely driven by sectional issues involving pollution, resources and biodiversity to a more holistic view point that recognizes the inherent interdependence of all life systems is the right way forward and we therefore call on Architects to embrace it.
Appropriate Construction Technologies to Control the Effects of Wet Conditions in Wetlands in Building Industry in Kumasi Metropolis (Published)
There is increasing pressure on all-natural resources including wetlands which numerous building and construction activities, such as religious structures, residential facilities and service stations are being constructed without due consideration to effects of wet conditions and the buffer range at which physical development must be restrained. This study explores the appropriate construction technologies to control the effects of wet conditions on buildings in wetlands in Kumasi Metropolis. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design with a mixed method approach. 120 respondents were randomly selected from a population of 450 developers for the study. The research used questionnaire to collect data. SPSS were used to analyse the data collected. The study reveals that wet conditions contributed to eight (8) defects to buildings and nine (9) appropriate technologies that could be used to control effect of wet conditions. Also, it was found that developers used all the nine technologies. Finally, the results show an increasing trend of the use of proper technologies in recent times. The study strongly recommends that city authority should strengthen the departments/agencies that take charge of supervision on building construction activities with appropriate logistics to enable them discharge their duties effectively.
Incessant Collapse of Buildings in Nigeria: The Implications for Religious/ Worship Centres (Published)
Building collapse is more common and devastating in developing world. In Nigeria, the trend is on the increase and religious houses/buildings are not left out. Buildings can be described as structural entities capable of securing self by transmitting load (dead load and live load) to the ground. A church building or religious buildings however are sacred places where believers interface with God. Paradoxically, church/religious buildings and pilgrimage sites are also now becoming places where people lose their lives as a result of accident and structural collapse. A building collapse occurs when part or whole body of a structure fails and suddenly gives way, the structure as a result of this failure, could not meet the purpose for which it was meant for. Assembly buildings (Religious buildings) account for 12.7% of building collapse in Nigeria. Most church building collapse are not often reported or recorded, except where the casualties is much and cannot be hidden from the government agencies. The Synagogue Church Building and Reigners Bible Church building collapse are recent incidents in Nigeria. The aim of this paper is to review the causes of building collapse and suggest ways of prevention as it concerns religious buildings.
The research which is captioned “Residential Housing Problems in Anambra State (A Case Study of Onitsha Metropolis) was targeted at portraying the causes of housing deficit alongside its attendant effects on the populace with regards to habitable housing (Residential Properties). The roles of the public sector in housing development through its Ministries, Department and Agencies (MDA) were also highlighted in cognizance to the Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria. Owing to the fact that housing problems are over-whelming, ranging from over-crowding, shortage of housing supply etc. The researcher adopted both the primary and secondary methods of data collection. I found that the low income earners were the one’s mostly affected by housing problems and Onitsha being the commercial hub of Anambra State, it is pertinent that government should have synergy with the private developers and re-direct their motives towards arresting these housing problems that are highly prevalent within the area of study. The findings of the study shows that lack of or inadequate housing financial assistance, high cost of building materials, high interest rate and lack of interest by financial institutions to facilitate loans to investors, uncoordinated policies by the government, etc are responsible for the residential housing problems inherent in most of our urban areas. The study recommends that there should be an improvement on loan facilities for building projects and a downward review of interest rates by mortgage banks on loans to property developers.
Improving Durability of Rural Buildings in Riverine Niger Delta Region: A Case Study on Need to Utilize Appropriate Technology (Published)
Most rural communities in riverine Niger Delta do not have buildings that are conducive for habitation because the materials used for their construction are of organic origin such as thatch, mud, timber etc. This made them biodegradable and decay quickly. More frequent replacement of such materials is required because of their low durability. Further, factors such as non-availability of conventional building materials, cost of transportation, incomes levels of the people, absence of available skilled labour and lack of appropriate technology in the manufacture of building materials affect the provision of durable and affordable buildings in the riverine rural Niger delta communities. Therefore, there is need to device other means of providing durable rural buildings in terms of materials for roofing, walls, foundation as well as construction methods. The utilization of appropriate technology for building materials and construction methods is recommended as remedy.