Up-grading and Enhancing Sustainable Linkages of Rwanda’s Tourism Value Chains: Opportunities and Bottlenecks (Published)
The Rwandan government’s Economic Development and Poverty Reduction S4trategy II (EDPRS 2, 2013-2018) highlights enhancement of connectivity and linkages within the country’s economy as one of the priority areas for economic transformation. In the highlights, emphasis is put on the need for deepening the integration of key value chains of the economy. After a comprehensive analysis of Rwanda’s global competitiveness, tourism was identified as one of the key sectors that would spur economic development in the country. Important as it is, however, the linkage of this sector to the rest of the economy was found to be weak and hence compromises on its ability to deliver on certain targets as expected. This paper thus identifies opportunities as well as the bottlenecks within tourism value chains in Rwanda and recommends possible solutions. A questionnaire survey was used to obtain data related to visitor expenditure, targeting visitors at land border points and Kigali International airport. Focus group discussions were also conducted in gathering data on value chains analysis and identification of intervention programs that would remove any bottlenecks in the system.
Accounting Procedural Bottlenecks and Delay in Payment System in Tertiary Institutions in Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)
Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria have been passing through crisis which had threatened the ideals of the institutions. The issue of delay or prolong payment or refund of incurred expenditure to a member of staff of any institutions either for attending training / conferences or for the upkeep of an institutions has been a subject of discuss in recent time. Often time a member of staff is deprived of attending training and conferences which they are due for and qualified to attend either due to lack of funds or more often as a result of late approval and release of funds. The difficulty involved in accessing fund in our institutions can be ascribed to the unnecessary bureaucracy/ bottlenecks created within the system. This has undoubtedly caused a setback to the growth of our institutions. The study was carried out to find out the factors responsible for the delay and suggest ways for improvement. The study was a case study, survey design while the analysis follows the empirical causal design. Five randomly selected institutions in Ondo state were sampled for the study. 100 copies of structured questionnaires designed on a 5-point likert rating scales were distributed to the respondents. 94 copies of the questionnaires were duly filled and returned. Data obtained from the questionnaires were presented in tables and analysed with the use of descriptive statistics and Pearson Correlations. The study reveals that the delay in payment/ refund of staff entitlements was due to major management bottlenecks or bureaucracy and to a little extent a kind of constraints from the bursary and audit units.