Tag Archives: Border

Border Security Management and ECOWAS Protocol on Free Movement in West Africa (Published)

Prior to the enactment of the ECOWAS Protocol on free movement, people move from one location to another, there was little or no regards for the artificial borders created by the colonial powers. The vision of the ECOWAS is to create a borderless region where the population will have access to the abundant resources and, able to exploit same through the creation of opportunities under a sustainable environment. Nevertheless, the unrestricted free movement of people in the sub-region resulted to situation of tension among citizens of the receiving country and migrants especially in places where migrants dominate trade and labour. The regimes that are rather weak can become destabilized under such tensions thereby resulting to free flow of criminalities. The challenges of the Protocol have not helped the security landscape of the sub-region even though ECOWAS prides itself as the first region in Africa with the free movement initiative, the Protocol is poorly implemented constituting more security concern than boosting regional trade and economic development. Despite these challenges and threats posed by border insecurity, there is a lack of a common approach in terms of policy formulation, especially from the direction of the government. Therefore, it is on this note the paper seeks to examine these overlapping issues and hold attempts to provide a possible solution in resolving them. Data were obtained using secondary sources and the data were analyzed qualitatively. The paper observed that the prospect of achieving effective border security was truncated due to unrestricted free movement of people and improper implementation of ECOWAS protocol in the sub-region. This uncontrolled and unmanaged border has resulted to infiltration of terrorists/insurgency, loss of government revenue, smuggling or trafficking of illegal goods among others. The paper further revealed that the issue of corruption, poor technological gadgets, and porous nature of the borders among others serve as strong challenge to effective border management in the region. Therefore called for a Paradigm Shift in achieving effective border management to include adequate provision of funds, use of modern technological gadgets, adequate training of security personnel, strengthening of Multinational Joint Task Force among others. 

Keywords: Border, ECOWAS protocol, Security, West Africa, border management

Hirmand city’s geo-political role in economic-political relationships between Iran and Afghanistan (Review Completed - Accepted)

The boundary city of Hirmand is one of strategic and geo-political points near the Iranian-Afghan border that has made this region more important than ever. Hirmand River as the borderline between Iran and Afghanistan, and because of its grave importance in Sistan area, has a crucial role in Iran-Afghan’s political relationships. Also, the boundary bazaar of Milak has an important role in economic relationships between Iran and Afghanistan. So the question that this research deals with is that “Do the geo-political factors of Hirmand affect economic-political relationships between Iran and Afghanistan?” According to the question, the main hypothesis is that (due to lack of other commercial roads between Iran and Afghanistan) Hirmand’s boundary bazaar seems to be effective in the development of economic relationships, and Hirmand river in political relationships between the two countries. On the other hand, Hirmand River’s location as the border and the pacts signed with the interference of other governments between Iran and Afghanistan proves this fact. Also, Hirmand river’s features and its role and effects as the geo-political factor in political relationships and the effects of Hirmand’s boundary bazaar as the geo-economic factor in economic relationships between the two countries have been studied in this research. As a result, the mutual dependence of the two countries caused by Hirmand River’s location as the border, Afghanistan’s needs for Iran’s economic sources, the boundary bazaar and transits through it resulted in establishing and developing the political and economic relationships between Iran and Afghanistan. The purpose of this study was set to analyze the political relationships, pacts and agreements using casual research methods, document-library analysis method and note-taking; and to analyze the economic relationships through interviews, collecting statistics and economic information.

Keywords: Border, Boundary Bazaar, Foreign Policies, Geo-Politic, Hirmand Boundary River

Hirmand city’s geo-political role in economic-political relationships between Iran and Afghanistan (Review Completed - Accepted)

The boundary city of Hirmand is one of strategic and geo-political points near the Iranian-Afghan border that has made this region more important than ever. Hirmand River as the borderline between Iran and Afghanistan, and because of its grave importance in Sistan area, has a crucial role in Iran-Afghan’s political relationships. Also, the boundary bazaar of Milak has an important role in economic relationships between Iran and Afghanistan. So the question that this research deals with is that “Do the geo-political factors of Hirmand affect economic-political relationships between Iran and Afghanistan?” According to the question, the main hypothesis is that (due to lack of other commercial roads between Iran and Afghanistan) Hirmand’s boundary bazaar seems to be effective in the development of economic relationships, and Hirmand river in political relationships between the two countries. On the other hand, Hirmand River’s location as the border and the pacts signed with the interference of other governments between Iran and Afghanistan proves this fact. Also, Hirmand river’s features and its role and effects as the geo-political factor in political relationships and the effects of Hirmand’s boundary bazaar as the geo-economic factor in economic relationships between the two countries have been studied in this research. As a result, the mutual dependence of the two countries caused by Hirmand River’s location as the border, Afghanistan’s needs for Iran’s economic sources, the boundary bazaar and transits through it resulted in establishing and developing the political and economic relationships between Iran and Afghanistan. The purpose of this study was set to analyze the political relationships, pacts and agreements using casual research methods, document-library analysis method and note-taking; and to analyze the economic relationships through interviews, collecting statistics and economic information.

Keywords: Border, Boundary Bazaar, Foreign Policies, Geo-Politic, Hirmand Boundary River