Tag Archives: Boko Haram

Media Depiction of Sufferers/Victims of Boko Haram Attacks in Nigeria and Audience Response (Published)

This study employs focus group discussion to explore the Nigerian audiences’ reactions and responsibilities to the suffering images of victims of the Boko Haram. The study further utilizes two audience practices, which are media witnessing and moral responsibility as its theoretical frameworks. It extends to the position of audiences as witnesses to the mediated images and their actions towards events witnessed. Extant literature suggests that in depicting the suffering victims, the media plays a number of roles in engaging and connecting audiences to the suffering of others. Scholars have also argued that factors such as distance, gender and culture contribute to or influence how audiences respond to the depicted images of suffering victims on the media. Compelled by these factors identified by Western scholars, this study weighed their authenticity within the Nigerian context. No known study has empirically measured this in Nigeria. This study is an attempt to bridge that gap. The finding of this study reinforces earlier findings that viewers of suffering victims tend to show compassion towards ameliorating the conditions of the sufferers. On the contrary, this study finds that Nigerian audiences feel pity and compassionate towards the suffering victims despite their gender and lack of proximity. While this finding may not have ‘charted a new territory’, it has demonstrated that reaction to media messages is culturally relative.

Keywords: Audiences’ response, Boko Haram, Media Depiction, Media Witnessing, Suffering, responsibility

Anatomy of Rebellion: Insurgency, Insurrection, and Militancy in Nigeria (Published)

Transitional societies face a myriad of problems which include incessant conflicts. Some scholars and international financial institutions believed that neoliberal economic growth and policies in support of them would reduce poverty and end conflicts. While not disputing the role of economic growth in a country’s development, this paper takes the view that a holistic approach that recognizes good governance can do more to promote sustainable peace and development. The methodology for this paper was content analysis of official documents, articles and other written sources. The paper observes that the absence of good governance has provided a fertile ground for some of these conflicts to emerge such as insurrections, insurgencies, and general insecurity of lives and property. It concludes that a developmental model that takes cognizance of this can provide the best option for emerging societies in need of lasting peace.

Keywords: Al Qaeda, Boko Haram, Colonialism, Development, Governance, Insurgency, Insurrection, Militancy, Rebellion

Boko Haram Insurgency: Perceived Stress, Type of Stressors and Coping Techniques amongst Internally Displaced Persons at the Selected Camps in Nigeria Federal Capital Territory Abuja (Published)

Nigerian has had a long and unfortunate history of communal conflicts and ethno-religious violence, the recent of which is the escalation of Boko Haram activities and attacks in 2013. Many people were maimed, killed and rendered homeless leading to looking for succor in the camps. The research adopted cross-sectional descriptive design, multistage sampling technique was used in selecting the camps and samples having used Taro Yamane sample size determination formula. Three hundred and eighty seven (387) respondents were selected out of which only three hundred and fifty six (356) returned their administered questionnaire. Five (5) research questions were answered and five (5) null hpothesses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instruments for the study were generated from three standardized inventory which are stress inventory, family systems stressor-strength inventory and life event inventory. The face validity and reliability of instruments were determined. Percentages, means scores and chi-square were used to analyze. The results on the demographic characteristics of respondents showed that 153 (43%) were males while 203 (57%) were female; there mean age was 31.3. 62.6% were Christians and 55.3 were marred 40.7% were employed while only 10.2% were not educated. All respondents showed various degrees of stress ranging from mild to severe. The highest psychosocial stressor was financial strain and accommodation away from home while the health related stressor was sleeping difficulties. More than half of respondents (56.2%) adopted emotion focused coping while 43.8% adopted problems focused coping. Religion was found to be significantly associated with the level of stress. Gender was significantly associated with the coping styles, It was concluded that youth radicalization should be addressed. The health of the people in the camps should be given a priority by establishing health centers in the various camps and should be managed by qualified health personnel.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Stress, Stressors, refugees

Communication Audit of Cable News Network (Cnn) Online Reports on Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria (2012-2016) (Published)

Previous studies on conflict reportage in Nigeria had accused Western media of inclinations for feeding the people with inaccurate and contradictory reports. This study was predicated on the need to investigate the patterns and trends of the Cable News Network (CNN’s) online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria over a period of five years, 2012-2016. The study adopted the content analysis method of research and conducted a census of 58 online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria as obtained from Cable News Network website (http://edition.cnn.com/text=boko+haram). While direction of reports, sources of report, prominence, balance and report genre provided content categories for the study, the Cronbach Alpha test was adopted for inter-coder reliability. The study found high prominence on CNN’s online reports of Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. There was high level imbalance in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found low level of objectivity in CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. It was also established that CNN made use of only one source of information in her reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. The study found out that the straight news genre dominated CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria. Finally, the study showed that CNN’s online reports on Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria did conform to the allegation of information distortion leveled against Western Media. The researchers then recommended diversification of information sources, combination of report genres and fortification of conflict reporters as measures that would enhance accuracy, objectivity and fairness in conflict reportage.

Keywords: Audit, Boko Haram, Cable News Network, Insurgency, Nigeria, Online Reports, communication

Fundamentals of Sociological Theorizing: Establishing a Nexus between Abstract Theoretical Reasoning and Empirical Research on Boko Haram (Published)

This paper examines the fundamentals of sociological theorizing with the aim of providing niches for the establishment of a nexus between abstract reasoning and empirical research in sociology that is theoretically science driven. To achieve this objective, the paper identified a key problem of post and undergraduate students being faced with a demanding situation while seeking knowledge in sociological theorizing. There would appear to be an explicit and palpable deficit in theoretical know-how on the supply side of knowledge deliverables to link theory to practice. What contributes to this problem, perhaps, is the lackadaisical attitude towards theory on the part of the students coupled with a quest for paper qualifications for the sake of getting employment rather than to demonstrate practical contributions that inform the discovery of new social phenomena to explain new social conditions. This paper raised a number of compelling questions as brief descriptions on the way to go, which, although still a work in progress, will contribute significantly to solving the problem and adding value to existing literature on sociological theorizing. This paper, ab initio, addressed the imperatives of sociological analysis of concepts, variables, facts, propositions and hypothesis in sociological theorizing. Types of theories were examined and handled within the classifications of micro and macro; grand and second-middle range theories, which were analyzed in relation to the four crucial components that are central to sociological theorizing. The five theoretical perspectives were labelled in this paper as the ‘Five Alive’ grand sociological theoretical perspectives. To further deepen the perspective on sociological theorizing, this paper tried to exemplify abstract versus empirical research and its implication on the contemporary social phenomenon of Boko Haram. Various methods and logics needed in sociological theorizing were presented. The space of eco-systemic evolutionism as both theory and method in the understanding and explaining of most sociological theories and the crucial role of thinking and reasoning in evolutionism in relation to sociological theorizing have also been stressed in this paper

Keywords: Abstract vs. Empirical Research, Boko Haram, Inductive vs. Deductive Methods, Method vs. Data, Social Phenomena, Sociological Theorising, Theoretical Perspectives, Theoretical Postulates, Theory

Crime, Deviance and Delinquency:Diversifying Theoretical Narratives and Transition towards Empirical Research on Boko Haram (Published)

This paper examines crime, deviance and delinquency and their diversifying theoretical narratives; the objective is to provide an empirical basis for appropriate frame work to allow for better explanations of the phenomena in the contemporary society. In order to achieve this objective, the paper stresses the importance of empirical research by examining abstract theoretical postulates on crime, deviance and delinquency.  This is achieved by employing a modified methodological approach to the research design with crucial elements of qualitative research, as content analysis are employed in integrated forms at different stages during this research. The paper discusses differential analysis of juvenile delinquency, young person’s offenders and adult criminal typology. It also looks at the apparatus to gauge crime, deviance and delinquency and its social relations to the basics about crime, deviance and delinquency, to what it means to a criminologist, other academics and to a layman. As a corollary to this, a new sociological and/or criminological definition of crime, deviance and delinquency is presented as finding during the cause of this research. More so, in order to have deeper understanding of the phenomena under review, diversifying theoretical narratives from socio-psychobiological dimensions to crime of the Boko Haram suicide phenomenon has been contextualized while Classical Social Tripodal Model provides thrust for such empirical research. Furthermore,  in order to have a suitable frame work for the  analysis of the phenomena of crime, deviance and delinquency, different theoretical perspectives are reviewed ranging from the Mertonian Anomie Perspectives, Albert Cohen’s Delinquent Boys; Southerland’s Differential Association to  Concentric Zone Perspectives of  Shaw and McKay; Social Disorganization and/or Cultural Transmission and Claward and Ohlin’s Differential Opportunity Structural Theoretical Perspective were reviewed including the Marxian political economy perspective to crime, deviance and delinquency. The biological and/or constitutional perspectives pioneered by Cesare Lombroso’s Theory of ‘Atavistic Stigmata’ and Sheldon’s ‘Theory of Somatotypes’ are also discussed.   Following this, within the biological school, the paper examines the XY Chromosomes model, heredity versus crime, deviance and delinquency with a view to setting a framework that would allow for better explanation of the nature of crime, deviance and delinquency in the contemporary social milieu.  The research concludes with an examination of the premise of psycho-dynamic or psycho-analytic frame work to crime deviance and delinquency.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Crime, Delinquency, Deviance, Empirical Research, Theory

Terrorism and its Management: A Case Study of Boko Haram Islamist Sect in Nigeria (Published)

This paper addresses the issue of terrorism in Nigeria, particularly in connection with the Boko Haram Islamist Sect. Terrorism, as a global phenomenon, is an ill-wind that blows no one any good. Recently, it has extended its ugly tentacles to Nigeria, precisely after the Presidential Election of April, 2011. Since then, Nigerian citizens have been on the defensive because of the great onslaught of man by the Boko Haram boys. The rampage has been on the increase and the attempt by the government to stop it has proved abortive. This has become of great concern to most Nigerians and the writer; hence, the emergence of this topic. The aims of this work are to highlight some of these religious riots encouraged by Boko Haram, to examine the root causes of the riots and to know their goals, organisational structure and sources of funding, and to proffer possible solutions that will make for the effective management of the crises.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Islamist Sect., Management, Terrorism

Assessing Provision of Effective Emergency Educational Services for Refugee Children in Boko Haram Insurgency Refugee Camps of Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria (Published)

Providing refugee children with access to effective educational services is critical during periods of displacement. The purpose of this study was to asses provision of access, teacher, curriculum and peace education for effective emergency educational  services for refugee children in Boko Haram insurgency refugee camps of Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Data was collected using teachers assessment of effective provision of educational services for refugee children of boko haram insurgency questionnaire (TAEPEIDPQ) consisting of twenty (20) items. The findings of the study was that most of the refugee children of Boko Haram insurgency had no access to effective emergency educational services ,teachers were not provided for effective educational services, curriculum was not supported and peace education was not provided by federal, state and local governments, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs),international donor and aid agencies for refugee children in Boko Haram insurgency  refugee camps of Yola South Local Government Area  of Adamawa State. The study concluded that the four standards for  provision of educational services to refugee children in Boko Haram insurgency refugee camps were not effective. Recommendations of the study include that Federal, State and local government, NGOS, donor and international aid agencies should provide access, teachers, curriculum and peace education for effective educational services to all refugee children in Boko Haram insurgency refugee camps of Yola South Local Government Area, Adamawa State.

Keywords: Adamawa State., Boko Haram, Emergency Educational Services, Insurgency Refugee Camps, Nigeria, Refugee Children, Yola South Local Government Area

Assessing Provision of Effective Emergency educational Services for Refugee Children in Boko Haram Insurgency Refugee Camps of Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. (Published)

Providing refugee children with access to effective educational services is critical during periods of displacement. The purpose of this study was to asses provision of access, teacher, curriculum and peace education for effective emergency educational services for refugee children in Boko Haram insurgency refugee camps of Yola South Local Government Area of Adamawa State. Data was collected using teachers assessment of effective provision of educational services for refugee children of boko haram insurgency questionnaire (TAEPEIDPQ) consisting of twenty (20) items. The findings of the study was that most of the refugee children of Boko Haram insurgency had no access to effective emergency educational services ,teachers were not provided for effective educational services, curriculum was not supported and peace education was not provided by federal, state and local governments, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs),international donor and aid agencies for refugee children in Boko Haram insurgency  refugee camps of Yola South Local Government Area  of Adamawa State. The study concluded that the four standards for provision of educational services to refugee children in Boko Haram insurgency refugee camps were not effective. Recommendations of the study include that Federal, State and local government, NGOS, donor and international aid agencies should provide access, teachers, curriculum and peace education for effective educational services to all refugee children in Boko Haram insurgency refugee camps of Yola South Local Government Area, Adamawa State.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Effective Provision, Emergency Educational Services, Insurgency Refugee Camps, Nigeria, Refugee Children

Politicisation of the Counter-Insurgence Operations in Nigeria: Implication for the Political Economy (Published)

Political partisanship is a very intriguing game. However, the tendency among some megalomaniacs to politicise sensitive national issues has undermined Nigeria’s national interest as well as exacerbated its fragile security. Many political actors mainly from the two major political parties— PDP and APC— were more inclined to using incendiary utterances in order to score cheap political followership in the build up to the 2015 General Election. The study relied on documentary evidence through which data were generated for the validation of its hypothesis. It found that the inclination among these politicians and ethnic jingoists to politicise the counter-insurgence operations has not only sustained the insurgency but also undermined Nigeria’s political economy. Basically, it recommended the adoption of a non-partisan counter-insurgence approach as a remedy for Boko Haram insurgence.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Common Good, National Security, Political Economy, Politicisation

The Insurgence and Socio-Political Economy In Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the issue of Boko Haram insurgence and its implications on socio-political economic in Nigeria. We used survey questionnaire based on economic, social and political activities in the country, data were collected from stakeholders with evidence from newspapers. The findings include the following; the activities of the insurgency have crippled the economic activities which are as results of unemployment, poverty and illiteracy in the Northern-part of Nigeria. This suggests that this may constitutes serious threat to lives and property of Nigerians thereby hindering business activities and discouraging foreign investors. We find that the role of religious leaders encourage the activities of the insurgency, the political elite in the Northern-part of Nigeria also contribute to the insurgency as a result of bad governance. We recommend that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues, use modern methods of intelligence gathering, adequate training, and motivation among security personnel and encourage the youth in going to school.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Political, Questionnaire, Security, Socio-Economic, Terrorism, and Government

Examining the Boko Haram Insurgency in Northern Nigeria and the Quest for A Permanent Resolution Of The Crisis (Published)

The state of insecurity engendered by Boko Haram insurgency in Nigeria, especially in the North-Eastern part of the country is quiet worrisome, disheartening and alarming. Terrorist attacks of the Boko Haram sect have resulted in the killing of countless number of innocent people and wanton destruction of properties that worth billions of naira through bombings. More worrisome however, is the fact that all the efforts of the Nigerian government to curtail the activities of the sect have not yielded any meaningful positive result. Thus, the Boko Haram scourge remains intractable to the government who appears helpless in curtailing/curbing their activities. The dynamics and sophistication of the Boko Haram operations have raised fundamental questions about national security, governance issue and Nigeria’s corporate existence. The major thrust of this paper is to investigate the Boko Haram insurgency in Northern Nigeria and to underscore the urgent need for a permanent resolution of the crisis. The paper argues that most of the circumstances that led to this insurgency are not unconnected with frustration caused by high rate of poverty, unemployment, weak governance, religious fanaticism among others. It also addresses the effects of the insurgency which among others include serious threat to national interest, peace and security, internal population displacement, violation of fundamental human rights, debilitating effects on the entrenchment of democratic principles in Nigeria among others. The paper recommends among others, the necessity to address poverty reduction, religious secularism and political re-orientation. The need for adequate collaboration and partnership between the government, non governmental organizations, civil society organization as well as the individuals is also advocated. Finally, the need for the re-evaluation of the country’s domestic and foreign policies as a means of combating the menace of this domestic terrorism is also stressed.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Crisis, Domestic Terrorism, Insurgency, National Security, Permanent Resolution

THE ROLE OF POLITICAL LEADERS IN THE RESOLUTION OF POLITICAL VIOLENCE IN YOBE STATE, NORTH- EAST REGION – NIGERIA (Published)

This study investigates the role of political leaders and the management of political violence in Yobe State, North –east region of Nigeria. Nigeria transited to democratic governance on May 29th, 1999 with much fanfare and great expectations. Despite the euphoria and sentiments especially from the political class, that would greet the celebrations, it is rather debatable whether there is any specific social, political and economic development in Yobe state and Nigeria generally due to the persistent spate of political violence. It is against this background that this study examines the role political leaders have played in promoting and curbing political violence in Yobe state with particular reference to the activities of the Jammatul Ahlis Sunnah Lidda’awati wal jihad (Boko Haram). This study is also timely due to the fact that the country is presently confronted with serious security challenges. The study is therefore guided by the following research proposition: Political violence is not an expression of systemic leadership failure. To achieve this objective therefore, the study employed the qualitative methods as the main research methodology, which was supplemented by basic quantitative methods. These two methods complemented each other through triangulation. Chart for data analysis was drawn using the 2003 Microsoft Excel XP Version 10 package. The study also utilized secondary data through an extensive review of literature in order to provide a foundation on which the empirical data was built. in fact; a sample of 510 respondents was randomly selected and administered with the questionnaire from 6 local government areas in Yobe state. The study used the conjectural political conflict model as the main theoretical framework. From the empirical data analyzed, the study revealed that political leaders have not done much in the management of political violence in Yobe State. The study therefore recommends amongst others that political leaders should be bold and have an articulate leadership style that would effectively manage and prevent conflict in Yobe state

Keywords: Boko Haram, Nigeria, Political leaders, Political violence, Yobe state, conflict management

EFFECTS OF INSURGENCY ON GIRLS EDUCATION IN NORTH EASTERN NIGERIA (Published)

The study investigated effects of insurgency on girls’ education in north eastern region of Nigeria. Girls’ education is paramount to the national growth and societal development in Nigeria. However, achieving education for all Nigerian girls, the north eastern region need a safe, secured teaching and learning environment. The study examined the historical perspectives of previous insurgent groups in Nigeria. The sample for the study was 180 teachers of primary and secondary schools, selected on the basis of 30 teachers from each state of the 6 states that constitute north eastern region of Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a 20 items questionnaire title: Effect of Insurgency on Girls Education Questionnaires (EIGEQ). Two research questions were formulated, data collected were converted to mean, standard deviation and used to answer the research questions. It was therefore recommended that the Nigerian government should provide free and compulsory girls education at all levels of education, show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to end the insurgency in north eastern region and provide adequate security in schools. It was also recommended that the religious leaders should play active role in encouraging girls’ education in their respective communities.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Girls Education, Insurgency, Terrorism

HISTORICAL ANALYSIS OF BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY ON EDUCATIONAL MANAGEMENT IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)

The study presented the historical analyses of the effect of Boko Haram insurgency on educational management in Northern Nigeria. Education is the key to national development in Nigeria. However, achieving quality education for all Nigerian need a safe, secured, violent free teaching and learning environment for school leaders, teachers, students and families in northern region of Nigeria. The study examined the historical overview of previous insurgent groups in Nigeria, The origin of Boko Haram insurgent group, the historical analysis of Boko Haram attacks on schools in other cities in Northern Nigeria, the effect on educational management. An important aspect of this article posited on the challenges facing school administrator, teachers and students in the region .It was therefore recommended that the federal government should show higher commitment in mobilizing the armed forces to the northern region and provide security in schools with bomb detectives’ equipment. It was also recommended that the religious leaders should play active role in preaching against the killings perpetrated by Boko Haram insurgent group and a special orientation to sensitize the people on security matters in all schools and their communities.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Educational Management, Insurgency, Militant, Terrorism

BOKO HARAM INSURGENCY: A PERIL TO ACHIEVEMENT OF EDUCATION FOR ALL IN NIGERIA (Published)

An attack on education is a grave and rising concern in the world and Nigeria in particular. It includes violations of multiple provisions of international humanitarian and human right law, including the rights to life and liberty, the right to education, the protection of civilian and properties during conflict, and the rights to freedom of expression and association, among others. This study focuses on Boko Haram insurgency: a peril to the achievement of Education for All in Nigeria. The study concentrates on the Northeast Nigeria with primary focus on Borno state. The study also x-rays the Boko Haram’s attack on education since 2012 till date and the effects of this attack on education and the possible solutions to halt further attacks.

Keywords: Achievement, Boko Haram, Education, Insurgency

UNITED STATES SECURITY STRATEGY AND THE MANAGEMENT OF BOKO HARAM CRISIS IN NIGERIA (Published)

The Nigerian Government has enjoyed cordial relationship with the government of the United States over the years especially given the former’s quantum of oil deposit and the latter’s access to exploiting same. However, the emergence of Boko Haram insurgence has been a source of concern to both countries especially as it portends danger to their interests. Despite the efforts of both countries in finding a lasting solution to the problem, the desired result is yet to be attained. In view of this, the study examined the effectiveness of the US security strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome the crisis of Boko Haram. Intractable conflict theory was adopted in arguing that it would be difficult to resolve the crisis of Boko Haram but it can, at least, be managed if proper strategies are put in place. Finally, the work discovered that in line with American foreign policy of zero tolerance to international terrorism, its strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome Boko Haram crisis have not been very effective.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Crisis, Management, Security, Strategy, Terrorism

Effect of Boko Haram On School Attendance in Northern Nigeria (Published)

The study is aimed at assessing the effect of Boko Haram on school attendance in Northern Nigeria. Three hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. A questionnaire containing 20 items was designed by the researcher. This was validated by experts and tested for reliability using the test – re – test method and data analyzed using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistics. The instrument was administered to 126 schools randomly selected from schools in states with high rate of Boko Haram insurgency – Yobe, Bauchi and Borno states. The data collected was analysed using the t-test and Analysis of variance (ANOVA) statistics. It was revealed from the results that there is no significant difference in school attendance among male and female pupils / students. There is a significant difference in school attendance among rural and urban schools. There is also a significant difference in school attendance among primary, secondary and tertiary institutions in areas prone to Boko Haram attacks. Based on the findings, recommendations were made which include improved federal government commitment to beef-up security in schools in Northern Nigeria and a special orientation to sensitize the people on security matters in schools

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Militancy, School Attendance

Boko Haram: A Religious Sect or Terrorist Organization (Published)

Terrorism is a globalized phenomenon confronting the international community. It has grown both in strength and trend and its impact felt in different parts of the world including Africa. This impact has lately been felt in northern Nigeria due to the activities of Boko Haram creating growing concern with the level of loss of lives recorded. In Nigeria, the group is usually referred to as a religious sect partly due to uncertainty as to its classification or designation or fear the group has created. When for example, President Obama referred to the group as a terrorist organization, President Jonathan countered his statement by saying its members are not terrorists. The media too refer to the group as a sect probably due to fear especially with the killing of a Television reporter and bombing of media houses. Boko Haram at inception was an Islamic group. With time, it became a sect due to its own beliefs or practices which has separated it from pure Islam. This paper believes that the group at birth in 2001 was a religious sect but has over time, graduated into a terrorist organization especially with its adoption and use of terror tactics. This paper examines the term terrorism and the various tactics employed by terrorist’s organizations worldwide. It will consequently, do a comparative analysis between Boko Haram and well known terrorist organizations in terms of motivation, ideology, existence, grievances, tactics employed to address grievances etc. for proper classification as a terrorist organization, an international one or local terrorist organization. The paper will then attempt to suggest ways by which their activities can be curtailed and eliminated.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Karijee Jihadists, Rogue Actors, Spherical Earth, Terrorism