Effect of Dry Land Strength Training on Front- Crawl Swimming Performance Among Undergraduate Trainees of Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria (Published)
Swimming performance is a multi-factorial phenomenon involving energetic, biomechanics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics and strength parameters. Strength, endurance and speed are major factors determining performance of swimmers. Muscle power output is also an important issue in sport performance; it is also a reliable predictor of swim speed in front-crawl performance. Therefore, different training methods have been devised to improve performance. Several studies have been done on swimming performance but little effort has been directed towards improving performance using dry land as a tool. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on front-crawl swimming performance among undergraduate trainees of Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pretest-posttest/control group experimental research design using 2x2x3 factorial matrix was used for this study. Twenty two participants were used for the study using total enumeration sampling method. The participants were placed into two groups; experimental and control group. Participants were exposed to eight weeks training using the manual developed by the researcher. Data were collected before and after the intervention programme. Data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used were frequency count and simple percentage while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was the inferential statistics used to determine the main as well as the interaction effects of the independent, dependent and moderating variables.Participants were male and female with a mean age of 19.6±1.7. There was significant main effect of treatment (F(1, 20) =20.217; partial ƞ2=.822) and gender (F(1, 20) =10.773; partial ƞ2=.366) on swimming performance of swimmers in Lead City University, Ibadan. Participant in experimental group obtained a lower posttest mean (10.649) than control (13.972). There was significant interaction effect of treatment and gender (F(1, 20) =64.907; partial ƞ2=.671), treatment and body weight (F(1, 19) =16.394; partial ƞ2=.222). There was no significant main effect of body weight and the interaction effect of gender and body weight was also not significant. There was significant 3-way interaction effect of treatment, gender and body weight (F(2, 19) =52.099; partial ƞ2=.471). Dry-land training was effective on swimming performance among swimmers. It was therefore recommended that there is need for swimming coaches to be educated on the benefits of using dry-land exercises to improve swimming performance.
Body Weight and Linear Measurement at Sexual Maturity of F1 Progeny from West African Dwarf and White Bornu Goats Crossing In Humid Nigeria (Published)
Twenty-four unit breeding herd of two indigenous goat breeds (West African Dwarf and White Bornu) were raised in a humid environment of Nigeria to evaluate the effect of breed and sex on the body weight and linear measurement at sexual maturity of progenies from within and between crosses of both breeds. Results from the study revealed that breed and sex had significant influence on parameters assessed with higher values been observed in the crossbred and the White Bomu purebred. Body weight values ranged from 22. 76 ± 2.17 to 34.43 ± 1. 77 cm with higher value observed in crossbred. This trend was also revealed in traits such as Height at wither (HA W), Heart girth (HG), Body length (BL), Upper fore limb (UFL), Lower fore limb (LFL), and Upper hind limb (UHL). However, lower hind limb (LHL) -was higher in White Bornu purebred with value of 18.47+0.60 and the crossbred recording 17.64 ± 0.74 cm which implies that improvement was made on traits of the West African Dwarf goat due to crossbreeding with White Bornu.
Effect of Substitution of Maize with Brewer’s Dried Grain in Pig Starter Diet on the Performance of Weaner Pig. (Published)
Twenty four (24) weaner pigs and aged 8 weeks made up of mixed sexes with initial body weight between 8.0 kg and 8.2 kg were used to investigate the effect of substituting maize with Brewer’s Dried Grain on their feed intake and growth performance. The weaner pigs were randomly allotted to four treatment groups of six pigs per treatment. The treatments were replicated three times with each replicate having two (2) weaner pigs. The weaner pigs were fed diets containing 0 %, 10 %, 20 % and 30 % Brewer’s Dried Grain of treatment Dh D2, D3 and D4 respectively. The chemical composition of the test ingredient was determined prior to it’s in the diets. Data were collected on final body weight, average daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio. There were no significant (P>0.05) difference in the above listed parameters. Weaner pigs fed diet 1, 2 and 3 had the highest daily feed intake while weaner pigs fed diet 4 is statistically similar but slightly less than I, 2 and 3. It is thus concluded that the results suggest that 20 % substitution of maize with Brewer’s Dried Grain produced no negative effect on the production performance of weaner pigs.