Effect of Physical Activity and Psychological State on Body Composition in Working and Non-Working Women of Lower Middle-Income Group (Published)
Background: This research was conducted to study the effect of physical activity and psychological state on body composition in working and non-working women. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 149 females (75 working and 74 non working) aged 32.4±5.6 years from lower middle income group, Mumbai city. Anthropometry and body fat were measured. Psychological status was assessed using structured questionnaire and total psychological score was calculated by scoring 1 for every positive emotion. Analyses were performed using SPSS software for Windows (version 16.0, 2007, SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL). Data was presented using Independent Sample T-test, cross tabulations, chi-square test, Pearson’s correlation and Univariate analysis. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was no significant difference in anthropometry or body fat of working and non-working women (p>0.05). 79.9% women had many things in life to be grateful, 34% had long list of everything to be thankful, 65.1% looked around and were grateful, 40.3% were grateful to wide variety of people, 65.1% took part in family decision making, 35.6% were member of social community, 57.7% liked to go to religious place, 81.9% had hobbies and 48.3% still indulged in hobbies while 65.8% felt lonely/depressed and 21.5% took anti-depressant drugs. The mean psychological state score of working women (7±1.7) was significantly higher than that of non-working women (5.9±1.9) (p=0.001). There was significant association of work status and activity level with higher percentage of non-working women been non-active as compared to working women (χ2=13.460,p=0.004). There was no significant difference in psychological state and activity level adjusted BMI and body fat of working and non-working women (p>0.05). Conclusion: Psychological and physical activity differed in working and non-working women. However, psychological state and physical activity does not influence BMI or body fat in working and non-working women of Mumbai city.
Effect of Artificial Diets on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Gonad Maturation of Mullet (Liza Ramada) (Published)
This study was conducted to evaluate four different diets (fish oil FO, Palm oil PO, sunflower oil SO and mixed diet of three oils as 2% FO : 2%PO : 2%SO) on growth performance, body composition and gonad maturation of Liza ramada with an initial weight of 5.31±0.31g. Hundred fish were randomly distributed in twelve cement ponds with a volume of 2m3 each and fed for 120 days at a rate of 3% live body weight (BW) twice daily. The results showed significant differences (P<0.05) between diets. The highest growth performance, feed utilization and hepatosomatic index were obtained with the fish fed fish oil (FO) and Mixed diets, without significance difference between them. However, the fish fed palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO) recorded less growth performance. Differences in certain fatty acid composition were detected but levels of saturated, mono-saturated and n-3 fatty acids recorded increased in each FO and mixed diets without significant differences between them. On the other hand, n-6 showed significantly increased in both palm oil (PO) and sunflower oil (SO) groups. The essential fatty acids (EFAs): arachidonic acid (ARA), ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were different across treatment groups suggesting that Liza ramada can affected with different oil sources. In the second trial the mixed diet was fed to the broodstock fish in earthen ponds. The broodstock fish showed an increased in growth performance, feed efficiency, heptosomatic and gonadsomatic indices of Liza ramada. The implications of the results are discussed in terms of oil type effects, diet costs and gonad histology of Liza ramada broodstock.