Tag Archives: Biomass

In-Stream Sand Mining and Primary Productivity of Otamiri River in Owerri, South-East Nigeria (Published)

Sand mining involves the excavation of inland dune or river beds for the purpose of economic, developmental, constructional, etc., activities. Primary productivity therefore, is the frequency at which energy is transformed to organic substances by photosynthesis producers (photoautotrophs), which obtain energy and nutrients by requisite sunlight. Probable influence of sand mining on primary productivity of the mined ponds along the banks of the river was considered. The study undertakes an experimental research approach. Six (6) sampling locations were identified as WC1-WC6 along the course of the river. WCI-WC3 was established in area where active mining had ceased (unperturbed) whereas WC4-WC6 was established in area where active sand mining is ongoing (perturbed). The study utilized the light and dark technique to estimate primary productivity, and the set-up was incubated for four (4) hours in a sunny day. In situ measurement was carried out with HANNA 1H9828 pH/ORP/EC/DO meter and the average of the triplicate results obtained was recorded. Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA), student’s t-test and the structure detection of group mean were utilized for the organization of data. Results inter alia revealed that the actively mined ponds of the river had higher GPP (12.781*10-1 MgCL-1d-1) than the location where mining had ceased (i.e., GPP 5.986*10-1 MgCL-1d-1). The average GPP was 18.767*10-1MgCL-1d-1 while NPP and CR had 10.914*10-1 MgCL-1d-1 and 15.453*10-1MgCL-1d-1 respectively. The annual GPP of the study was 1144.800*10-1MgCL-1yr-1 which define low productivity. Thus, it was recommended that an enforcement of various environmental laws as it affects the preservation, maintenance and the sustenance of the aquatic environment be made in a bid to secure aquatic lives.

Keywords: Aquatic Ecosystem, Biomass, Carbohydrate, Community respiration, Gross primary productivity, Net primary productivity, Photosynthesis, Sunlight

Performance Analysis of Bio-Energy Based Power Generation System in Nigeria Using Rice Husk Feedstock (Published)

Bio-energy which is the energy resources derived from organic matter has contributed significantly to primary energy supply in most developed countries of the world. The extensive use of biomass for electricity generation started recently as a more efficient option of providing energy. To encourage investment in this area, detail analysis on the prospect of Biomass energy generation system in Nigeria context need to be carried out. In line with this, this study assesses the viability of setting up a Biomass Energy Plant in Nigeria using rice husk. It determine the availability of rice husk for the project and identify the economic advantage of using rice husk as a feedstock in generating electricity while evaluating the energy conversion technology adopted with consideration on its environmental impact. The proposed plant location is Abakiliki Rice Mill complex and Gasification technology was adopted for the bio conversion process. Data on the feedstock availability was collected by direct measurement of the resources at the various mill dump site in the Rice Mill Complex and analyzed using Python analytical and visualization tools (Numpy and Seaborn). The primary source of data for the analysis is data gotten from the field and Nigeria Energy Regulatory Council (NERC) while the secondary source of data is data from related work over the internet. The outcome of the study showed that the Rice Complex have the capacity to produce the quantity of rice husk required to generate 499,320KWh of electricity per year using Bio-Energy plant. Also, the mass of rice husk produced is significantly higher in the month of October, November and December due to the weather condition (dry season) and the high demand of rice as the result of the festivity (Christmas celebration). When the performance of the existing system and the proposed Bio-Energy plant was compared in terms of per Kilowatt cost of energy generation, it was observed that the new system outperformed the existing one. This is traceable to the good caloric value of rice husk and its availability in very large quantity at no cost. To determine the system’s sustainability, the financial feasibility of operating a Biomass plant in Nigeria was also carried out; levelised cost, simple payback period and return on investment (ROI) as important financial metrics were calculated using real data.

Citation: Ogungbenro, Oluwaseyi Akinyele; Okoro, Israel Chidi;  Ohuabunwa, Augustine Ebere; Okwuelu , Nnaemeka; Tagbo, Peter (2022) Performance Analysis of Bio-Energy Based Power Generation System in Nigeria Using Rice Husk Feedstock, International Journal of Energy and Environmental Research, Vol.10, No.2, pp.,40-56

Keywords: Biomass, Rice Husk, bio-energy plant, energy generation, feedstock availability

Hemp Biomass and Biodisel (Published)

Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is grown for various purposes of using the fibre, cha and seeds. It is one of the oldest non-food crops in the world. In Europe, hemp, together with flax, were the most important fibre plants from the 16th to 18th centuries. Later, hemp cultivation diminished but, recently, in many countries, such as Germany, France, the Netherlands, Great Britain, Spain and Italy, interest in this plant is growing, particularly in properties other than fibre. Hemp has been rediscovered as an interesting industrial plant with great uses that can be grown under a wide range of agro-ecological conditions, and is more efficient compared to many other plants. It is important that hemp biomass is also processed into a number of hemp-derived products, including oil, essential oils or CBD (cannabidiol) substances, building material and biofuel, thereby producing many components that have been of great interest to people lately. Properties of this plant have made it an excellent raw material for the development of multi-output systems through gradual distribution of biomass into several useful components. In terms of growing hemp, due to the abundant vegetative part of the plants, large biomass increases (up to 50 cm/month) show great opportunities to use solar energy and CO2 during photosynthesis (up to 2.5 Mgha-1), which strengthens its position in the group of energy plants contributing to renewable energy sources. In terms of its energy use, it is important that the green crop yield from hemp is, on average,14.5 tha-1 (calculated on the dry matter), of which 70–75% are hemp shives (by-products of hemp processing), which are usually left in the field, constituting organic fertilizer. It is possible to obtain approximately 10.5 tha-1 of raw material, which can be potentially used for energy purposes. At the same time, hemp biomass shows a significant variation in fuel properties (calorific value, heat of combustion, ash content, ash softening temperature) depending on the season in which the harvest takes place. Research conducted by).Hemp has high dry matter content and good energy concentration per hectare. Moreover, hemp has a good ratio of energy efficiency to input and is, therefore, an above-average energy crop. With respect to other energy crops, the advantages also occur outside the energy balance, e.g., they relate to the low level of required pesticides and good competition in relation to weeds. Biodiesel has many environmentally beneficial properties. It is one of the largest sources of energy reserves in the world as it approximately supplies 14% of world’s energy consumption. Many initiatives are being given for promoting the biofuels. Among the biofuels, biodiesel gets more momentum as it has properties similar to the properties of diesel fuel. Biodiesels are biodegradable, renewable and more environment friendly than petroleum based fuels. One promising source for biodiesel production is the fiber crop Cannabis sativa. It is an annual herb and its cultivation has a low cost and a low environmental impact. Cannabis sativa plant grown in temperate zones as an annual cultivation from seed and can reach a height of up to 5 meters (16 feet). Seeds have high oil content, ranging from 26% to 42%. In addition, cannabis sativa has advantage as a fuel source. It has a high biomass content which can be fermented to create low carbon fuels, such as bioethanol or biobutanol. 

Keywords: Biomass, biodisel, hemp


Determination of biomass produced in cocoa ecosystems is an important step towards quantifying the carbon sequestration potential of cocoa production systems. This study provides data on the biomass of cocoa systems being influenced by management, cocoa stand ages and region. Eight cocoa farms were sampled on the basis of three variables: region (Eastern, Western region), shade management (shaded, unshaded) and stand age (<15, >15 years). Allometric equations (R2 > 0.94) were developed to estimate the biomass of live cocoa trees, while the biomass of non-cocoa trees was estimated using an existing equation by FAO. Generally, biomass stocks were higher in the Eastern than Western region, shaded than unshaded, and in stands >15 years than those <15 years. The total cocoa ecosystem biomass range was, 48.1 ± 6.5 to 101.6 ± 12.6 Mg/ha. The high biomass estimates reveals a potential of system to restore appreciable biomass losses resulting from deforestation and forest degradation in Ghana.

Keywords: Biomass, Cocoa ecosystem, Region, shade trees, stand age

Carbon Sequestration as a Climate Change Mitigation Activity-A Review (Review Completed - Accepted)

An unprecedented increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and land use change necessitates identification of strategies for mitigating the threat of the attendant global warming. However, the challenges of climate change can be effectively overcome by the storage of carbon in terrestrial carbon sinks viz. plants, plant products and soils for longer periods of time. Carbon sequestration in this regard is truly a win–win strategy. It restores degraded soils, enhances biomass production, purifies surface and ground waters, and reduces the rate of enrichment of atmospheric CO2 by offsetting emissions due to fossil fuel.

Keywords: Biomass, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Sequestration, Forest, Fossil Fuel, Grassland, Soil