Tag Archives: Biology

The Upshot of Mnemonics on Gender and Other Learning Outcomes of Senior Secondary School Students in Biology (Published)

Citation: Funmilayo Elizabeth Olu-Ajayi (2022) The Upshot of Mnemonics on Gender and Other Learning Outcomes of Senior Secondary School Students in Biology, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.3, pp.16-25

Abstract: This study investigated the effects of Mnemonics Instructional Strategy on Secondary School Students’ learning outcomes in Biology. Moderating effects of Gender was also examined. The study adopted the pretest-posttest control group, quasi experimental design with 2×2 factorial matrixes. One hundred and twenty students from six public Schools selected from three Senatorial Districts in Ekiti State, Nigeria, participated in the study. Two instruments were developed and used: ‘Students’ Biology Achievement Test’ (SBAT) and ‘Students’ Interest and Attitude towards Biology’ (SIAB).  The face and content validity of instruments was ensured by professional Biology teachers and experts in the field of Science Education. Reliability was done using test-retest method and adjudged to be reliable with results on Students’ Biology Achievement Test (r=0.82) and Students’ Interest and Attitude towards Biology (r=0.78). Also used were operational guides on Mnemonic Instructional Strategy, and Conventional Teaching Method. Three Null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significant. Data collected was analyzed using Analysis of Covariance. The study revealed a significant effect of treatment on students’ performance in, interest and attitude towards Biology, Gender have no significant effect on students’ performance, interest and attitude towards Biology. The study recommends that, teachers should employ Mnemonics Strategy to create a Students’-centered  teaching and learning, which will enhance Students’ interest and attitude towards Biology, hence bring about an improved performance of Students in Biology.

Keywords: Biology, Gender, Learning Outcome, Students, mnemonics

Effect of Guided Discovery Method on Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance in Biology in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

Citation: Msuur Tofi; Emmanuel E. Achor and Victoria I. Eje (2022) Effect of Guided Discovery Method on Secondary School Students’ Academic Performance in Biology in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria, European Journal of Training and Development Studies, Vol.9 No.1, pp.32-40

Abstract: This study investigated the effect of Guided Discovery method on Senior Secondary School students’ academic performance in Biology in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. Two research questions were raised and two null hypotheses were formulated. The study employed a quasi-experimental design. The population comprised of 8,670 Students in all the public Secondary Schools in Makurdi Metropolis. Two schools were randomly selected using simple random sampling technique from among the public Secondary Schools in Makurdi and a sample size of 47 Senior Secondary two (SS2) students were used for the study. The instrument used for data collection was Biology Academic Performance Test (BAPT).  Biology Academic Performance Test (BAPT) was validated by 3 experts in science education. The BAPT was pilot tested on intact class and a reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained using Kuder Richardson Formula-21 (K-R21). The research questions were answered using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. The null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance using inferential statistics of independent t-test. The findings showed that, there was a significant difference between the mean academic performance scores of students taught Biology using Guided Discovery method and those taught using Lecture method in favour of those students taught using Guided Discovery method. There was no significant difference between the mean academic performance scores of male and female students taught Biology using Guided Discovery method. It was recommended among others that; Biology teachers should use Guided Discovery method for teaching Biology at the secondary school level.

Keywords: : Academic Performance, Biology, Gender, Science, guided discovery method

Genomology (Published)

The word biology is derived from the Greek words/bios/ meaning living-things, and /logos/ meaning study and is defined as the science of living-things. Then, the rest of things or matter are inevitably termed nonliving-things, having a paralyzing contradiction with the “Law of Conservation of Matter” which states that “a matter (thing) is neither created nor destroyed”. Thus, the very root of the term Biology from which it was derived & how it was devised had been wrong in the scientific categorization of matter (things). To call matter as nonliving-thing/s is completely wrong and usage of the term nonliving-thing/s in biological sciences is one of the major reasons for the fact that the sciences of Biology are fake. Biology is defined as the study of living-things and then it has been admitted that a living-thing cannot be defined!! The key objective of this study is to discard the fake sciences of Biology, replacing by true sciences of Genomology and to get this achievement approved (endorsed) in Global Science Forum.. Comparison between the sciences of Biology and those of Genomology was employed using 22 different concrete evidences. Face to face & spectacular demonstration of how fake sciences of Biology are taught by confused and misleading Professors can be observed in the video lesson presented by Professor Dave & by another in Fig. 2, video 3. The two main sources of error for being confused of Professors such as Professor Dave are: using the term living-thing where the opposite of it is nonliving-thing which is ridiculously wrong because it contradicts with the “Law of Conservation of Matter” in science!!!!, and being unable to define what a living-thing is. Daughter viral genomes & viral proteins are produced from those of host cell by: , digesting host cell’s genome into nucleotides, and , digesting host cell’s proteins into amino acids;  so that these nucleotides are used as the raw materials (building blocks) for the replication of daughter viral Genomes and the amino acids are used as the raw materials for the synthesis of daughter viral Proteins. Note that the chemical composition of genomes found in all species of all genomic-things is the same. Building blocks of all kinds of genome in all species of all genomic-things are nucleotides. Genome is unique to genomic-things. Fake sciences of Biology together with the term biology itself are absolutely and irreversibly replaced by true sciences of Genomology. The word Genomology or genomic-thing is derived from the unique automatic molecule termed genome. In other words, genome is a unique automatic molecule found only in genomic-things.A genomic-thing is defined as the product of reaction of: its Genome & its nutritive substances in its compatible environment. Genomological sciences are collectively referred to as superscience because of the amazingly automatic function of the single molecule termed Genome, being the only molecule capable of self-copying reproduction and synthesizing all other nongenome molecules, organelles, genomic-viruses, cells, tissues, organs, systems, and the entire body of each individual organism in every species of all genomic-things. Therefore, the scientists who study or deal with this superscience are known as superscientists or genomologists. The male & female of both free-living & parasitic generations of Strongyloides stercoralis are exactly the same, being synthesized by the same genome and the type of reproduction in both the free-living & parasitic generations is Sexual. Hereafter, i.e., after knowing how wrong the terms Biology & living-thing (with its opposite term) are, teaching fake sciences of Biology is equivalent to: giving poison to our student children of all human races of the world instead of milk, and, taking stool with spoons into our mouths!!!!

Keywords: Biology, Genome, fake sciences, genomic-things, genomology, living-things, nongenomic-things, nonliving-things

Improving Students’ Achievement in Biology: The Use of Peer Tutoring (Published)

The study was carried out to determine the effects of peer tutoring on students’ achievement in Biology. The study used two modes of peer tutoring such as Class Wide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) and Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT). To guide the study, three research questions were posed and three hypotheses were formulated and tested at 5% probability level. Quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. Specifically, pretest- posttest non-equivalent control groups design was used for the study. The study was carried out in Onitsha Education Zone of Anambra State. Six out of the 32 co-educational schools in Onitsha education zone were used for the study. A total sample of one hundred and eighty (180) SSII Biology students of 2018/2019 was used for the study. The sample was drawn using stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques. Two instruments, a Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and a Biology Interest Scale (BIS) were used for data collection. The BAT consist of 30 multiple choice test items which were drawn from the content covered which include; adaptation, conservation of natural resources, pollution and its control and association. The instrument was trial tested on 30 students, the reliability of BAT was determined using Kuder-Richardson (K-R20) and yielded an internal consistency index of 0.83. Mean and Standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used in testing the null hypotheses. The findings among other things show that there was a significance different in the mean achievement score of students taught Biology using CWPT than those taught with RPT.

Keywords: Biology, Students’ Achievement, peer tutoring strategy

Fostering Senior Secondary Students’ Attitude and Achievement in Biology in FCT-Abuja Using Facebook Instructional Strategy (Published)

The study investigated how Facebook Instructional Strategy could be used to foster Senior Secondary Students’ Attitude and Achievement in Biology in FCT-Abuja. A quasi-experimental research design was adopted. The population comprised 12719 senior secondary two biology students. The sample consisted of 247 SSII biology students selected from six government schools in the study area using purposive sampling technique. Data were generated using Germination Achievement Test (GAT) and Students’ Attitude to Biology Questionnaire (SABQ). The GAT and SABQ were validated and subjected to reliability analysis using Kuder-Richardson formula 21 (K-R21) and Cronbach Alpha formula which yielded coefficients of 0.75 and 0.68 respectively. Six research questions guided the study, while six hypotheses were formulated. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviations to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that there is significant difference in the mean achievement score of students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy and those taught using the lecture method; there is significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy. There is no significant difference in the mean attitude ratings of students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy and those taught using lecture method; There is no significant difference in the mean attitude ratings of male and female  students taught seed germination using facebook instructional strategy. Based on the findings, it was recommended amongst others that biology teachers-trainees should be trained on the use of facebook instructional strategy in teaching biology.

Keywords: Achievement, Biology, Facebook instructional strategy, Gender, Seed Germination, attitude

Using Activity Method to Teach Second Year Diploma Students Selected Topics in Biology: A Case of St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong (Published)

The purpose of the study was to use the constructivist teaching and learning approach to teach Biology. Four research questions were set to guide the study and the design adopted for the study was a case study. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data from one hundred and twenty three students for the study. The research findings helped to conclude that the activity method of teaching Biology helps to improve learning, learning of Biology content had improved and generally the result show that student have positive attitude towards Biology. The result further indicated that activity method of teaching motivates the teacher trainees to learn science.

Keywords: Activity method, Biology, College of education, Science, Students

Using Activity Method to Teach Second Year Diploma Students Selected Topics in Biology. A Case of St. Monica’s College of Education, Mampong (Published)

The purpose of the study was to use the constructivist teaching and learning approach to teach Biology. Four research questions were set to guide the study and the design adopted for the study was a case study. Questionnaire was the instrument used to collect data from one hundred and twenty three students for the study. The research findings helped to conclude that the activity method of teaching Biology helps to improve learning, learning of Biology content had improved and generally the result show that student have positive attitude towards Biology. The result further indicated that activity method of teaching motivates the teacher trainees to learn science.

Keywords: Activity method, Biology, Science, students & College of education

The Impact of the Learning Strategy through Solving Problems in the Development of Academic Achievement for Jordanian Public School Students in Biology (Published)

: The objective of the present study was to identify the impact of problem solving strategy in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students in biology. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool, data collection and analysis, The study population may be from all 10th grade in the southern Ghor District,  The sample of the study consisted of a group of students from the 10th grade of Al Safi Secondary School for Boys with (30) students. The study found that there is an impact of the problem solving strategy in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students. (65%) in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students in the biology sector. He recommended that the problem solving strategy be implemented in all areas of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan because of its many benefits in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students In biology

Keywords: Biology, Collection., Problems, Strategy

Differential Effects of Project Based, Group Discussion and Self-Regulated Learning Techniques on Students’ Achievement in Biology (Published)

This study investigated the differential effects of Project Based, Group Discussion and Self Regulated Learning Techniques on students’ academic achievement on Biology in Aba South Local Government Area of Abia State. Non Equivalent control Group Quasi Experimental design was used. Four research question and Four Hypotheses guided the conduct of the study. The population is all the SS2 Biology students from the six public secondary school in the Area of study totaling 1142. The sample size consists of 128 SS2 students drawn through purposive sampling technique. Simple random sampling Technique with slip of papers was used to assign the students into four groups of Project Based, Group Discussion, Self Regulated Learning Techniques and the Control Group. Mean (x) and Standard Deviation (SD) were used to answer the research questions. Paired Sample t-test, Independent t-test,  Analysis of Covariance and Post Hoc Multiple Comparison were used to analyze the Hypotheses at 0.05 significance level. The Study found out that Project Based Learning significantly outperformed Group Discussion, Self Regulated Learning and the Control Group in enhancing students’ achievement, while Self Regulated Learning enhanced students’  achievement higher than Group Discussion but not significantly. All the treatment groups significantly outperformed the Control Group. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made; Proper learning strategy which may help students comprehend the content of the learning like Project Based learning should be encouraged in the teaching and learning environment. Learning without relevant strategies should be de-emphasized at all levels of education.

Keywords: Biology, Group Discussion, Project, Self-Regulated Learning Techniques Students’ Achievement

Boosting Achievement Using Individulised And Demonstration Strategies In Biology: How Do Male And Female Students Behave In Nigeria? (Published)

This study determined the effectiveness of demonstration, individualized and conventional methods and Gender on the achievement of Secondary School Two students in biology. The study employed a multi stage sampling techniques; in the first stage, three schools were randomly selected out of the twenty Secondary Schools in Abeokuta South Local Government of the state. At the second stage, sample sizes of sixty students were randomly selected from the list of students and their gender. In the same manner, thirty students were male while the female constitute the same number. The study which lasted six weeks made use of two valid and reliable instruments: Biology Achievement Test (BAT) and Operational guide for instruction (OGI) Stimulus instrument. Students were exposed to different methods (Demonstration and Individualized) while those in the control were not exposed to any treatment but were rather taught in the Convectional way. Data analysis involved the use of Analysis of Covariance, Descriptive Statistics and t-test.The result indicated that the demonstration method is a more potent method of improving achievement in biology. (F (1.167) = 42.838; P < 0.05), (F (1.167) = 486.287; P < 0.05), F (2.167) = 90.389; P < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant difference in the academic achievement of male and female students when exposed to the two experimental methods and control, hence female students performed better than their male counterparts. Arising from these findings, demonstration method and individualized method where recommended for teachers use in biology classrooms.

Keywords: Achievement, Biology, Demonstration Strategies, Male and Female Student, Nigeria

Effect of Assessment for Learning (AFL) On Biology Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary Students in Rivers State (Published)

The study investigated Effect of Assessment for Learning (AFL) on Biology Academic Achievement of Senior Secondary Students in Rivers State. The researchers adopted a non-randomized pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental research design. The population of the study consists of 34,825, Senior Secondary Two (SS2) students duly registered in public secondary schools (2013/2014 Session) in the 23 Local Government Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of 400 Senior Secondary Two (SS2) students’ (200 males and females respectively) were sampled through multistage sampling technique in Ikwerre, Obio/Akpor, Ogu/Bolo, Okrika and Port Harcourt Local Government Areas. Students’ in intact classes were assigned to four experimental groups and one control group. Students’ in the experimental groups were subjected to the following Assessment For Learning strategies: use of questioning, comment only marking, self/peer assessment and formative use of summative assessment, while students’ in the control group were subjected to the traditional assessment method. Two research questions and two hypotheses were postulated for the study. A 40 item instrument titled: “Assessment For Learning Biology Achievement Test” (AFLBAT) developed by the researchers was used for data collection. The instrument was duly validated by three subject specialists and two experts in educational measurement and evaluation. An internal consistency coefficient of 0.71 was obtained using Rulon formula. Data for the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics (mean, and standard deviation), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and paired sample t-test. The analysis of data was done using SPSS software. The result of the study revealed that: Assessment For Learning strategies effectively improved biology achievement of students’; biology academic achievement of students was enhanced by the following AFL strategies: use of questioning, comment only marking and self/peer assessment but the most effective is comment only marking; AFL has a significant effect on biology academic achievement of students. Based on the results of the study, the following recommendation among others was made by the researchers: a critical review of classroom assessment methods is advocated, especially in the aspect of comments made by teachers concerning learning outcome of students’.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Assessment for Learning, Biology, Formative assessment, Summative Assessment

Developing Common Core Themes to Integrate Environment and Climate Change Education into Teaching and Learning Biology in Vietnamese Secondary Schools (Published)

This paper examined the development of common core themes to integrate environment and climate change education into teaching and learning Biology in Vietnamese Secondary Schools. In the framework of this paper, we propose a system of core topics in environment and climate change education with the following basic content: Environmental air, Environmental Water, Biological environment, Environmental Soil, Environmental Socio-economy. In conclusion it is necessary to develop the system of core themes that make connections between different subjects in order to solve the common problem arising from the real world, as “Thèmes de convergence” now being implemented in France.

Keywords: Biology, Climate Change Education, Learning, Students, Teaching