A Review on the Effects of Plastic Debris on Aquatic Life (Fish and Wildlife) in Aquatic Ecosystems (Published)
The deleterious effects of plastic debris on the aquatic environments were reviewed by bringing together most of the literatures published so far on the effects of plastic debris on freshwater and marine lives (fish and wildlife) upon their exposures to the various forms of plastic debris littered by man. Addressing the problem of plastic debris in the ocean is a difficult task but its mitigation is urgently needed. A variety of approaches are required to save the world’s biodiversity from going into extinction. Some of the ways to mitigate the menace are: domestic assemblage and reuse of plastics, recycling of plastics items at the end of its life span, for the reuse in its new production, collection of plastics by hiring children to hand pick plastic waste from the environment for reuse and recycling. Biodegradable plastics should be produced more on the local than the global scale with a marked reduction in the use of plastic packaging.
Citation: Igbani Flourizel; Ayo Grace Opeoluwa and Ikponmwen Efe Gideon (2021) A Review on the Effects of Plastic Debris on Aquatic Life (Fish and Wildlife) in Aquatic Ecosystems, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, Vol.9, No.3 pp.51-60
Keywords: Biodiversity, Fish, Pollution, aquatic ecosystems, biomagnification, wildlife
Bio-resources Conservation and Anthropogenic Drivers of Biodiversity Depletion in Isiala Ngwa, Southeastern, Nigeria. (Published)
The study examined the conservation of biological resources in Isiala Ngwa, Southeastern, Nigeria with a view to assessing its implications for the achievement of the sustainable development goals. Also the anthropogenic drivers of biodiversity depletion in the study area were studied. The study utilized primary data obtained from field observation, focus group discussion and key informants’ interviews. Secondary data were also used in the study. Diversity indices of species were obtained from Quadrat Analysis using the Shannon Wiener’s Diversity Index. Data were analyzed using Principal Component Analysis and Descriptive Statistics. The study found that anthropogenic activities that drive biodiversity depletion in the study area were mainly agricultural land use practices such as deforestation, bush burning, crop farming, mixed farming, bush fallowing, and plantation agriculture, intercropping and hunting. Agricultural land use practices had negative impacts on biodiversity which resulted in the low diversity indices (0.02- 0.44).The results of the PCA on the impact of agricultural practices on biodiversity isolated three components explaining 64.29% of the variance. Legislation against indiscriminate bush burning, unauthorized hunting, bush fallowing with a longer fallow period were measures adopted in the paper to manage ecosystem biodiversity conservation.
Keywords: Anthropogenic drivers, Biodiversity, Diversity Indices, Sustainable Development, bio-resources conservation
Education for Sustainable Development and Teaching Biodiversity in the Classroom of the Sciences of The Moroccan School System: A case study based on the Ministry’s grades and school curricula from primary to secondary school and qualifying (Published)
Biodiversity education increases human awareness in order to maintain the services provided by natural ecosystems. Hence, the interest in implementing educational projects targeting biodiversity education. However, it is important to integrate this concept into school curricula. Although it is a seemingly complex concept, biodiversity is now considered an indicator of sustainable development and is of strong educational interest. Education for sustainable development can be provided through science education on the concept of biodiversity. Thus, this chapter is reserved for qualitative and qualitative analyses in which we present the place of education for sustainable development and the concept of biodiversity in our science education curricula.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Life And Earth Sciences, Moroccan school curricula., Science Education, education for sustainable development
Environmental Externalities and Reality of CSR Practices (Environmental) in Bangladesh (Published)
Owing to the on-going exhaustion of the natural environment and its consequences on the society, the present environmental state of Bangladesh, a populated country with inadequate resources, has become enormously alarming. The human health, ecosystems and economic growth are threatened by severe environmental pollutions and encroachments. Bangladesh is facing several natural catastrophes such as floods, cyclones, and tidal-bores every year because of the environmental externalities which cause severe socio-economic and ecological damage. Thus, this study aims to highlight various ecological difficulties that Bangladesh is currently facing and that pose obstacles to implementing environmental CSR for sustainable development. The review of the literature reveals that several environmental pollutions, climate change and the loss of biodiversity are continuously degrading the natural environment of Bangladesh and its resources. Consequently, these detrimental impacts are threatening the socio-economic growth of Bangladesh and its environment. Hence corporate social responsibility (particularly environmental) can play a significant role to control the current environmental degradation of Bangladesh. The government should, at the same time, undertake several initiatives to protect environmental degradation, foster the environmental CSR activities within all the business sectors and increase environmental awareness which is mandatory to attain sustainable development.
Keywords: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Corporate Social Responsibility, Environmental CSR, Environmental Pollution
Approaching Twenty Five Years of the Convention on Biological Diversity: A Retrospective and Plea for Reinvigoration (Published)
The convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) was agreed upon in UN conference on Environment and Development (Earth Summit) at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil in 1992, as a response to the alarming and accelerating rate of extinction of world’s species and ecosystems. This convention had acquired ratification from approximately 197 parties. In pursuance to the CBD INDIA has enacted the biological Diversity Act in 2002 (took 10 years), and Biological Diversity Rules 2014, and formed Biological Diversity Committees.This review paper is an attempt to retrospect the achievements sought, the problems encountered in the implementation and the future course of actions required to be undertaken to meet the goals that originally motivated its creation.
Keywords: Biodiversity, CBD, ecosystem services
The High Impacts of Asante Indigenous Knowledge in Biodiversity Conservation Issues in Ghana: The Case of the Abono and Essumeja Townships in Ashanti Region (Published)
The time-tested, resilient and proactive indigenous knowledge of the Asantes were and are still indispensable in the conservation of the biodiversity resources in the Ghanaian community. The researcher critically analysed the high impacts of Asante indigenous knowledge systems in the areas of taboos, cosmological beliefs and totems in conservation issues in the Abono and Essumeja townships. Using the qualitative research approach with descriptive study, document analysis and case study research methods, the study revealed the enormous impacts of the of indigenous knowledge systems in constantly monitoring the attitudes of residents toward the wanton destruction of the biodiversity resources in the environment. Key informants like Asante chiefs, elders, old indigenes, caretakers of some reserves in the area as well as some youths were purposively and stratified random sampled and interviewed to solicit for their views on the impacts of these Asante knowledge systems in conserving the high taxas of flora and fauna species in the traditional area. Direct observations of the impacts were carried out by the researcher and his research assistants while analyzing historical documents of the Abono and Essumeja Townships. The study concluded that these indigenous knowledge systems must not be brushed off as superstitious nonsense. Rather, they must be critically weighed with the assistance of culturists to select the valid and modern-applicable aspects of the indigenous knowledge systems and synergize them with the academic scientific knowledge systems in formulating biodiversity conservation policies and strategies in Ghana.
Keywords: Asantes, Biodiversity, Conservation policies, Cosmological beliefs, Impacts, Indigenous knowledge, Taboos, Totems
PLACE BIODIVERSITY IN ECOSYSTEMS’ EFFICIENCY IN NIGERIA (Published)
Nigeria is highly endowed with a lot of biological resources of both plants and animal species. There have been many studies to document these biological resources in terms of quantity and location across the country. There had also been several efforts by the Nigerian government towards the conservation of these resources. However, this effort is not gaining the desired outcome, as the biological resources are constantly at the risk of depletion or even threatened with extinction. It was identified that lack of clear understanding of the ecological utility of these natural resources is the main reason for their abuse. This work is therefore an attempt to bring out the numerous uses and importance of biodiversity to the Nigerian ecosystem. It started with an overview of the biodiversity, then went ahead to review the causes of its depletion, before dwelling on the various utilities of the biodiversity in sustaining the ecosystem integrity of the Nigerian fragile environment. The impact of biodiversity in reversing the process of desertification was explained. Similarly, the role of biodiversity in water conservation, erosion management, soil fertility, food security and domestic energy were explained. The paper is hoped to serve as an advocacy tool for environmental conservation
Keywords: Biodiversity, Desertification, Dryland, Ecosystem, Fauna, Flora