Bilingualism in the Teenage Years: Lexical juggling in bilingual memory as evidenced by negative and positive priming effects (Published)
The present experiments studied teenage bilinguals to advance the literature on the nature of bilingual lexical selection and representation using negative and positive priming manipulations. Our unilingual experiment showed positive priming effects in the attended repetition condition where the prime and probe target words were the same, whereas negative priming effects were found on trials where the prime distractor word matched the probe target. In the cross-language experiment, the ignored repetition negative priming effect subsisted across-languages, but cross-language attended repetition positive priming effect did not. We further tested the impact of second language proficiency on the cross-language manipulations but found no interaction between priming effects and second language proficiency. Our results corroborate the argument that the languages of the bilingual are stored and accessed together (Neumann et al., 1999), and that inhibitory control is the system that regulates bilingual language use. However, contrary to previous studies (eg., Nkrumah & Neumann, 2017) second language proficiency played no role in modulating the two automatic sources of inhibition.
Citation: Ivy Kesewaa Nkrumah, Mark Owusu Amponsah, Koawo Edjah, Eunice Torto-Seidu (2021) Bilingualism in the teenage years: lexical juggling in bilingual memory as evidenced by negative and positive priming effects, British Journal of Psychology Research, Vol.9, No.2, pp. 1-19
On The Comprehension of the Cause-Effect Relationship between Asperger Syndrome and Pragamatics Language Deterioration in a Bilingual Child with Social Communication Disorder: A Pilot Case Study (Published)
Asperger Syndrome (AS) is often associated with social, cognitive, motor, and language problems, but an estimated number of AS bilingual individuals with this syndrome; especially those with social communication disorders (SCD) typically receive the diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Consequently, such inaccurate diagnosis has negative effects not only at the linguistic level, but also at the level of treatment method where AS is merely a subgroup of ASD just like higher-functioning autism (HFA) or pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). Utilizing Peabody picture vocabulary test (PPVT-3) in Arabic and then in English to test an AS bilingual 12 year-old boy with SCD, the first aim of the current pilot case study was to investigate the cause-effect relationship between AS and pragmatics mechanism where these children, the researchers hypothesize, fail to crystallize implied meaning of the target language (L2), not the source language (L1), which will help identify what language and which of its aspect (s) is affected more. The study also compared two ASD diagnostic methods: Autism diagnostic observation schedule (ADOS) and Australian scale for Asperger’s syndrome (ASAS). The purpose was to specify which of these two assessment tools suits more AS individuals with SCD where, again, the researchers claim the former to be more accountable than the latter as it depends on the explanatory approach unlike the latter that follows the exploratory approach. The tests were administered in light of the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM–V) and international classification of diseases and related health problems (ICD). To ensure the reliability and validity of the study, the researchers analyzed all case’s monthly and yearly school exams of both English (Case’s L1) and Arabic (Case’s L2) language courses starting with the 1st grade and culminating with the 7th grade in addition to an intelligence quotient (IQ) test that has been given prior to the tests. In addition, series of interviews were held with the parent along with related individuals to the case. Of the two languages, outlined results show significant deterioration in meaning comprehension in both L1 and L2. Compared with ASAS, ADOS found to be more accountable as it provides specific authentic data of the social behavior, cognitive and motor functions and linguistic and communication abilities of AS bilinguals with SCD in standardized and well-documented contexts. Further research on multilingualism and other ASD subgroups using large number of population, different methods and additional clinical resources is needed to turn the study from individuality into commonality; therefore, replicate its findings and generalize its outcomes
The study investigated the handling of the supra-segmental features among Erei speakers of English. A survey questionnaire was administered to 150 respondents in selected secondary schools under study. The subjects were grouped by age into three: 10-12 years, 13-15 years and 16 years and above. Two research questions were formulated to direct the course of the study. Data were analysed in five sections through the application of four gradable items: SA – strongly agree, A – agreed, D – disagreed and SD – strongly disagreed. Findings showed that the prosodic features such as stress, rhythm and intonation are the basis for intelligibility than the individual segments, but the teaching of the features received less attention in the class as well as the teachers in the study did not have a good command of the prosodic features in their spoken English. The provision of well-designed curriculum and syllabus, oral textbooks with targeted supra-segmental features, well-equipped libraries and language laboratories, the introduction of radio and television language programmes and on-the-job training and retraining of teachers in spoken English were suggested to help solve the problem of intelligibility among the Erei people as L2 users of English in Nigeria.
Every human society is characterized by the existence of diverse linguistic varieties. These speakers of these varieties at some points have various degrees of contact with the non-speakers of their variety, which one of the outcome of the linguistic contact is code switching. The work discusses the nature of code switching in Igbo- English bilinguals speeches. It provides a detailed explanation of the concept of code switching, and explains the typology of code switching and its manifestation in Igbo- English bilingual speakers’ speeches. The findings reveal that code switching is functionally motivated and can be triggered by various conversational contexts.